# Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials / Edition 2

ISBN-10: 020548493X

ISBN-13: 9780205484935

Pub. Date: 05/25/2006

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials is a concise, uncomplicated introduction to statistics for the social sciences.

Written to be understandable to a broad range of readers, particularly those without a strong background in mathematics, Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials provides clear, logical explanations for

## Overview

Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials is a concise, uncomplicated introduction to statistics for the social sciences.

Written to be understandable to a broad range of readers, particularly those without a strong background in mathematics, Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials provides clear, logical explanations for the rationale and use of statistical methods in social research. Detailed step-by-step illustrations of statistical procedures are located at important points throughout the book.

Anyone interested in learning the basics of statistics for social science, but doesn't need the depth of detail of a 500-600 page book.

## Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205484935
Publisher:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
05/25/2006
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
384
Product dimensions:
7.50(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.75(d)

## Related Subjects

 Preface xi 1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics 1 The Nature of Social Research 1 Why Test Hypotheses? 2 The Stages of Social Research 4 Using Series of Numbers To Do Social Research 4 The Functions of Statistics 9 Summary 13 Questions and Problems 14 Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey 16 Part 1 Description 19 2 Organizing the Data 21 Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data 21 Comparing Distributions 22 Proportions and Percentages 23 Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data 24 Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data 25 Cumulative Distributions 27 Dealing with Decimal Data 29 Flexible Class Intervals 31 Cross-Tabulations 33 Graphic Presentations 39 Summary 45 Questions and Problems 45 3 Measures of Central Tendency 53 The Mode 53 The Median 54 The Mean 55 Taking One Step at a Time 57 Step-By-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean 57 Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean 58 Summary 62 Questions and Problems 63 4 Measures of Variability 67 The Range 68 The Variance and the Standard Deviation 69 Step-By-Step Illustration: Standard Deviation 70 The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation 71 Step-By-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores 72 The Meaning of the Standard Deviation 73 Comparing Measures of Variability 76 Summary 77 Questions and Problems 77 Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data 80 Part 2 From Description to Decision Making 85 5 Probability and the Normal Curve 87 Probability 88 Probability Distributions 88 The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution 92 Characteristics of the Normal Curve 92 The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve 93 The Area under the Normal Curve 94 Standard Scores and the Normal Curve 100 Finding Probability under the Normal Curve 104 Step-By-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve 104 Summary 108 Questions and Problems 109 6 Samples and Populations 112 Random Sampling 113 Sampling Error 114 Sampling Distribution of Means 115 Standard Error of the Mean 122 Confidence Intervals 123 The t Distribution 126 Step-By-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t 131 Estimating Proportions 134 Step-By-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions 135 Summary 136 Questions and Problems 136 Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations 140 Part 3 Decision Making 143 7 Testing Differences between Means 145 The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means 147 The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means 148 Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means 148 Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means 152 Levels of Significance 155 Standard Error of the Difference between Means 160 Testing the Difference between Means 161 Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means 162 Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice 165 Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice 166 Two-Sample Test of Proportions 168 Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions 169 Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means 171 Summary 172 Questions and Problems 172 8 Analysis of Variance 183 The Logic of Analysis of Variance 184 The Sum of Squares 186 Mean Square 192 The F Ratio 193 Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance 196 Requirements for Using the F Ratio 200 Summary 200 Questions and Problems 201 9 Nonparametric Tests of Significance 207 The Chi-Square Test 208 Step-by-Step Illustration: Chi-Square Test of Significance 213 Step-by-Step Illustration: Chi-Square Test for Several Groups 217 The Median Test 224 Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test 224 Summary 226 Questions and Problems 227 Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing Differences 234 Part 4 From Decision Making to Association 237 10 Correlation 239 Strength of Correlation 239 Direction of Correlation 240 Curvilinear Correlation 241 The Correlation Coefficient 241 Pearson's Correlation Coefficient 243 A Simplified Method for Testing the Significance of r 249 Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient 249 Summary 251 Questions and Problems 252 11 Regression Analysis 258 The Regression Model 259 Interpreting the Regression Line 264 Regression and Pearson's Correlation 266 Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis 267 Summary 268 Questions and Problems 269 12 Nonparametric Measures of Correlation 275 Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient 275 Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient 279 Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 283 Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 284 Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table 288 Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 x 2 Tables 290 Summary 293 Questions and Problems 293 Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association 300 Part 5 Applying Statistics 303 13 Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems 305 Research Situations 309 Research Solutions 321 Appendixes 329 Appendix A A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics 330 Working with Decimals 330 Dealing with Negative Numbers 332 The Summation Sign 333 Appendix B Tables 335 Appendix C List of Formulas 347 Answers to Selected Problems 351 Index 357

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