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Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, Fifth Edition, offers our most accessible approach to statisticsâ€”with more than 750 graphical displays that illustrate data, readers are able to visualize key statistical concepts immediately. Adhering to the philosophy that students learn best by doing, this book relies heavily on examplesâ€“25% of the examples and exercises are new for this edition. Larson and Farber continue to demonstrate that statistics is all around us and that itâ€™s easy to understand.

Note: This is the standalone Book/CD, if the customer wants the Book/CD and Access Card they should order the ISBN below:

0321891872 / 9780321891877 Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World Plus MyStatLab with Pearson eText -- Access Card Package

Package consists of:
0321693620 / 9780321693624 Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World
0321847997 / 9780321847997 My StatLab Glue-in Access Card
032184839X / 9780321848390 MyStatLab Inside Sticker for Glue-In Packages

This student-friendly text is filled with colorful charts, icons, sidebars, and faux post-it notes<-->all designed to hold the attention of MTV-generation students with basic algebra skills. Some of the chapter exercises use data sets from the included disk. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

From The Critics

This one-semester textbook introduces the concepts behind discrete probability distributions, normal probability distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, regression lines, chi-square tests, f-distribution, and nonparametric tests. The second edition adds sections on real-life applications and common abuses of statistics. The CD-ROM contains examples and data files for spreadsheet projects. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

Ron Larson received his PhD in mathematics from the University of Colorado in 1970. At that time he accepted a position with Penn State University, and he currently holds the rank of professor of mathematics at the University. Dr. Larson is the lead author of more than two dozen mathematics textbooks that range from sixth grade through calculus levels.

Betsy Farber received her Bachelor's degree in mathematics form Penn State University and Master's degree in mathematics from the College of New Jersey. Since 1976, she has been teaching all levels of mathematics at Bucks County Community College in Newton, Pennsylvania, where she currently holds the rank of professor. She is particularly interested in developing new ways to make statistics relevant and interesting to her students and has been teaching statistics in many different modes - with TI-83/84, with MINITAB, and by distance learning as well as in the traditional classroom.

Welcome to Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World. This book has a variety of pedagogical features, all of which are designed to show students how statistics is used to picture and describe the world and to show them that statistics is used to make informed decisions. This messageâ€”picturing the worldâ€”begins with the cover, continues through the chapter openers, sections, exercise sets, and special features.

General Features

Versatile Course Coverage The table of contents of the text was developed to give instructors many options. For instance, by assigning the Extending the Basics exercises and spending time on the chapter projects, there is sufficient content to use the text in a two-semester course. More commonly, we expect the text to be used in a three-credit semester course. In such cases, instructors will have to pare down the text's 46 sections. If you want more information on sample syllabi, check the Web site that accompanies the text.

Choice of Table Our experience has shown that students find a cumulative density function (CDF) table easier to use than a "O-to-z" table. Using the CDF table to find the area under a normal curve is the topic of Section 5.2 on pages 202-208. Because we realize that many teachers prefer to use the "O-to-z" table, we have provided an alternative presentation of Section 5.2 using the "O-to-z" table in Appendix A of the book.

Graphical Approach As with most introductory statistics texts, we begin the descriptive statistics chapter with a survey of different ways to display data graphically. A differencebetween this text and many others is that we continue to incorporate the graphical display of data throughout the text. For example, see the use of stem-and-leaf plots to display data on pages 326 and 329. In all, the text has over 750 graphsâ€”surpassing all other introductory statistics texts.

Variety of Real-Life Applications We have chosen real-life applications that are representative of the majors of the students taking introductory statistics courses. These include business, psychology, health sciences, sports, computer science, political science, and many others. Choosing meaningful applications for such a diverse audience is difficult. We wanted the applications to be authenticâ€”but they also need to be accessible.

Data and Source Lines The data sets in the book were chosen for interest, variety, and their ability to illustrate concepts. Most of the over 200 data sets contain actual data with source lines. The remaining data sets contain simulated data that, though not actual, are representative of real-life situations. All data sets containing 20 or more entries are available in a variety of electronic forms, including disk and Internet. In the exercise sets, the data sets that are available electronically are indicated by the icon.

Accuracy Every effort was made to ensure the mathematical accuracy of the examples and exercise solutions. The examples and exercises were solved by two people independently. A third person compared the independent solutions and resolved differences. If you encounter errors that we missed, please contact us so that we can correct the problem in a subsequent printing.

Balanced Approach The text strikes a balance between computation, decision making, and conceptual understanding. We have provided many Examples, Exercises, and Try It problems that go beyond mere computation. For instance, look at Exercises 31 and 32 on page 43. Students are not just asked to construct a relative frequency histogram for the given data, they are asked to go a step further and use the histogram to make a decision.

Prerequisites Statistics contains many formulas and variables, including radicals, summation notation, Greek letters, and subscripts. So, some familiarity with algebra and evaluation of algebraic expressions is a prerequisite. Nevertheless, we have made every effort to keep algebraic manipulations to a minimum-often we display informal versions of formulas using words in place of variables. For instance, see the definition of class width on page 30.

Flexible Technology Although most formulas in the book are illustrated with tabular "hand" calculations, we assume that most students who take this course have access to some form of technology tool, such as Minitab, Excel, or the TI-83. Because the use of technology varies widely, we have made the text flexible. It can be used in courses with no more technology than a scientific calculatorâ€”or it can be used in courses that require frequent use of sophisticated technology tools. For those who want specific instructions on particular technology tools, separate technology manuals are available to augment the text. Whatever your use of technology, we are sure that you agree with us that the goal of this course is not computation. Rather, it is to gain an understanding of the basic concepts and uses of statistics.

The Cover Each chapter begins with a photographic introduction that includes real-life data. In keeping with the theme of "picturing the world," one photo from each of the chapter openers was used to create the eleven "upper" sides of a dodecahedron. The image was created electronically using a three-dimensional modeling program. On the cover, only 6 of the sides are visible. But on the title screens of electronic versions of the text and supplements, all 11 of the upper sides are visible as the dodecahedron spins. We like this image because it resembles our spinning planet.

Page Layout We believe that statistics is more accessible to students when it is carefully formatted on each page with a consistent open lay out. This text is the first college level statistics book to be written to design, which means that none of its features (Examples, Try It problems, Definitions, or Guidelines) are split from one page to the next. Although this process requires extra planning and work in the development stage, the result is a presentation that is clean and clear.

