Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials / Edition 2

Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials / Edition 2

by Jack Levin, James Fox, James Alan Fox, James A. Fox
     
 

ISBN-10: 020548493X

ISBN-13: 9780205484935

Pub. Date: 05/25/2006

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials is a concise, uncomplicated introduction to statistics for the social sciences.

Written to be understandable to a broad range of readers, particularly those without a strong background in mathematics, Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials provides clear, logical explanations for

Overview

Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials is a concise, uncomplicated introduction to statistics for the social sciences.

Written to be understandable to a broad range of readers, particularly those without a strong background in mathematics, Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials provides clear, logical explanations for the rationale and use of statistical methods in social research. Detailed step-by-step illustrations of statistical procedures are located at important points throughout the book.

Anyone interested in learning the basics of statistics for social science, but doesn't need the depth of detail of a 500-600 page book.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205484935
Publisher:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
05/25/2006
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
384
Product dimensions:
7.50(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.75(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexi
1Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics1
The Nature of Social Research1
Why Test Hypotheses?2
The Stages of Social Research4
Using Series of Numbers To Do Social Research4
The Functions of Statistics9
Summary13
Questions and Problems14
Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey16
Part 1Description19
2Organizing the Data21
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data21
Comparing Distributions22
Proportions and Percentages23
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data24
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data25
Cumulative Distributions27
Dealing with Decimal Data29
Flexible Class Intervals31
Cross-Tabulations33
Graphic Presentations39
Summary45
Questions and Problems45
3Measures of Central Tendency53
The Mode53
The Median54
The Mean55
Taking One Step at a Time57
Step-By-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean57
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean58
Summary62
Questions and Problems63
4Measures of Variability67
The Range68
The Variance and the Standard Deviation69
Step-By-Step Illustration: Standard Deviation70
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation71
Step-By-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores72
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation73
Comparing Measures of Variability76
Summary77
Questions and Problems77
Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data80
Part 2From Description to Decision Making85
5Probability and the Normal Curve87
Probability88
Probability Distributions88
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution92
Characteristics of the Normal Curve92
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve93
The Area under the Normal Curve94
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve100
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve104
Step-By-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve104
Summary108
Questions and Problems109
6Samples and Populations112
Random Sampling113
Sampling Error114
Sampling Distribution of Means115
Standard Error of the Mean122
Confidence Intervals123
The t Distribution126
Step-By-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t131
Estimating Proportions134
Step-By-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions135
Summary136
Questions and Problems136
Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations140
Part 3Decision Making143
7Testing Differences between Means145
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means147
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means148
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means148
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means152
Levels of Significance155
Standard Error of the Difference between Means160
Testing the Difference between Means161
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means162
Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice165
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice166
Two-Sample Test of Proportions168
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions169
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means171
Summary172
Questions and Problems172
8Analysis of Variance183
The Logic of Analysis of Variance184
The Sum of Squares186
Mean Square192
The F Ratio193
Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance196
Requirements for Using the F Ratio200
Summary200
Questions and Problems201
9Nonparametric Tests of Significance207
The Chi-Square Test208
Step-by-Step Illustration: Chi-Square Test of Significance213
Step-by-Step Illustration: Chi-Square Test for Several Groups217
The Median Test224
Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test224
Summary226
Questions and Problems227
Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing Differences234
Part 4From Decision Making to Association237
10Correlation239
Strength of Correlation239
Direction of Correlation240
Curvilinear Correlation241
The Correlation Coefficient241
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient243
A Simplified Method for Testing the Significance of r249
Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient249
Summary251
Questions and Problems252
11Regression Analysis258
The Regression Model259
Interpreting the Regression Line264
Regression and Pearson's Correlation266
Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis267
Summary268
Questions and Problems269
12Nonparametric Measures of Correlation275
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient275
Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient279
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma283
Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma284
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table288
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 x 2 Tables290
Summary293
Questions and Problems293
Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association300
Part 5Applying Statistics303
13Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems305
Research Situations309
Research Solutions321
Appendixes329
Appendix AA Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics330
Working with Decimals330
Dealing with Negative Numbers332
The Summation Sign333
Appendix BTables335
Appendix CList of Formulas347
Answers to Selected Problems351
Index357

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