Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics / Edition 11

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Overview

Updated throughout, this highly readable best-seller presents basic concepts and practical material in each of the areas fundamental to modern surveying (geomatics) practice. Its depth and breadth are ideal for self-study.

Includes a new Chapter 16 on Kinematic GPS. Features several new sections on machine control, localization of GPS surveys, and construction staking using GPS added to Chapters 16, 19, and 23. Moves Astronomical observations chapter to Appendix C to reflect that in recent years, kinematic GPS has replaced astronomical observations for position and azimuth.  Emphasizes total stations as the instruments for making angle and distance observations.

A useful reference for civil engineers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131481893
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 5/9/2005
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 11
  • Pages: 916
  • Product dimensions: 7.10 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

  1.1 Definition of Surveying

  1.2 Geomatics

  1.3 History of Surveying

  1.4 Geodetic and Plane Surveys

  1.5 Importance of Surveying

  1.6 Specialized Types of Surveys

  1.7 Surveying Safety

  1.8 Land and Geographic Information Systems

  1.9 Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies

  1.10 The Surveying Profession

  1.11 Professional Surveying Organizations

  1.12 Surveying on the Internet

  1.13 Future Challenges in Surveying

Problems

Bibliography

2 Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes

Part I Ï Units and Significant Figures

  2.1 Introduction

  2.2 Units of Measurement 25t

  2.3 International System of Units (SI)

  2.4 Significant Figures

  2.5 Rounding Off Numbers

Part II Ï Field Notes

  2.6 Field Notes

  2.7 General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes

  2.8 Types of Field Books

  2.9 Kinds of Notes

  2.10 Arrangements of Notes

  2.11 Suggestions for Recording Notes

  2.12 Introduction to Data Collectors

  2.13 Transfer of Files from Data Collectors

  2.14 Digital Data File Management

  2.15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Data Collectors

Problems

Bibliography

3 Theory of Errors in Observations

  3.1 Introduction

  3.2 Direct and Indirect Observations

  3.3 Errors in Measurements

  3.4 Mistakes

  3.5 Sources of Errors in Making Observations

  3.6 Types of Errors

  3.7 Precision and Accuracy

  3.8 Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors

  3.9 Probability

  3.10 Most Probable Value

  3.11 Residuals

  3.12 Occurrence of Random Errors

  3.13 General Laws of Probability

  3.14 Measures of Precision

  3.15 Interpretation of Standard Deviation

  3.16 The 50, 90, and 95 Percent Errors

  3.17 Error Propagation

3.17.1 Error of a Sum

3.17.2 Error of a Series

3.17.3 Error in a Product

3.17.4 Error in the Mean

  3.18 Applications

  3.19 Conditional Adjustment of Observations

  3.20 Weights of Observations

  3.21 Least-Squares Adjustment

Problems

Bibliography

4 Leveling–Theory, Methods, and Equipment

Part I Ï Leveling–Theory and Methods

  4.1 Introduction

  4.2 Definitions

  4.3 North American Vertical Datum

  4.4 Curvature and Refraction

  4.5 Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation

4.5.1 Measuring Vertical Distances by Taping or Electronic Methods

4.5.2 Differential Leveling

4.5.3 Barometric Leveling

4.5.4 Trigonometric Leveling

Part II Ï Equipment for Differential Leveling

  4.6 Categories of Levels

  4.7 Telescopes

  4.8 Level Vials

  4.9 Tilting Levels

  4.10 Automatic Levels

  4.11 Digital Levels

  4.12 Tripods

  4.13 Hand Level

  4.14 Level Rods

  4.15 Testing and Adjusting Levels

4.15.1 Requirements for Testing and Adjusting Instruments

4.15.2 Adjusting for Parallax

4.15.3 Testing and Adjusting Level Vials

4.15.4 Preliminary Adjustment of the Horizontal Cross Hair