MAA, AMATYC, NCTM Standards This text answers the call for a student-friendly text that emphasizes the uses of statistics and not just the computation of its myriad of formulas. Our experience indicates that our job as instructors of an introductory course in statistics is not to produce statisticians but to produce informed consumers of statistical reports. For this reason, we have included many exercises that require students to provide written explanations, find patterns, and make decisions.

Chapter Features

Chapter Openers Each chapter begins with a two-page description of a real-life problem. For example, look at the opener to Chapter 2.The data set contains the ages of the entire population of the fishing village of Akhiok, Alaska. As the chapter is developed, students are asked to return to the data set given in the chapter opener. For instance, on page 32 students are asked to construct a frequency distribution for the ages of the 77 residents of Akhiok. Each chapter opener has two special features called Where You've Been and Where You're Going. The first of these shows students how the chapter fits into the bigger picture of statistics, and the second gives students an overview of the chapter.

Chapter Case Study Each chapter includes a full-page case study with actual data and a series of thought-provoking questions that are designed to illustrate the important concepts of the chapter. For instance, the case study on page 329 was taken from the Journal of the American Medical Association and illustrates how hypothesis testing can be used to show that the normal human body temperature is not 98.6 degrees, as is commonly believed. The case studies can be assigned as individual projects or as group projects to be worked in class or outside of class.

Chapter Technology Project Each chapter has a full-page technology project that gives students additional insight into the way technology is used to handle large data sets or complex real-life questions. For instance, the technology project on page 346 shows students how hypothesis testing was used to show gender bias in the selection of jurors in the trial of Dr. Spock.

Chapter Summary Each chapter concludes with a chapter summary that answers the questions What did you learn? and Why did you learn it? The chapter summary is designed to be used as a study aid in conjunction with the chapter review exercises. In addition to showing the real-life uses of the material in the chapter, each summary points out one or more common abuses of statistics.

Chapter Review Exercises Following each chapter summary, we have compiled a set of review exercises that students can use as a preparation for a chapter test. The order of the exercises follows the order that the topics were presented in the chapter. The answers to all odd-numbered review exercises are given in the back of the book. The worked out solutions are available in the Student's Solutions Manual.

Chapter Quizzes and Cumulative Tests The third part of the "endof-chapter" self-evaluation materials is a chapter quiz. In addition, cumulative tests appear after Chapters 3, 6, 9, and 11. The answers to all quiz and test questions are given in the back of the book.

Section Features

Section Organization Each section is organized by learning objectives. These objectives are presented in everyday language in a margin feature called What You Should Learn. The same objectives are then used as subsection titles throughout the section.

Titled Examples Every concept in the text is clearly illustrated with one or more step-by-step examples. Each of the more than 200 examples is numbered and titled for easy reference. In presenting the examples, we used an open format with a step-by-step display that students can use as a model when solving the exercises.

Try Its Each example in the text is followed by a similar problem called Try It Yourself The answers to these problems are given in the back of the book, and the workedout solutions are given in the Student's Solutions Manual. The Try It Yourself questions are a major strength of the text as more than just a collection of exercises, but as a bona fide learning instrument. Few students who take this course understand that one cannot learn statistics by simply reading about it. Instead, one learns statistics by reading and doing statistics. Please encourage your students to use this feature-it requires effort, but it pays off in student success.

Study Tips Most sections contain one or more study tips placed on yellow "sticky notes" in the margin.These tend to be informal learning aids, which show how to read a table, use technology, or interpret a result or a graph. For instance, the study tip on page 44 points out that a stem-and-leaf plot has as many leaves as there are entries in the original data set.

Insights Most sections also contain one or more insights placed on blue "sticky notes" in the margin. The purpose of each insight is to help drive home an important interpretation or help connect different concepts. For instance, the insight on page 212 helps students interpret z-scores by pointing out that z-scores that are less than -3 or greater than 3 are very unusual.

Definitions The critical definitions of statistics are set off with gold screens. In writing the definitions, we strived for two goalsâ€”simplicity and mathematical accuracy. Consequently, the formal definitions are often followed by studentfriendly guidelines that explain, in everyday English, how to apply the definition. For instance, see the definition of population standard deviation on page 70.

Guidelines Throughout the book, the presentation of a statistical formula is followed by a step-by-step set of guidelines for applying the formula. The guidelines are divided into two columns titled In Words and In Symbols. See page 70 for an example.

Picturing the World Each section contains a real-life "mini case study" that illustrates the important concept or concepts of the section. Each Picturing the World concludes with a question, and can be used for general class discussion or group work. For instance, the Picturing the World on page 88 asks students to interpret a boxand-whisker plot that represents the ages of U.S. presidents.

Technology Examples Many sections contain a worked example that shows how technology can be used to calculate formulas, perform tests, or display data. For instance, Example 5 on page 72 shows how to use Minitab, Excel, and the TI-83 to find the mean and standard deviation of a data set. Note that this example shows the screen displays within the presentation of the example. Additional screen displays are given at the ends of selected chapters. For instance, note the technology reference for Example 7 on page 50.

Section Exercise Sets Each section concludes with a set of exercises carefully written to nurture student understanding and proficiency.

Abundance of Exercises The text contains over 1700 exercises, more than twice the number of most introductory statistics books. Our goal is to provide instructors with a versatile teaching instrument that offers a wide range of exercises that move from basic concepts and skill development to more challenging and interpretive problems.

Exercises are Labeled Most exercises are labeled for easy reference. For instance, Exercises 9-12 on page 336 are labeled Graphical Analysis because students are asked to use the graphs provided to answer the questions.

Paired Format Almost all exercises are given in "paired format" so that the odd-numbered exercise, whose answer is given in the back of the book, is paired with an even-numbered exercise, whose answer is not given. This paired format is commonly used in mathematics texts, but is less common in statistics texts.

Extending the Basics Each exercise set ends with a group of exercises called Extending the Basics. These exercises go beyond the material presented in the sectionâ€”they tend to be more challenging and are not required as prerequisites of subsequent sections.

Answers and Solutions The answers to all odd-numbered exercises are given in the back of the book, and the worked-out solutions are available in the Student's Solutions Manual.

