EMC for Product Designers / Edition 3

EMC for Product Designers / Edition 3

by Tim Williams
     
 

ISBN-10: 0750649305

ISBN-13: 9780750649308

Pub. Date: 05/28/2001

Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books

Widely regarded as the standard text on EMC, Tim Williams' book provides all the key information needed to meet the requirements of the latest EMC Directive. Most importantly, it shows how to incorporate EMC principles into the product design process, avoiding cost and performance penalties, meeting the needs of specific standards and resulting in a better overall

Overview

Widely regarded as the standard text on EMC, Tim Williams' book provides all the key information needed to meet the requirements of the latest EMC Directive. Most importantly, it shows how to incorporate EMC principles into the product design process, avoiding cost and performance penalties, meeting the needs of specific standards and resulting in a better overall product. As well as covering the new version of the EMC Directive, the fourth edition has been thoroughly updated in line with the latest best practice in EMC compliance and product design. Coverage has been considerably expanded to include the R&TTE and Automotive EMC Directives, as well as the main automotive, military and aerospace standards. New chapters on test planning and systems EMC are included, while short case studies demonstrate how EMC product design is put into practice.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780750649308
Publisher:
Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date:
05/28/2001
Pages:
352
Product dimensions:
9.30(w) x 6.10(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents


Preface     xi
Legislation and standards
Introduction     1
What is EMC?     1
Portable electronic devices in aircraft     2
Interference to medical devices     3
Thermostats     6
The quacking duck     6
Compatibility between and within systems     7
Intra-system EMC     7
Inter-system EMC     7
When intra-system meets inter-system     8
The scope of EMC     8
Malfunction of control systems     8
Immunity of data and programme processing     9
Interference with radio reception     10
Disturbances of the mains supply     13
Power line telecoms     14
Other EMC issues     18
The compatibility gap     19
Electromagnetic fields and human health     20
ICNIRP basic restrictions     20
Athermal effects     22
The EMC Directive     23
History     23
The New Approach Directives     23
Background to the legislation     24
The first EMC Directive     24
The second EMC Directive     26
What changes?     27
Scope, requirements and exceptions     27
The CE mark and the paperwork     31
Manufacturing quality assessment     35
Fixed installations     36
Systems     41
Implementation, enforcement and sanctions     41
Compliance of apparatus with the Directive     43
Self certification and internal production control     44
The notified body     46
Testing     48
Using standards     48
Action for compliance for a product manufacturer     52
The R&TTE Directive     54
The implementation of the R&TTE Directive     54
Scope     55
Requirements     56
The process of conformity assessment     57
Procedures     58
Classes of radio transmitter     60
Notification     62
Information requirements     63
Marking of equipment and documentation     64
Commercial standards     65
The standards making bodies     65
The International Electrotechnical Commission     65
CENELEC and ETSI     70
Generic standards - emissions     74
EN 61000-6-3: 2001 + A11: 2004      74
EN 61000-6-4: 2001     75
Main product standards: emissions     75
EN 55011: 1998 + A1: 1999 + A2: 2002     75
EN 55014-1: 2000 + A1: 2001 + A2: 2002     76
EN 55022: 1998 + A1: 2000 + A2: 2003     77
Generic standards - immunity     78
EN 61000-6-1: 2001     78
EN 61000-6-2: 2005     79
Basic Standards - EN 61000-3-X and -4-X     79
EN 61000-3-X     80
EN 61000-4-X     81
Product standards     85
Broadcast receivers and associated equipment     86
Household appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus     87
Lighting equipment     88
Information technology equipment     89
Professional AV and entertainment lighting equipment     89
Equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use     90
Fire, intruder and social alarm systems     91
Telecommunication network equipment     91
Radio equipment     92
Marine navigation equipment     93
Medical electrical equipment     93
Future multi-media     94
Other product standards     95
Other Standards not related to the EMC Directive     96
FCC Rules     96
Measurement standards     98
RF emissions limits     98
Other standards and legislation     100