4.15.5 Testing and Adjusting the Line of Sight

Problems

Bibliography

5 Leveling—Field Procedures and Computations

  5.1 Introduction

  5.2 Carrying and Setting Up a Level

  5.3 Duties of a Rodperson

  5.4 Differential Leveling

  5.5 Precision

  5.6 Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits

  5.7 Reciprocal Leveling

  5.8 Three-Wire Leveling

  5.9 Profile Leveling

5.9.1 Staking and Stationing the Reference Line

5.9.2 Field Procedures for Profile Leveling

5.9.3 Drawing and Using the Profile

  5.10 Grid, Cross-Section, or Borrow-Pit Leveling

  5.11 Use of the Hand Level

  5.12 Sources of Error in Leveling

5.12.1 Instrumental Errors

5.12.2 Natural Errors

5.12.3 Personal Errors

  5.13 Mistakes

  5.14 Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

6 Distance Measurement

Part I Ï Methods for Measuring Distances

  6.1 Introduction

  6.2 Summary of Methods for Making Linear Measurements

  6.3 Pacing

  6.4 Odometer Readings

  6.5 Optical Rangefinders

  6.6 Tacheometry

  6.7 Subtense Bar

Part II Ï Distance Measurements by Taping

  6.8 Introduction to Taping

  6.9 Taping Equipment and Accessories

  6.10 Care of Taping Equipment

  6.11 Taping on Level Ground

6.11.1 Lining In

6.11.2 Applying Tension

6.11.3 Plumbing

6.11.4 Marking Tape Lengths

6.11.5 Reading the Tape

6.11.6 Recording the Distance

  6.12 Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground

  6.13 Slope Measurements

  6.14 Sources of Error in Taping

6.14.1 Incorrect Length of Tape

6.14.2 Temperature Other Than Standard

6.14.3 Inconsistent Pull

6.14.4 Sag

6.14.5 Tape Not Horizontal and Tape Off-Line

6.14.6 Improper Plumbing

6.14.7 Faulty Marking

6.14.8 Incorrect Reading or Interpolation

6.14.9 Summary of Effects of Taping Errors

  6.15 Tape Problems

  6.16 Combined Corrections in a Taping Problem

Part II Ï Electronic Distance Measurement

  6.17 Introduction

  6.18 Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy

  6.19 Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement

  6.20 Electro-Optical Instruments

  6.21 Total Station Instruments

  6.22 EDM Instruments Without Reflectors

  6.23 Computing Horizontal Lengths From Slope Distances

6.23.1 Reduction of Short Lines by Elevation Differences

6.23.2 Reduction of Short Lines by Zenith or Altitude Angle

  6.24 Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement

6.24.1 Personal Errors

6.24.2 Instrumental Errors

6.24.3 Natural Errors

Problems

Bibliography

7 Angles, Azimuths, and Bearings

  7.1 Introduction

  7.2 Units of Angle Measurement

  7.3 Kinds of Horizontal Angles

  7.4 Direction of a Line

  7.5 Azimuths

  7.6 Bearings

  7.7 Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings

  7.8 Computing Azimuths

  7.9 Computing Bearings

  7.10 The Compass and The Earth’s Magnetic Field

  7.11 Magnetic Declination

  7.12 Variations in Magnetic Declination

  7.13 Software for Determining Magnetic Declination

  7.14 Local Attraction

  7.15 Typical Magnetic Declination Problems

  7.16 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

8 Total Station Instruments: Angle Measurements

Part I Ï Total Station Instruments

  8.1 Introduction

  8.2 Characteristics of Total Station Instruments

  8.3 Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments

  8.4 Parts of a Total Station Instrument

  8.5 Handling and Setting Up a Total Station Instrument

  8.6 Servo-Driven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments

Part II Ï Angle Measurements

  8.7 Relationship of Angles and Distances

  8.8 Observing Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments

  8.9 Observing Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method

  8.10 Closing the Horizon

  8.11 Observing Deflection Angles

  8.12 Observing Azimuths

  8.13 Observing Vertical Angles

  8.14 Sights and Marks

  8.15 Prolonging a Straight Line

  8.16 Balancing-In

  8.17 Random Traverse