Welcome to Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World. This book has a variety of pedagogical features, all of which are designed to show students how statistics is used to picture and describe the world and to show them that statistics is used to make informed decisions. This messageâ€”picturing the worldâ€”begins with the cover, continues through the chapter openers, sections, exercise sets, and special features.

General Features

Versatile Course Coverage The table of contents of the text was developed to give instructors many options. For instance, by assigning the Extending the Basics exercises and spending time on the chapter projects, there is sufficient content to use the text in a two-semester course. More commonly, we expect the text to be used in a three-credit semester course. In such cases, instructors will have to pare down the text's 46 sections. If you want more information on sample syllabi, check the Web site that accompanies the text.

Choice of Table Our experience has shown that students find a cumulative density function (CDF) table easier to use than a "O-to-z" table. Using the CDF table to find the area under a normal curve is the topic of Section 5.2 on pages 202-208. Because we realize that many teachers prefer to use the "O-to-z" table, we have provided an alternative presentation of Section 5.2 using the "O-to-z" table in Appendix A of the book.

Graphical Approach As with most introductory statistics texts, we begin the descriptive statistics chapter with a survey of different ways to display data graphically. Adifferencebetween this text and many others is that we continue to incorporate the graphical display of data throughout the text. For example, see the use of stem-and-leaf plots to display data on pages 326 and 329. In all, the text has over 750 graphsâ€”surpassing all other introductory statistics texts.

Variety of Real-Life Applications We have chosen real-life applications that are representative of the majors of the students taking introductory statistics courses. These include business, psychology, health sciences, sports, computer science, political science, and many others. Choosing meaningful applications for such a diverse audience is difficult. We wanted the applications to be authenticâ€”but they also need to be accessible.

Data and Source Lines The data sets in the book were chosen for interest, variety, and their ability to illustrate concepts. Most of the over 200 data sets contain actual data with source lines. The remaining data sets contain simulated data that, though not actual, are representative of real-life situations. All data sets containing 20 or more entries are available in a variety of electronic forms, including disk and Internet. In the exercise sets, the data sets that are available electronically are indicated by the icon.

Accuracy Every effort was made to ensure the mathematical accuracy of the examples and exercise solutions. The examples and exercises were solved by two people independently. A third person compared the independent solutions and resolved differences. If you encounter errors that we missed, please contact us so that we can correct the problem in a subsequent printing.

Balanced Approach The text strikes a balance between computation, decision making, and conceptual understanding. We have provided many Examples, Exercises, and Try It problems that go beyond mere computation. For instance, look at Exercises 31 and 32 on page 43. Students are not just asked to construct a relative frequency histogram for the given data, they are asked to go a step further and use the histogram to make a decision.

Prerequisites Statistics contains many formulas and variables, including radicals, summation notation, Greek letters, and subscripts. So, some familiarity with algebra and evaluation of algebraic expressions is a prerequisite. Nevertheless, we have made every effort to keep algebraic manipulations to a minimum-often we display informal versions of formulas using words in place of variables. For instance, see the definition of class width on page 30.

Flexible Technology Although most formulas in the book are illustrated with tabular "hand" calculations, we assume that most students who take this course have access to some form of technology tool, such as Minitab, Excel, or the TI-83. Because the use of technology varies widely, we have made the text flexible. It can be used in courses with no more technology than a scientific calculatorâ€”or it can be used in courses that require frequent use of sophisticated technology tools. For those who want specific instructions on particular technology tools, separate technology manuals are available to augment the text. Whatever your use of technology, we are sure that you agree with us that the goal of this course is not computation. Rather, it is to gain an understanding of the basic concepts and uses of statistics.

The Cover Each chapter begins with a photographic introduction that includes real-life data. In keeping with the theme of "picturing the world," one photo from each of the chapter openers was used to create the eleven "upper" sides of a dodecahedron. The image was created electronically using a three-dimensional modeling program. On the cover, only 6 of the sides are visible. But on the title screens of electronic versions of the text and supplements, all 11 of the upper sides are visible as the dodecahedron spins. We like this image because it resembles our spinning planet.

Page Layout We believe that statistics is more accessible to students when it is carefully formatted on each page with a consistent open lay out. This text is the first college level statistics book to be written to design, which means that none of its features (Examples, Try It problems, Definitions, or Guidelines) are split from one page to the next. Although this process requires extra planning and work in the development stage, the result is a presentation that is clean and clear.

MAA, AMATYC, NCTM Standards This text answers the call for a student-friendly text that emphasizes the uses of statistics and not just the computation of its myriad of formulas. Our experience indicates that our job as instructors of an introductory course in statistics is not to produce statisticians but to produce informed consumers of statistical reports. For this reason, we have included many exercises that require students to provide written explanations, find patterns, and make decisions.

Chapter Features

Chapter Openers Each chapter begins with a two-page description of a real-life problem. For example, look at the opener to Chapter 2.The data set contains the ages of the entire population of the fishing village of Akhiok, Alaska. As the chapter is developed, students are asked to return to the data set given in the chapter opener. For instance, on page 32 students are asked to construct a frequency distribution for the ages of the 77 residents of Akhiok. Each chapter opener has two special features called Where You've Been and Where You're Going. The first of these shows students how the chapter fits into the bigger picture of statistics, and the second gives students an overview of the chapter.

Chapter Case Study Each chapter includes a full-page case study with actual data and a series of thought-provoking questions that are designed to illustrate the important concepts of the chapter. For instance, the case study on page 329 was taken from the Journal of the American Medical Association and illustrates how hypothesis testing can be used to show that the normal human body temperature is not 98.6 degrees, as is commonly believed. The case studies can be assigned as individual projects or as group projects to be worked in class or outside of class.

Chapter Technology Project Each chapter has a full-page technology project that gives students additional insight into the way technology is used to handle large data sets or complex real-life questions. For instance, the technology project on page 346 shows students how hypothesis testing was used to show gender bias in the selection of jurors in the trial of Dr. Spock.

Chapter Summary Each chapter concludes with a chapter summary that answers the questions What did you learn? and Why did you learn it? The chapter summary is designed to be used as a study aid in conjunction with the chapter review exercises. In addition to showing the real-life uses of the material in the chapter, each summary points out one or more common abuses of statistics.

