Embedded Multiprocessors: Scheduling and Synchronization

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Embedded Multiprocessors Scheduling and Synchronization Series Volume: 3 This item is part of the Signal Processing and Communications series. Application-specific, embedded multiprocessors are increasingly found today in high- performance communications and multimedia systems such as cellular phones and base stations, high-speed modems, set-top boxes, and switches in high-speed networks. Systematic design and analysis of such embedded multiprocessors is becoming a very important research area in industry and ...
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Overview

Embedded Multiprocessors Scheduling and Synchronization Series Volume: 3 This item is part of the Signal Processing and Communications series. Application-specific, embedded multiprocessors are increasingly found today in high- performance communications and multimedia systems such as cellular phones and base stations, high-speed modems, set-top boxes, and switches in high-speed networks. Systematic design and analysis of such embedded multiprocessors is becoming a very important research area in industry and academia. This book focuses on the incorporation of interprocessor communication costs into multiprocessor scheduling decisions, modeling and analysis of multiprocessor system performance, and the application of the synchronization graph model to the development of hardware and software that can significantly reduce interprocessor communication overhead. Embedded Multiprocessors is a one-of-a-kind single-source reference indispensable for electrical and electronics, computer, communications, signal processing, and microprocessing engineers, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
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Editorial Reviews

Edward A. Lee
From the Foreword....The intellectual content in this book is high. While some of the methods it describes are relatively simple, most are quite sophisticated. Yet examples are given that concretely demonstrate how these concepts can be applied in practical hardware architectures. Moreover, there is very little overlap with other books on parallel processing. The focus on application-specific processors and their use in embedded systems leads to a rather different set of techniques. I believe that this book defines a new discipline. It gives a systematic approach to problems that engineers have been able to face only in an ad hoc way before.
Booknews
Reviewing their own research and that of others related to implementing multiprocessors in multimedia systems, Sriram, a researcher in the computer industry, and Bhattacharyya (electrical and computer engineering, U. of Maryland-College Park) focus on three areas and reveal synergies between efforts in them. The are incorporating interprocessor communications costs into multiprocessor scheduling decisions; a modeling methodology, called the synchronization graph, for analyzing multiprocessor system performance; and applying the synchronization graph model to the development of hardware and software optimizations that can significantly reduce the interprocessor communication overhead of a given schedule. They also present a unified framework for applying arbitrary scheduling strategies in conjunction with the application of alternative optimization algorithms that address specific subproblems associated with implementing a given schedule. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780824793180
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 1/1/2000
  • Series: Signal Processing and Communications Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 352
  • Product dimensions: 6.24 (w) x 9.06 (h) x 0.84 (d)