  8.18 Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences

  8.19 Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and Their Accessories

8.19.1 Adjustment of Plate-Level Vials

8.19.2 Adjustment of Tripods

8.19.3 Adjustment of Tribrachs

8.19.4 Adjustment of Optical Plummets

8.19.5 Adjustment of Circular Level Bubbles

  8.20 Sources of Error in Total Station Work

8.20.1 Instrumental Errors

8.20.2 Natural Errors

8.20.3 Personal Errors

  8.21 Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Observations

  8.22 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

9 Traversing

  9.1 Introduction

  9.2 Observation of Traverse Angles or Directions

9.2.1 Traversing by Interior Angles

9.2.2 Traversing by Angles to the Right

9.2.3 Traversing by Deflection Angles

9.2.4 Traversing by Azimuths

  9.3 Observation of Traverse Lengths

  9.4 Selection of Traverse Stations

  9.5 Referencing Traverse Stations

  9.6 Traverse Field Notes

  9.7 Angle Misclosure

  9.8 Traversing with Total Station Instruments

  9.9 Radial Traversing

  9.10 Sources of Error in Traversing

  9.11 Mistakes in Traversing

Problems

10 Traverse Computations

  10.1 Introduction

  10.2 Balancing Angles

  10.3 Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings

  10.4 Departures and Latitudes

  10.5 Departure and Latitude Closure Conditions

  10.6 Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision

  10.7 Traverse Adjustment

10.7.1 Compass (Bowditch) Rule

10.7.2 Least-Squares Method

  10.8 Rectangular Coordinates

  10.9 Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations

10.9.1 Balancing Angles by Adjusting Azimuths or Bearings

10.9.2 Balancing Departures and Latitudes by Adjusting Coordinates

  10.10 Lengths and Directions of Lines from Departures and Latitudes or Coordinates

  10.11 Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions

  10.12 Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys

  10.13 Use of Open Traverses

  10.14 State Plane Coordinate Systems

  10.15 Traverse Computations Using Computers

  10.16 Locating Blunders in Traverse Measurements

  10.17 Mistakes in Traverse Computations

Problems

Bibliography

11 Coordinate Geometry in Surveying Calculations

  11.1 Introduction

  11.2 Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles

  11.3 Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line

  11.4 Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions

  11.5 Intersection of a Line with a Circle

  11.6 Intersection of Two Circles

  11.7 Three-Point Resection

  11.8 Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation

  11.9 Inaccessible Point Problem

  11.10 Three-Dimensional Two-Point Resection

  11.11 Conclusions

Problems

Bibliography

12 Area

  12.1 Introduction

  12.2 Methods of Measuring Area

  12.3 Area by Division into Simple Figures

  12.4 Area by Offsets from Straight Lines

12.4.1 Regularly Spaced Offsets

12.4.2 Irregularly Spaced Offsets

  12.5 Area by Coordinates

  12.6 Area by Double Meridian Distance Method

  12.7 Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries

  12.8 Partitioning of Lands

12.8.1 Trial and Error Method

12.8.2 Use of Simple Geometric Figures

12.8.3 Coordinate Method

  12.9 Area by Measurements from Maps

12.9.1 Area by Counting Coordinate Squares

12.9.2 Area by Scaled Lengths

12.9.3 Area by Digitizing Coordinates

12.9.4 Area by Planimeter

  12.10 Sources of Error in Determining Areas

  12.11 Mistakes in Determining Areas

Problems

Bibliography

13 The Global Positioning System–Introduction and Principles of Operation

  13.1 Introduction

  13.2 Overview of GPS

  13.3 The GPS Signal

  13.4 Reference Coordinate Systems for GPS

13.4.1 The Satellite Reference Coordinate System

13.4.2 The Geocentric Coordinate System

13.4.3 The Geodetic Coordinate System

  13.5 Fundamentals of GPS Positioning

13.5.1 Code Ranging

13.5.2 Carrier Phase-Shift Measurements

  13.6 Errors in GPS Observations