Chapter Review Exercises Following each chapter summary, we have compiled a set of review exercises that students can use as a preparation for a chapter test. The order of the exercises follows the order that the topics were presented in the chapter. The answers to all odd-numbered review exercises are given in the back of the book. The worked out solutions are available in the Student's Solutions Manual.

Chapter Quizzes and Cumulative Tests The third part of the "endof-chapter" self-evaluation materials is a chapter quiz. In addition, cumulative tests appear after Chapters 3, 6, 9, and 11. The answers to all quiz and test questions are given in the back of the book.

Section Features

Section Organization Each section is organized by learning objectives. These objectives are presented in everyday language in a margin feature called What You Should Learn. The same objectives are then used as subsection titles throughout the section.

Titled Examples Every concept in the text is clearly illustrated with one or more step-by-step examples. Each of the more than 200 examples is numbered and titled for easy reference. In presenting the examples, we used an open format with a step-by-step display that students can use as a model when solving the exercises.

Try Its Each example in the text is followed by a similar problem called Try It Yourself The answers to these problems are given in the back of the book, and the workedout solutions are given in the Student's Solutions Manual. The Try It Yourself questions are a major strength of the text as more than just a collection of exercises, but as a bona fide learning instrument. Few students who take this course understand that one cannot learn statistics by simply reading about it. Instead, one learns statistics by reading and doing statistics. Please encourage your students to use this feature-it requires effort, but it pays off in student success.

Study Tips Most sections contain one or more study tips placed on yellow "sticky notes" in the margin.These tend to be informal learning aids, which show how to read a table, use technology, or interpret a result or a graph. For instance, the study tip on page 44 points out that a stem-and-leaf plot has as many leaves as there are entries in the original data set.

Insights Most sections also contain one or more insights placed on blue "sticky notes" in the margin. The purpose of each insight is to help drive home an important interpretation or help connect different concepts. For instance, the insight on page 212 helps students interpret z-scores by pointing out that z-scores that are less than -3 or greater than 3 are very unusual.

Definitions The critical definitions of statistics are set off with gold screens. In writing the definitions, we strived for two goalsâ€”simplicity and mathematical accuracy. Consequently, the formal definitions are often followed by studentfriendly guidelines that explain, in everyday English, how to apply the definition. For instance, see the definition of population standard deviation on page 70.

Guidelines Throughout the book, the presentation of a statistical formula is followed by a step-by-step set of guidelines for applying the formula. The guidelines are divided into two columns titled In Words and In Symbols. See page 70 for an example.

Picturing the World Each section contains a real-life "mini case study" that illustrates the important concept or concepts of the section. Each Picturing the World concludes with a question, and can be used for general class discussion or group work. For instance, the Picturing the World on page 88 asks students to interpret a boxand-whisker plot that represents the ages of U.S. presidents.

Technology Examples Many sections contain a worked example that shows how technology can be used to calculate formulas, perform tests, or display data. For instance, Example 5 on page 72 shows how to use Minitab, Excel, and the TI-83 to find the mean and standard deviation of a data set. Note that this example shows the screen displays within the presentation of the example. Additional screen displays are given at the ends of selected chapters. For instance, note the technology reference for Example 7 on page 50.

Section Exercise Sets Each section concludes with a set of exercises carefully written to nurture student understanding and proficiency.

Abundance of Exercises The text contains over 1700 exercises, more than twice the number of most introductory statistics books. Our goal is to provide instructors with a versatile teaching instrument that offers a wide range of exercises that move from basic concepts and skill development to more challenging and interpretive problems.

Exercises are Labeled Most exercises are labeled for easy reference. For instance, Exercises 9-12 on page 336 are labeled Graphical Analysis because students are asked to use the graphs provided to answer the questions.

Paired Format Almost all exercises are given in "paired format" so that the odd-numbered exercise, whose answer is given in the back of the book, is paired with an even-numbered exercise, whose answer is not given. This paired format is commonly used in mathematics texts, but is less common in statistics texts.

Extending the Basics Each exercise set ends with a group of exercises called Extending the Basics. These exercises go beyond the material presented in the sectionâ€”they tend to be more challenging and are not required as prerequisites of subsequent sections.

Answers and Solutions The answers to all odd-numbered exercises are given in the back of the book, and the worked-out solutions are available in the Student's Solutions Manual.

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Anonymous

Posted October 5, 2009

Satisfactory choice

This is a helpful book for my Elementary Statistics course. It is nice that each concept is explained and you can practice the concept with the answer provided. It gives instructions to perform various operations with your TI-83/84, minitab and microsoft excel. It's a good all-around book. My only complaint is that there is way too much information given on each page. Looking at any given page is like getting sensory overload because there are so many captions and pictures and additional things in the margin.

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## More About This Textbook

## Overview

Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, Fifth Edition, offers our most accessible approach to statisticsâ€”with more than 750 graphical displays that illustrate data, readers are able to visualize key statistical concepts immediately. Adhering to the philosophy that students learn best by doing, this book relies heavily on examplesâ€“25% of the examples and exercises are new for this edition. Larson and Farber continue to demonstrate that statistics is all around us and that itâ€™s easy to understand.Note: This is the standalone Book/CD, if the customer wants the Book/CD and Access Card they should order the ISBN below:0321891872 / 9780321891877 Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World Plus MyStatLab with Pearson eText -- Access Card PackagePackage consists of:0321693620 / 9780321693624 Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World

0321847997 / 9780321847997 My StatLab Glue-in Access Card

032184839X / 9780321848390 MyStatLab Inside Sticker for Glue-In Packages

## Editorial Reviews

## Booknews

This student-friendly text is filled with colorful charts, icons, sidebars, and faux post-it notes<-->all designed to hold the attention of MTV-generation students with basic algebra skills. Some of the chapter exercises use data sets from the included disk. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)## From The Critics

This one-semester textbook introduces the concepts behind discrete probability distributions, normal probability distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, regression lines, chi-square tests, f-distribution, and nonparametric tests. The second edition adds sections on real-life applications and common abuses of statistics. The CD-ROM contains examples and data files for spreadsheet projects. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)## Product Details