Table of Contents

Series Introduction v
Foreword vii
Preface xi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Multiprocessor DSP systems 2
1.2 Application-specific multiprocessors 4
1.3 Exploitation of parallelism 5
1.4 Dataflow modeling for DSP design 6
1.5 Utility of dataflow for DSP 9
1.6 Overview 11
2 Application-Specific Multiprocessors 13
2.1 Parallel architecture classifications 13
2.2 Exploiting instruction level parallelism 15
2.2.1 ILP in programmable DSP processors 15
2.2.2 Sub-word parallelism 17
2.2.3 VLIW processors 18
2.3 Dataflow DSP architectures 19
2.4 Systolic and wavefront arrays 20
2.5 Multiprocessor DSP architectures 21
2.6 Single chip multiprocessors 23
2.7 Reconfigurable computing 25
2.8 Architectures that exploit predictable IPC 27
2.9 Summary 29
3 Background Terminology and Notation 31
3.1 Graph data structures 31
3.2 Dataflow graphs 32
3.3 Computation graphs 32
3.4 Petri nets 33
3.5 Synchronous dataflow 34
3.6 Analytical properties of SDF graphs 35
3.7 Converting a general SDF graph into a homogeneous SDF graph 36
3.8 Acyclic precedence expansion graph 38
3.9 Application graph 41
3.10 Synchronous languages 42
3.11 HSDFG concepts and notations 43
3.12 Complexity of algorithms 45
3.13 Shortest and longest paths in graphs 47
3.13.1 Dijkstra's algorithm 48
3.13.2 The Bellman-Ford algorithm 48
3.13.3 The Floyd-Warshall algorithm 49
3.14 Solving difference constraints using shortest paths 50
3.15 Maximum cycle mean 53
3.16 Summary 53
4 Mul Tiprocessor Scheduling Models 55
4.1 Task-level parallelism and data parallelism 55
4.2 Static versus dynamic scheduling strategies 56
4.3 Fully-static schedules 57
4.4 Self-timed schedules 62
4.5 Dynamic schedules 64
4.6 Quasi-static schedules 65
4.7 Schedule notation 67
4.8 Unfolding HSDF graphs 69
4.9 Execution time estimates and static schedules 72
4.10 Summary 74
5 IPC-Conscious Scheduling Algorithms 75
5.1 Problem description 75
5.2 Stone's assignment algorithm 76
5.3 List scheduling algorithms 80
5.3.1 Graham's bounds 81
5.3.2 The basic algorithms -- HLFET and ETF 84
5.3.3 The mapping heuristic 84
5.3.4 Dynamic level scheduling 85
5.3.5 Dynamic critical path scheduling 86
5.4 Clustering algorithms 87
5.4.1 Linear clustering 88
5.4.2 Internalization 89
5.4.3 Dominant sequence clustering 89
5.4.4 Declustering 91
5.5 Integrated scheduling algorithms 92
5.6 Pipelined scheduling 94
5.7 Summary 100
6 The Ordered-Transactions Strategy 101
6.1 The ordered-transactions strategy 101
6.2 Shared bus architecture 104
6.3 Interprocessor communication mechanisms 104
6.4 Using the ordered-transactions approach 107
6.5 Design of an ordered memory access multiprocessor 108
6.5.1 High level design description 108
6.5.2 A modified design 109
6.6 Design details of a prototype 112
6.6.1 Top level design 112
6.6.2 Transaction order controller 114
6.6.3 Host interface 118
6.6.4 Processing element 121
6.6.5 FPGA circuitry 122
6.6.6 Shared memory 123
6.6.7 Connecting multiple boards 123
6.7 Hardware and software implementation 125
6.7.1 Board design 125
6.7.2 Software interface 125
6.8 Ordered I/O and parameter control 128
6.9 Application examples 129
6.9.1 Music synthesis 129
6.9.2 QMF filter bank 131
6.9.3 1024 point complex Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 132
6.10 Summary 134
7 Analysis of the Ordered-Transactions Strategy 135
7.1 Inter-processor communication graph (G[subscript ipc]) 138
7.2 Execution time estimates 143
7.3 Ordering constraints viewed as edges added to G[subscript ipc] 144
7.4 Periodicity 145
7.5 Optimal order 146
7.6 Effects of changes in execution times 149
7.6.1 Deterministic case 150
7.6.2 Modeling run-time variations in execution times 151
7.6.3 Bounds on the average iteration period 154
7.6.4 Implications for the ordered transactions schedule 155
7.7 Summary 157
8 Extending the Oma Architecture 159
8.1 The Boolean dataflow model 159
8.1.1 Scheduling 160
8.2 Parallel implementation on shared memory machines 163
8.2.1 General strategy 163
8.2.2 Implementation on the OMA 165
8.2.3 Improved mechanism 169
8.2.4 Generating the annotated bus access list 171
8.3 Data-dependent iteration 174
8.4 Summary 175
9 Synchronization in Self-Timed Systems 177
9.1 The barrier MIMD technique 178
9.2 Redundant synchronization removal in non-iterative dataflow 179
9.3 Analysis of self-timed execution 182
9.3.1 Estimated throughput 182
9.4 Strongly connected components and buffer size bounds 182
9.5 Synchronization model 185
9.5.1 Synchronization protocols 185
9.5.2 The synchronization graph G[subscript s] 187
9.6 A synchronization cost metric 190
9.7 Removing redundant synchronizations 191
9.7.1 The independence of redundant synchronizations 192
9.7.2 Removing redundant synchronizations 193
9.7.3 Comparison with Shaffer's approach 195
9.7.4 An example 195
9.8 Making the synchronization graph strongly connected 197
9.8.1 Adding edges to the synchronization graph 199
9.9 Insertion of delays 201
9.9.1 Analysis of DetermineDelays 205
9.9.2 Delay insertion example 207
9.9.3 Extending the algorithm 208
9.9.4 Complexity 210
9.9.5 Related work 210
9.10 Summary 211
10 Resynchronization 213
10.1 Definition of resynchronization 213
10.2 Properties of resynchronization 215
10.3 Relationship to set covering 218
10.4 Intractability of resynchronization 221
10.5 Heuristic solutions 224
10.5.1 Applying set-covering techniques to pairs of SCCs 224
10.5.2 A more flexible approach 225
10.5.3 Unit-subsumption resynchronization edges 231
10.5.4 Example 234
10.5.5 Simulation approach 236
10.6 Chainable synchronization graphs 236
10.6.1 Chainable synchronization graph SCCs 237
10.6.2 Comparison to the Global-Resynchronize heuristic 239
10.6.3 A generalization of the chaining technique 240
10.6.4 Incorporating the chaining technique 242
10.7 Resynchronization of constraint graphs for relative scheduling 242
10.8 Summary 243
11 Latency-Constrained Resynchronization 245
11.1 Elimination of synchronization edges 246
11.2 Latency-constrained resynchronization 248
11.3 Intractability of LCR 253
11.4 Two-processor systems 260
11.4.1 Interval covering 261
11.4.2 Two-processor latency-constrained resynchronization 262
11.4.3 Taking delays into account 266
11.5 A heuristic for general synchronization graphs 276
11.5.1 Customization to transparent synchronization graphs 278
11.5.2 Complexity 278
11.5.3 Example 280
11.6 Summary 286
12 Integrated Synchronization Optimization 291
12.1 Computing buffer sizes 291
12.2 A framework for self-timed implementation 292
12.3 Summary 294
13 Future Research Directions 297
Bibliography 301
Index 321
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