13.6.1 Clock Bias

13.6.2 Refraction

13.6.3 Other Error Sources

13.6.4 Geometry of Observed Satellites

13.6.5 Selective Availability

  13.7 Differential GPS

  13.8 Kinematic GPS Methods

  13.9 Relative Positioning

13.9.1 Single Differencing

13.9.2 Double Differencing

13.9.3 Triple Differencing

  13.10 Other Satellite Navigation Systems

13.10.1 The GLONASS Constellation

13.10.2 Galileo System

13.10.3 Compass

  13.11 The Future

Problems

Bibliography

14 The Global Positioning System–Static surveys

  14.1 Introduction

  14.2 Field Procedures in GPS Surveys

14.2.1 Static Relative Positioning

14.2.2 Rapid Static Relative Positioning

14.2.3 Pseudokinematic Surveys

14.2.4 Kinematic Surveys

  14.3 Planning GPS Surveys

14.3.1 Preliminary Considerations

14.3.2 Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method

14.3.3 Field Reconnaissance

14.3.4 Developing an Observation Scheme

14.3.5 Availability of Reference Stations

  14.4 Performing Static GPS Surveys

  14.5 Data Processing and Analysis

14.5.1 Specifications for GPS Surveys

14.5.2 Analysis of Fixed Baseline Measurements

14.5.3 Analysis of Repeat Baseline Measurements

14.5.4 Analysis of Loop Closures

14.5.5 Baseline Network Adjustment

14.5.6 The Survey Report

  14.6 Sources of Errors in GPS Work

14.6.1 Instrumental Errors

14.6.2 Natural Errors

14.6.3 Personal Errors

  14.7 Mistakes in GPS Work

  14.8 Future Outlook for GPS

Problems

Bibliography

15 The Global Positioning System–Kinematic GPS

  15.1 Introduction

  15.2 Initialization

  15.3 Equipment Used in Kinematic Surveys

  15.4 Methods Used in Kinematic Surveys

  15.5 Performing Post-Processed Kinematic Surveys

  15.6 Communication in Real-Time Kinematic Surveys

  15.7 Real-Time Networks

  15.8 Performing Real-Time Kinematic Surveys

  15.9 Machine Control

  15.10 Errors in Kinematic Surveys

  15.11 Mistakes in Kinematic Surveys

Problems

Bibliography

16 Adjustments by Least Squares

  16.1 Introduction

  16.2 Fundamental Condition of Least Squares

  16.3 Least-Squares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method

  16.4 Matrix Methods in Least-Squares Adjustment

  16.5 Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities

  16.6 Least-Squares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits

  16.7 Propagation of Errors

  16.8 Least-Squares Adjustment of GPS Baseline Vectors

  16.9 Least-Squares Adjustment of Traditional Horizontal Plane Surveys

16.9.1 Linearizing Nonlinear Equations

16.9.2 The Distance Observation Equation

16.9.3 The Azimuth Observation Equation

16.9.4 The Angle Observation Equation

16.9.5 A Traverse Example Using WOLFPACK

  16.10 Error Ellipses

  16.11 Adjustment Procedures

  16.12 Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations

  16.13 Conclusions

Problems

Bibliography

17 Mapping Surveys

  17.1 Introduction

  17.2 Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys

  17.3 Map Scale

  17.4 Control for Mapping Surveys

  17.5 Contours

  17.6 Characteristics of Contours

  17.7 Direct and Indirect Methods of Locating Contours

17.7.1 Direct Method

17.7.2 Indirect Method

  17.8 Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems

  17.9 Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details

17.9.1 Radiation by Total Station

17.9.2 Radiation by Stadia

17.9.3 Coordinate Squares or “Grid” Method

17.9.4 Offsets from a Reference Line

17.9.5 Topographic Detailing with GPS

17.9.6 Laser-Scanning

  17.10 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation

  17.11 Selection of Field Method

  17.12 Working with Data Collectors and Field-to-Finish Software

  17.13 Hydrographic Surveys

17.13.1 Equipment for Making Soundings

17.13.2 Locating Soundings

17.13.3 Hydrographic Mapping

  17.14 Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys

  17.15 Mistakes in Mapping Surveys

Problems

Bibliography

18 Mapping

  18.1 Introduction

  18.2 Availability of Maps and Related Information