## Related Subjects

## Meet the Author

Ron Larsonreceived his PhD in mathematics from the University of Colorado in 1970. At that time he accepted a position with Penn State University, and he currently holds the rank of professor of mathematics at the University. Dr. Larson is the lead author of more than two dozen mathematics textbooks that range from sixth grade through calculus levels.Betsy Farberreceived her Bachelor's degree in mathematics form Penn State University and Master's degree in mathematics from the College of New Jersey. Since 1976, she has been teaching all levels of mathematics at Bucks County Community College in Newton, Pennsylvania, where she currently holds the rank of professor. She is particularly interested in developing new ways to make statistics relevant and interesting to her students and has been teaching statistics in many different modes - with TI-83/84, with MINITAB, and by distance learning as well as in the traditional classroom.## Read an Excerpt

PrefaceWelcome to

Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World. This book has a variety of pedagogical features, all of which are designed to show students how statistics is used topicture and describe the worldand to show them that statistics is used tomake informed decisions. This messageâ€”picturing the worldâ€”begins with the cover, continues through the chapter openers, sections, exercise sets, and special features.General FeaturesVersatile Course CoverageThe table of contents of the text was developed to give instructorsmany options. For instance, by assigning theExtending the Basicsexercises and spending time on the chapter projects, there is sufficient content to use the text in a two-semester course. More commonly, we expect the text to be used in a three-credit semester course. In such cases, instructors will have to pare down the text's 46 sections. If you want more information on sample syllabi, check the Web site that accompanies the text.Choice of TableOur experience has shown that students find acumulative density function(CDF) table easier to use than a "O-to-z" table. Using the CDF table to find the area under a normal curve is the topic of Section 5.2 on pages 202-208. Because we realize that many teachers prefer to use the "O-to-z" table, we have provided an alternative presentation of Section 5.2 using the "O-to-z" table in Appendix A of the book.Graphical ApproachAs with most introductory statistics texts, we begin the descriptive statistics chapter with a survey of different ways to display data graphically. A differencebetween this text and many others is thatwe continue to incorporate the graphical display of data throughout the text. For example, see the use of stem-and-leaf plots to display data on pages 326 and 329. In all, the text has over 750 graphsâ€”surpassing all other introductory statistics texts.Variety of Real-Life ApplicationsWe have chosen real-life applications that are representative of the majors of the students taking introductory statistics courses. These include business, psychology, health sciences, sports, computer science, political science, and many others. Choosing meaningful applications for such a diverse audience is difficult. We wanted the applications to beauthenticâ€”but they also need to beaccessible.Data and Source LinesThe data sets in the book were chosen for interest, variety, and their ability to illustrate concepts. Most of theover 200 data setscontain actual data with source lines. The remaining data sets contain simulated data that, though not actual, are representative of real-life situations. All data sets containing 20 or more entries are available in a variety of electronic forms, including disk and Internet. In the exercise sets, the data sets that are available electronically are indicated by the icon.AccuracyEvery effort was made toensure the mathematical accuracyof the examples and exercise solutions. The examples and exercises were solved by two people independently. A third person compared the independent solutions and resolved differences. If you encounter errors that we missed, please contact us so that we can correct the problem in a subsequent printing.Balanced ApproachThe text strikes abalance between computation, decision making, and conceptual understanding. We have provided many Examples, Exercises, and Try It problems that go beyond mere computation. For instance, look at Exercises 31 and 32 on page 43. Students are not just asked to construct a relative frequency histogram for the given data, they are asked to go a step further and use the histogram to make a decision.PrerequisitesStatistics contains many formulas and variables, including radicals, summation notation, Greek letters, and subscripts. So,some familiarity with algebra and evaluation of algebraic expressionsis a prerequisite. Nevertheless, we have made every effort to keep algebraic manipulations to a minimum-often we display informal versions of formulas using words in place of variables. For instance, see the definition of class width on page 30.Flexible TechnologyAlthough most formulas in the book are illustrated with tabular "hand" calculations, we assume that most students who take this course have access to some form of technology tool, such as Minitab, Excel, or the TI-83. Because the use of technology varies widely, we have made the text flexible.It can be used in courses with no more technology than a scientific calculatorâ€”or it can be used in courses that require frequent use of sophisticated technology tools. For those who want specific instructions on particular technology tools, separate technology manuals are available to augment the text. Whatever your use of technology, we are sure that you agree with us that the goal of this course is not computation. Rather, it is to gain an understanding of the basic concepts and uses of statistics.The CoverEach chapter begins with a photographic introduction that includes real-life data. In keeping with the theme of "picturing the world,"one photo from each of the chapter openerswas used to create the eleven "upper" sides of a dodecahedron. The image was created electronically using a three-dimensional modeling program. On the cover, only 6 of the sides are visible. But on the title screens of electronic versions of the text and supplements, all 11 of the upper sides are visible as the dodecahedron spins. We like this image because it resembles our spinning planet.Page LayoutWe believe that statistics is more accessible to students when it is carefully formatted on each page with a consistent open lay out. This text is thefirst college level statistics book to be written to design, which means that none of its features (Examples, Try It problems, Definitions, or Guidelines) are split from one page to the next. Although this process requires extra planning and work in the development stage, the result is a presentation that is clean and clear.MAA, AMATYC, NCTM StandardsThis text answers the call for astudent-friendly text that emphasizes the uses of statisticsand not just the computation of its myriad of formulas. Our experience indicates that our job as instructors of an introductory course in statistics is not to produce statisticians but to produce informed consumers of statistical reports. For this reason, we have included many exercises that require students to provide written explanations, find patterns, and make decisions.Chapter FeaturesChapter OpenersEach chapter begins with a two-page description of a real-life problem. For example, look at the opener to Chapter 2.The data set contains the ages of the entire population of the fishing village of Akhiok, Alaska. As the chapter is developed, students are asked to return to the data set given in the chapter opener. For instance, on page 32 students are asked to construct a frequency distribution for the ages of the 77 residents of Akhiok. Each chapter opener has two special features calledWhere You've BeenandWhere You're Going. The first of these shows students how the chapter fits into the bigger picture of statistics, and the second gives students an overview of the chapter.Chapter Case StudyEach chapter includes a full-page case study with actual data and a series ofthought-provoking questionsthat are designed to illustrate the important concepts of the chapter. For instance, the case study on page 329 was taken from theJournal of the American Medical Associationand illustrates how hypothesis testing can be used to show that the normal human body temperature is not 98.6 degrees, as is commonly believed. The case studies can be assigned as individual projects or as group projects to be worked in class or outside of class.Chapter Technology ProjectEach chapter has a full-page technology project that gives students additional insight into the waytechnology is used to handle large data setsor complex real-life questions. For instance, the technology project on page 346 shows students how hypothesis testing was used to show gender bias in the selection of jurors in the trial of Dr. Spock.Chapter SummaryEach chapter concludes with a chapter summary that answers the questionsWhat did you learn?andWhy did you learn it?The chapter summary is designed to be used as a study aid in conjunction with the chapter review exercises. In addition to showing the real-life uses of the material in the chapter, each summary points out one or more common abuses of statistics.Chapter Review ExercisesFollowing each chapter summary, we have compiled a set of review exercises that students can use as apreparation for a chapter test. The order of the exercises follows the order that the topics were presented in the chapter. The answers to all odd-numbered review exercises are given in the back of the book. The worked out solutions are available in theStudent's Solutions Manual.Chapter Quizzes and Cumulative TestsThe third part of the "endof-chapter"self-evaluationmaterials is a chapter quiz. In addition, cumulative tests appear after Chapters 3, 6, 9, and 11. The answers to all quiz and test questions are given in the back of the book.Section FeaturesSection OrganizationEach section isorganized by learning objectives. These objectives are presented in everyday language in a margin feature called What You Should Learn. The same objectives are then used as subsection titles throughout the section.Titled ExamplesEvery concept in the text is clearly illustrated with one or more step-by-step examples. Each of the more than 200 examples is numbered and titled for easy reference. In presenting the examples, we used anopen format with a step-by-step displaythat students can use as a model when solving the exercises.Try ItsEach example in the text is followed by a similar problem called Try It Yourself The answers to these problems are given in the back of the book, and the workedout solutions are given in theStudent's Solutions Manual. The Try It Yourself questions are a major strength of the text as more than just a collection of exercises, but as a bona fide learning instrument. Few students who take this course understand that one cannot learn statistics by simply reading about it. Instead,one learns statistics by reading and doing statistics. Please encourage your students to use this feature-it requires effort, but it pays off in student success.Study TipsMost sections contain one or more study tips placed on yellow "sticky notes" in the margin.These tend to beinformal learning aids, which show how to read a table, use technology, or interpret a result or a graph. For instance, the study tip on page 44 points out that a stem-and-leaf plot has as many leaves as there are entries in the original data set.InsightsMost sections also contain one or more insights placed on blue "sticky notes" in the margin. The purpose of each insight is to helpdrive home an important interpretation or help connect different concepts. For instance, the insight on page 212 helps students interpret z-scores by pointing out that z-scores that are less than -3 or greater than 3 are very unusual.DefinitionsThe critical definitions of statistics are set off with gold screens. In writing the definitions, we strived for two goalsâ€”simplicity and mathematical accuracy. Consequently, the formal definitions are often followed by studentfriendly guidelines that explain, in everyday English, how to apply the definition. For instance, see the definition of population standard deviation on page 70.GuidelinesThroughout the book, the presentation of a statistical formula is followed by a step-by-step set of guidelines for applying the formula. The guidelines are divided into two columns titled In Words and In Symbols. See page 70 for an example.Picturing the WorldEach section contains a real-life "mini case study" that illustrates the important concept or concepts of the section. Each Picturing the World concludes with a question, andcan be used for general class discussion or group work. For instance, the Picturing the World on page 88 asks students to interpret a boxand-whisker plot that represents the ages of U.S. presidents.Technology ExamplesMany sections contain a worked example that shows how technology can be used to calculate formulas, perform tests, or display data. For instance, Example 5 on page 72 shows how to use Minitab, Excel, and the TI-83 to find the mean and standard deviation of a data set. Note that this example shows thescreen displays within the presentation of the example. Additional screen displays are given at the ends of selected chapters. For instance, note the technology reference for Example 7 on page 50.Section Exercise SetsEach section concludes with a set of exercises carefully written to nurture student understanding and proficiency.Abundance of ExercisesThe text contains over 1700 exercises, more than twice the number of most introductory statistics books. Our goal is to provide instructors with a versatile teaching instrument that offers a wide range of exercises thatmove from basic concepts and skill development to more challenging and interpretive problems.Exercises are LabeledMost exercises arelabeled for easy reference. For instance, Exercises 9-12 on page 336 are labeled Graphical Analysis because students are asked to use the graphs provided to answer the questions.Paired FormatAlmost all exercises are given in"paired format"so that the odd-numbered exercise, whose answer is given in the back of the book, is paired with an even-numbered exercise, whose answer is not given. This paired format is commonly used in mathematics texts, but is less common in statistics texts.Extending the BasicsEach exercise set ends with a group of exercises called Extending the Basics. These exercises go beyond the material presented in the sectionâ€”they tend to be more challenging and are not required as prerequisites of subsequent sections.Answers and SolutionsThe answers to all odd-numbered exercises are given in the back of the book, and the worked-out solutions are available in theStudent's Solutions Manual.## Table of Contents