  18.3 National Mapping Program

  18.4 Accuracy Standards for Mapping

  18.5 Manual and Computer-Aided Drafting Procedures

  18.6 Map Design

  18.7 Map Layout

  18.8 Basic Map Plotting Procedures

18.8.1 Manually Plotting by Coordinates

18.8.2 Plotting Using CADD

  18.9 Contour Interval

  18.10 Plotting Contours

  18.11 Lettering

  18.12 Cartographic Map Elements

  18.13 Drafting Materials

  18.14 Automated Mapping and Computer-Aided Drafting Systems

  18.15 Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping

  18.16 Sources of Error in Mapping

  18.17 Mistakes in Mapping

Problems

Bibliography

19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions

  19.1 Introduction

  19.2 The Ellipsoid and Geoid

  19.3 The Conventional Terrestrial Pole

  19.4 Geodetic Position and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature

  19.5 Geoid Undulation and Deflection of The Vertical

  19.6 U.S. Reference Frames

19.6.1 North American Horizontal Datum of 1927 (NAD27)

19.6.2 North American Horizontal Datum of 1983 (NAD83)

19.6.3 Later Versions of NAD83

19.6.4 National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD29)

19.6.5 North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88)

19.6.6 Transforming Coordinates between Reference Frames

  19.7 Accuracy Standards and Specifications For Control Surveys

  19.8 The National Spatial Reference System

  19.9 Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network

  19.10 Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network

  19.11 Control Point Descriptions

  19.12 Field Procedures For Traditional Horizontal Control Surveys

19.12.1 Triangulation

19.12.2 Precise Traverse

19.12.3 Trilateration

19.12.4 Combined Networks

  19.13 Field Procedures for Vertical Control Surveys

  19.14 Reduction of Field Observations to Their Geodetic Values

19.14.1 Reduction of Distance Observations Using Elevations

19.14.2 Reduction of Distance Observations Using Vertical Angles

19.14.3 Reduction of Directions and Angles

19.14.4 Leveling and Orthometric Heights

  19.15 Geodetic Position Computations

19.15.1 Direct Geodetic Problem

19.15.2 Inverse Geodetic Problem

  19.16 The Local Geodetic Coordinate System

  19.17 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Computations

  19.18 Conclusions

Problems

Bibliography

20 State Plane Coordinates

  20.1 Introduction

  20.2 Projections Used in State Plane Coordinate Systems

  20.3 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection

  20.4 Transverse Mercator Projection

  20.5 State Plane Coordinates in NAD27 and NAD83

  20.6 Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal Conic System

20.6.1 Zone Constants

20.6.2 The Direct Problem

20.6.3 The Inverse Problem

  20.7 Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System

20.7.1 Zone Constants

20.7.2 The Direct Problem

20.7.2 The Inverse Problem

  20.8 Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids

20.8.1 Grid Reduction of Distances

20.8.2 Grid Reduction of Azimuths and Angles

  20.9 Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations

  20.10 Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another

  20.11 Conversions between SPCS27 and SPCS83

  20.12 The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection

  20.13 Other Map Projections

20.13.1 Oblique Stereographic Map Projection

20.13.2 Oblique Mercator Map Projection

Problems

Bibliography

21 Boundary Surveys

  21.1 Introduction

  21.2 Categories of Land Surveys

  21.3 Historical Perspectives

  21.4 Property Description by Metes and Bounds

  21.5 Property Description by Block and Lot System

  21.6 Property Description by Coordinates

  21.7 Retracement Surveys

  21.8 Subdivision Surveys

  21.9 Partitioning Land

  21.10 Registration of Title

  21.11 Adverse Possession and Easements

  21.12 Condominium Surveys

  21.13 Geographic and Land Information Systems