Part One. Descriptive Statistics1. Introduction to Statistics1.1. An Overview of Statistics

1.2. Data Classification

1.3. Data Collection and Experimental Design

2. Descriptive Statistics2.1. Frequency Distributions and Their Graphs

2.2. More Graphs and Displays

2.3. Measures of Central Tendency

2.4. Measures of Variation

2.5. Measures of Position

Part Two. Probability & Probability Distributions3. Probability3.1. Basic Concepts of Probability and Counting

3.2. Conditional Probability and the Multiplication Rule

3.3. The Addition Rule

3.4. Additional Topics in Probability and Counting

4. Discrete Probability Distributions4.1. Probability Distributions

4.2. Binomial Distributions

4.3. More Discrete Probability Distributions

5. Normal Probability Distributions5.1. Introduction to Normal Distributions and the Standard Normal Distribution

5.2. Normal Distributions: Finding Probabilities

5.3. Normal Distributions: Finding Values

5.4. Sampling Distributions and the Central Limit Theorem

5.5. Normal Approximations to Binomial Distributions

Part Three. Statistical Inference6. Confidence Intervals6.1. Confidence Intervals for the Mean (Large Samples)

6.2. Confidence Intervals for the Mean (Small Samples)

6.3. Confidence Intervals for Population Proportions

6.4. Confidence Intervals for Variance and Standard Deviation

7. Hypothesis Testing with One Sample7.1. Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

7.2. Hypothesis Testing for the Mean (Large Samples)

7.3. Hypothesis Testing for the Mean (Small Samples)

7.4. Hypothesis Testing for Proportions

7.5. Hypothesis Testing for Variance and Standard Deviation

8. Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples8.1. Testing the Difference Between Means (Large Independent Samples)

8.2. Testing the Difference Between Means (Small Independent Samples)

8.3. Testing the Difference Between Means (Dependent Samples)

8.4. Testing the Difference Between Proportions

Part Four. More Statistical Inference9. Correlation and Regression9.1 Correlation

9.2. Linear Regression

9.3. Measures of Regression and Prediction Intervals

9.4. Multiple Regression

10. Chi-Square Tests and theF-Distribution10.1. Goodness-of-Fit Test

10.2. Independence

10.3. Comparing Two Variances

10.4. Analysis of Variance

11. Nonparametric Tests11.1. The Sign Test

11.2. The Wilcoxon Tests

11.3. The Kruskal-Wallis Test

11.4. Rank Correlation

11.5. The Runs Test

Appendix A. Alternative Presentation of the Standard Normal Distribution

Standard Normal Distribution Table (0-to-

z)Alternative Presentation of the Standard Normal Distribution

Appendix B. Tables

Table 1 Random Numbers

Table 2 Binomial Distribution

Table 3 Poisson Distribution

Table 4 Standard Normal Distribution

Table 5

t-DistributionTable 6

Chi-Square DistributionTable 7

F-DistributionTable 8 Critical Values for the Sign Test

Table 9 Critical Values for the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test

Table 10 Critical Values for the Spearman Rank Correlation

Table 11 Critical Values for the Pearson Correlation Coefficient

Table 12 Critical Values for the Number of Runs

Appendix C. Normal Probability Plots and Their Graphs

Answers to the Try It Yourself Exercises

Odd Answers

Index

Photo Credits

## Preface

PrefaceWelcome to

Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World. This book has a variety of pedagogical features, all of which are designed to show students how statistics is used topicture and describe the worldand to show them that statistics is used tomake informed decisions. This messageâ€”picturing the worldâ€”begins with the cover, continues through the chapter openers, sections, exercise sets, and special features.General FeaturesVersatile Course CoverageThe table of contents of the text was developed to give instructorsmany options. For instance, by assigning theExtending the Basicsexercises and spending time on the chapter projects, there is sufficient content to use the text in a two-semester course. More commonly, we expect the text to be used in a three-credit semester course. In such cases, instructors will have to pare down the text's 46 sections. If you want more information on sample syllabi, check the Web site that accompanies the text.Choice of TableOur experience has shown that students find acumulative density function(CDF) table easier to use than a "O-to-z" table. Using the CDF table to find the area under a normal curve is the topic of Section 5.2 on pages 202-208. Because we realize that many teachers prefer to use the "O-to-z" table, we have provided an alternative presentation of Section 5.2 using the "O-to-z" table in Appendix A of the book.Graphical ApproachAs with most introductory statistics texts, we begin the descriptive statistics chapter with a survey of different ways to display data graphically. Adifferencebetween this text and many others is thatwe continue to incorporate the graphical display of data throughout the text. For example, see the use of stem-and-leaf plots to display data on pages 326 and 329. In all, the text has over 750 graphsâ€”surpassing all other introductory statistics texts.Variety of Real-Life ApplicationsWe have chosen real-life applications that are representative of the majors of the students taking introductory statistics courses. These include business, psychology, health sciences, sports, computer science, political science, and many others. Choosing meaningful applications for such a diverse audience is difficult. We wanted the applications to beauthenticâ€”but they also need to beaccessible.Data and Source LinesThe data sets in the book were chosen for interest, variety, and their ability to illustrate concepts. Most of theover 200 data setscontain actual data with source lines. The remaining data sets contain simulated data that, though not actual, are representative of real-life situations. All data sets containing 20 or more entries are available in a variety of electronic forms, including disk and Internet. In the exercise sets, the data sets that are available electronically are indicated by the icon.AccuracyEvery effort was made toensure the mathematical accuracyof the examples and exercise solutions. The examples and exercises were solved by two people independently. A third person compared the independent solutions and resolved differences. If you encounter errors that we missed, please contact us so that we can correct the problem in a subsequent printing.Balanced ApproachThe text strikes abalance between computation, decision making, and conceptual understanding. We have provided many Examples, Exercises, and Try It problems that go beyond mere computation. For instance, look at Exercises 31 and 32 on page 43. Students are not just asked to construct a relative frequency histogram for the given data, they are asked to go a step further and use the histogram to make a decision.PrerequisitesStatistics contains many formulas and variables, including radicals, summation notation, Greek letters, and subscripts. So,some familiarity with algebra and evaluation of algebraic expressionsis a prerequisite. Nevertheless, we have made every effort to keep algebraic manipulations to a minimum-often we display informal versions of formulas using words in place of variables. For instance, see the definition of class width on page 30.Flexible TechnologyAlthough most formulas in the book are illustrated with tabular "hand" calculations, we assume that most students who take this course have access to some form of technology tool, such as Minitab, Excel, or the TI-83. Because the use of technology varies widely, we have made the text flexible.It can be used in courses with no more technology than a scientific calculatorâ€”or it can be used in courses that require frequent use of sophisticated technology tools. For those who want specific instructions on particular technology tools, separate technology manuals are available to augment the text. Whatever your use of technology, we are sure that you agree with us that the goal of this course is not computation. Rather, it is to gain an understanding of the basic concepts and uses of statistics.The CoverEach chapter begins with a photographic introduction that includes real-life data. In keeping with the theme of "picturing the world,"one photo from each of the chapter openerswas used to create the eleven "upper" sides of a dodecahedron. The image was created electronically using a three-dimensional modeling program. On the cover, only 6 of the sides are visible. But on the title screens of electronic versions of the text and supplements, all 11 of the upper sides are visible as the dodecahedron spins. We like this image because it resembles our spinning planet.Page LayoutWe believe that statistics is more accessible to students when it is carefully formatted on each page with a consistent open lay out. This text is thefirst college level statistics book to be written to design, which means that none of its features (Examples, Try It problems, Definitions, or Guidelines) are split from one page to the next. Although this process requires extra planning and work in the development stage, the result is a presentation that is clean and clear.MAA, AMATYC, NCTM StandardsThis text answers the call for astudent-friendly text that emphasizes the uses of statisticsand not just the computation of its myriad of formulas. Our experience indicates that our job as instructors of an introductory course in statistics is not to produce statisticians but to produce informed consumers of statistical reports. For this reason, we have included many exercises that require students to provide written explanations, find patterns, and make decisions.Chapter FeaturesChapter OpenersEach chapter begins with a two-page description of a real-life problem. For example, look at the opener to Chapter 2.The data set contains the ages of the entire population of the fishing village of Akhiok, Alaska. As the chapter is developed, students are asked to return to the data set given in the chapter opener. For instance, on page 32 students are asked to construct a frequency distribution for the ages of the 77 residents of Akhiok. Each chapter opener has two special features calledWhere You've BeenandWhere You're Going. The first of these shows students how the chapter fits into the bigger picture of statistics, and the second gives students an overview of the chapter.Chapter Case StudyEach chapter includes a full-page case study with actual data and a series ofthought-provoking questionsthat are designed to illustrate the important concepts of the chapter. For instance, the case study on page 329 was taken from theJournal of the American Medical Associationand illustrates how hypothesis testing can be used to show that the normal human body temperature is not 98.6 degrees, as is commonly believed. The case studies can be assigned as individual projects or as group projects to be worked in class or outside of class.Chapter Technology ProjectEach chapter has a full-page technology project that gives students additional insight into the waytechnology is used to handle large data setsor complex real-life questions. For instance, the technology project on page 346 shows students how hypothesis testing was used to show gender bias in the selection of jurors in the trial of Dr. Spock.Chapter SummaryEach chapter concludes with a chapter summary that answers the questionsWhat did you learn?andWhy did you learn it?The chapter summary is designed to be used as a study aid in conjunction with the chapter review exercises. In addition to showing the real-life uses of the material in the chapter, each summary points out one or more common abuses of statistics.Chapter Review ExercisesFollowing each chapter summary, we have compiled a set of review exercises that students can use as apreparation for a chapter test. The order of the exercises follows the order that the topics were presented in the chapter. The answers to all odd-numbered review exercises are given in the back of the book. The worked out solutions are available in theStudent's Solutions Manual.Chapter Quizzes and Cumulative TestsThe third part of the "endof-chapter"self-evaluationmaterials is a chapter quiz. In addition, cumulative tests appear after Chapters 3, 6, 9, and 11. The answers to all quiz and test questions are given in the back of the book.Section FeaturesSection OrganizationEach section isorganized by learning objectives. These objectives are presented in everyday language in a margin feature called What You Should Learn. The same objectives are then used as subsection titles throughout the section.Titled ExamplesEvery concept in the text is clearly illustrated with one or more step-by-step examples. Each of the more than 200 examples is numbered and titled for easy reference. In presenting the examples, we used anopen format with a step-by-step displaythat students can use as a model when solving the exercises.Try ItsEach example in the text is followed by a similar problem called Try It Yourself The answers to these problems are given in the back of the book, and the workedout solutions are given in theStudent's Solutions Manual. The Try It Yourself questions are a major strength of the text as more than just a collection of exercises, but as a bona fide learning instrument. Few students who take this course understand that one cannot learn statistics by simply reading about it. Instead,one learns statistics by reading and doing statistics. Please encourage your students to use this feature-it requires effort, but it pays off in student success.Study TipsMost sections contain one or more study tips placed on yellow "sticky notes" in the margin.These tend to beinformal learning aids, which show how to read a table, use technology, or interpret a result or a graph. For instance, the study tip on page 44 points out that a stem-and-leaf plot has as many leaves as there are entries in the original data set.InsightsMost sections also contain one or more insights placed on blue "sticky notes" in the margin. The purpose of each insight is to helpdrive home an important interpretation or help connect different concepts. For instance, the insight on page 212 helps students interpret z-scores by pointing out that z-scores that are less than -3 or greater than 3 are very unusual.DefinitionsThe critical definitions of statistics are set off with gold screens. In writing the definitions, we strived for two goalsâ€”simplicity and mathematical accuracy. Consequently, the formal definitions are often followed by studentfriendly guidelines that explain, in everyday English, how to apply the definition. For instance, see the definition of population standard deviation on page 70.GuidelinesThroughout the book, the presentation of a statistical formula is followed by a step-by-step set of guidelines for applying the formula. The guidelines are divided into two columns titled In Words and In Symbols. See page 70 for an example.Picturing the WorldEach section contains a real-life "mini case study" that illustrates the important concept or concepts of the section. Each Picturing the World concludes with a question, andcan be used for general class discussion or group work. For instance, the Picturing the World on page 88 asks students to interpret a boxand-whisker plot that represents the ages of U.S. presidents.Technology ExamplesMany sections contain a worked example that shows how technology can be used to calculate formulas, perform tests, or display data. For instance, Example 5 on page 72 shows how to use Minitab, Excel, and the TI-83 to find the mean and standard deviation of a data set. Note that this example shows thescreen displays within the presentation of the example. Additional screen displays are given at the ends of selected chapters. For instance, note the technology reference for Example 7 on page 50.Section Exercise SetsEach section concludes with a set of exercises carefully written to nurture student understanding and proficiency.Abundance of ExercisesThe text contains over 1700 exercises, more than twice the number of most introductory statistics books. Our goal is to provide instructors with a versatile teaching instrument that offers a wide range of exercises thatmove from basic concepts and skill development to more challenging and interpretive problems.Exercises are LabeledMost exercises arelabeled for easy reference. For instance, Exercises 9-12 on page 336 are labeled Graphical Analysis because students are asked to use the graphs provided to answer the questions.Paired FormatAlmost all exercises are given in"paired format"so that the odd-numbered exercise, whose answer is given in the back of the book, is paired with an even-numbered exercise, whose answer is not given. This paired format is commonly used in mathematics texts, but is less common in statistics texts.Extending the BasicsEach exercise set ends with a group of exercises called Extending the Basics. These exercises go beyond the material presented in the sectionâ€”they tend to be more challenging and are not required as prerequisites of subsequent sections.Answers and SolutionsThe answers to all odd-numbered exercises are given in the back of the book, and the worked-out solutions are available in theStudent's Solutions Manual.