  21.14 Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys

  21.15 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

22 Surveys of the Public Lands

  22.1 Introduction

  22.2 Instructions for Surveys of the Public Lands

  22.3 Initial Point

  22.4 Principal Meridian

  22.5 Baseline

  22.6 Standard Parallels (Correction Lines)

  22.7 Guide Meridians

  22.8 Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines

  22.9 Designation of Townships

  22.10 Subdivision of a Quadrangle Into Townships

  22.11 Subdivision of a Township Into Sections

  22.12 Subdivision of Sections

  22.13 Fractional Sections

  22.14 Notes

  22.15 Outline of Subdivision Steps

  22.16 Marking Corners

  22.17 Witness Corners

  22.18 Meander Corners

  22.19 Lost and Obliterated Corners

  22.20 Accuracy of Public Lands Surveys

  22.21 Descriptions by Township Section and Smaller Subdivision

  22.22 BLM Land Information System

  22.23 Sources of Error

  22.24 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

23 Construction Surveys

  23.1 Introduction

  23.2 Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys

23.2.1 Visible Laser-Beam Instruments

23.2.2 Reflectorless Total Stations

  23.3 Horizontal and Vertical Control

  23.4 Staking Out A Pipeline

  23.5 Staking Pipeline Grades

  23.6 Staking Out a Building

  23.7 Staking Out Highways

  23.8 Other Construction Surveys

  23.9 Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments

  23.10 Construction Surveys Using GPS Equipment

  23.11 Machine Control

  23.12 As-Built Surveys with Laser Scanning

  23.13 Sources of Error in Construction Surveys

  23.14 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

24 Horizontal Curves

  24.1 Introduction

  24.2 Degree of Circular Curve

  24.3 Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas

  24.4 Circular Curve Stationing

  24.5 General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles

  24.6 Computing Deflection Angles and Chords

  24.7 Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords

  24.8 Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords

  24.9 Setups on Curve

  24.10 Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords

  24.11 Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords

  24.12 Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve

  24.13 Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates

  24.14 Curve Stakeout Using GPS and Robotic Total Stations

  24.15 Circular Curve Layout by Offsets

  24.16 Special Circular Curve Problems

24.16.1 Passing a Circular Curve through a Fixed Point

24.16.2 Intersection of a Circular Curve and a Straight Line

24.16.3 Intersection of Two Circular Curves

  24.17 Compound and Reverse Curves

  24.18 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves

  24.19 Spirals

24.19.1 Spiral Geometry

24.19.2 Spiral Calculation and Layout

  24.20 Computation of “As-Built” Circular Alignments

  24.21 Sources of Error in Laying Out Circular Curves

  24.22 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

25 Vertical Curves

  25.1 Introduction

  25.2 General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve

  25.3 Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve

  25.4 High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve

  25.5 Vertical Curve Computations Using the Tangent Offset Equation

25.5.1 Example Computations Using the English System of Units

25.5.2 Example Computations Using the Metric System

  25.6 Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola

  25.7 Curve Computations by Proportion

  25.8 Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve

  25.9 Machine Control in Grading Operations

  25.10 Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve

  25.11 Designing a Curve to Pass through a Fixed Point

  25.12 Sight Distance

  25.13 Sources of Error in Laying Out Vertical Curves

  25.14 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

26 Volumes

  26.1 Introduction

  26.2 Methods of Volume Measurement

  26.3 The Cross-Section Method

  26.4 Types of Cross Sections

  26.5 Average End Area Formula

  26.6 Determining End Areas

26.6.1 End Areas by Simple Figures

26.6.2 End Areas by Coordinates

  26.7 Computing Slope Intercepts

  26.8 Prismoidal Formula

  26.9 Volume Computations

  26.10 Unit-Area, or Borrow-Pit, Method

  26.11 Contour-Area Method

  26.12 Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge

  26.13 Sources of Error in Determining Volumes

  26.14 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

27 Photogrammetry

  27.1 Introduction

  27.2 Uses of Photogrammetry

  27.3 Aerial Cameras

  27.4 Types of Aerial Photographs

  27.5 Vertical Aerial Photographs

  27.6 Scale of a Vertical Photograph

  27.7 Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph

  27.8 Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph

  27.9 Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph

  27.10 Stereoscopic Parallax

  27.11 Stereoscopic Viewing

  27.12 Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax

  27.13 Analytical Photogrammetry

  27.14 Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments

27.14.1 Direct Optical Projection Stereoplotters

27.14.2 Mechanical Projection Stereoplotters

27.14.3 Analytical Stereoplotters

27.14.4 Softcopy Stereoplotters

  27.15 Orthophotos

  27.16 Ground Control for Photogrammetry

  27.17 Flight Planning

  27.19 Airborne Laser-Mapping Systems

  27.20 Remote Sensing

  27.21 Sources of Error in Photogrammetry

  27.22 Mistakes

Problems

Bibliography

28 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems

  28.1 Introduction

  28.2 Land Information Systems

  28.3 GIS Data Sources and Classifications

  28.4 Spatial Data

28.4.1 Simple Spatial Objects

28.4.2 Vector and Raster Formats

28.4.3 Topology

  28.5 Nonspatial Data

  28.6 Data Format Conversions

28.6.1 Vector-to-Raster Conversion

28.6.2 Raster-to-Vector Conversion

  28.7 Creating GIS Databases

28.7.1 Generating Digital Data from Field Surveys

28.7.2 Digitizing from Aerial Photos with Stereoplotters

28.7.3 Digitizing Existing Graphic Materials

29.7.4 Keyboard Entry

29.7.5 Existing Digital Data Sets

29.7.6 Scanning

  28.8 Metadata

  28.9 GIS Analytical Functions

28.9.1 Proximity Analysis

28.9.2 Boundary Operations

28.9.3 Spatial Joins

28.9.4 Logical Operations

28.9.5 Other GIS Functions

  28.10 GIS Applications

Problems

Bibliography

A Dumpy Levels, Transits, and Theodolites

  A.1 Introduction

  A.2 The Dumpy Level

  A.3 Introduction to the Transit and Theodolite

  A.4 The Transit

A.4.1 Parts of a Transit

A.4.2 Circle Scales and Verniers

A.4.3 Properties of the Transit

A.4.4 Handling, Setting up, and using a Transit

  A.5 The Theodolite

A.5.1 Characteristics of Theodolites

A.5.2 Repeating Theodolites

A.5.3 Directional Theodolites

A.5.4 Handling, Setting Up, and Using a Theodolite

B Example Noteforms

C Astronomical Observations

  C.1 Introduction

  C.2 Overview of Usual Procedures for Astronomical Azimuth Determination

  C.3 Ephemerides

  C.4 Definitions

  C.5 Time

  C.6 Timing Observations

  C.7 Computations for Azimuth from Polaris Observations by the Hour Angle Method

  C.8 Azimuth from Solar Observations

D Using the Worksheets on the Companion Disk

  D.1 Introduction

  D.2 Using the Files

  D.3 Using the Worksheets as an Aid in Learning

E Introduction to Matrices

  E.1 Introduction

  E.2 Definition of a Matrix

  E.3 The Dimensions of a Marix

  E.4 The Transpose of a Matrix

  E.5 Matrix Addition

  E.6 Matrix Multiplication

  E.7 Matrix Inverse

F U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters

  F.1 Introduction

  F.2 Defining Parameters for States Using the Lambert Conformal Conic Map Projection

  F.3 Defining Parameters for States Using the Transverse Mercator Map Projection

G Answers to Selected Problems

Index

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