Automotive     100
The Automotive EMC Directive     100
ISO, CISPR and SAE standards     102
Vehicle manufacturers     10
Specialist requirements     105
Military     106
DEF STAN 59-41     102
MIL STD 461     109
Aerospace     111
DO-160/ED-14     111
Rail     113
Railway Group Standards     113
London Underground standards     115
EN 50121     115
Testing
RF emissions measurements     118
Emissions measuring instruments     118
Measuring receiver     118
Spectrum analyser     119
Receiver specifications     121
Transducers     126
Antennas for radiated field     127
LISNs and probes for cable measurements     131
Near field probes     139
The GTEM for emissions tests     140
Sites and facilities     141
Radiated emissions      141
Test methods     148
Test set-up     148
Test procedure     150
Tests above 1GHz     152
Military emissions tests     153
Measurement uncertainty     155
Applying measurement uncertainly     155
Sources of uncertainty     156
Immunity tests     164
RF immunity     164
Equipment     164
Facilities     172
Test methods     175
Conducted RF immunity     179
Measurement uncertainly for RF immunity     183
ESD and transient immunity     184
ESD     184
Electrical fast transient (EFT) bursts     187
Surge     189
Other transient immunity tests     191
Sources of variability     193
Measurement uncertainty for transient tests     194
Military susceptibility tests     194
Continuous LF and RF susceptibility     194
Transient susceptibility     195
Low frequency tests     196
Mains harmonic and flicker emission     196
Equipment     197
Test conditions     199
Equipment classification and limits     199
Flicker     201
Magnetic field and power quality immunity     205
Magnetic field     205
Voltage dips and interrupts     206
Test planning     209
The need for a test plan     209
The requirements of accreditation     209
The requirements of standards     209
The requirements of the customer     211
Contents of the test plan     211
Description of the equipment under test (EUT)     211
Statement of test objectives     212
The tests to be performed     213
EUT exercising software and ancillary equipment or simulators     214
Requirements of the test facility     216
Details of the test set-up     217
How to evaluate test results     218
Immunity performance criteria     219
The generic criteria     220
Interpreting the generic criteria     220
Design
Interference coupling mechanisms     222
Source and victim     222
Common impedance coupling     223
Distributed near field coupling     226
Mains coupling     228
Radiated coupling      229
Coupling modes     232
Emissions     234
Radiated emissions     235
Conducted emissions     238
Immunity     241
Radiated field     241
Transients     245
Electrostatic discharge     249
LF magnetic fields     251
Supply voltage phenomena     253
Mains harmonics     254
The supplier's problem     254
Non-linear loads     255
Layout and grounding     258
Equipment layout and grounding     259
System partitioning     259
Grounding     261
Ground systems     264
PCB layout     268
Ground layout without a ground plane     268
Using a ground plane     271
Configuring I/O and circuit grounds     282
Rules for PCB layout     286
Digital and analogue circuit design     288
Design for emissions control     288
The Fourier spectrum     288
Radiation from logic circuits     292
Digital circuit decoupling     300
Analogue circuits: emissions     306
The switching power supply      307
Other power switching circuits     314
Design for immunity     314
Digital circuits: interference paths     315
Logic noise immunity     321
Signal integrity and ground bounce     324
The microprocessor watchdog     326
Defensive programming     329
Transient and RF immunity - analogue circuits     333
Interfaces and filtering     340
Cables and connectors     340
The mode of propagation     340
Cable return currents     341
Crosstalk     342
Cable screens at low frequencies     344
Cable screens at RF     346
Types of cable screen     347
Screened cable connections     349
Unscreened cables     352
Structured cabling: UTP versus STP     356
Filtering and suppression     357
Filter configuration     357
Components     361
Mains filters     367
I/O filtering     373
Transient suppression     375
Contact suppression     378
Shielding     381
Shielding theory     381
Shielding theory for an infinite barrier      382
LF magnetic fields     384
The effect of apertures     385
The shield as ground reference     389
The image plane     390
Shielding practice     392
Shielding hardware     392
Conductive coatings     395
Windows and ventilation slots     397
Shields on the PCB     400
Standardization of enclosure SE     401
Systems EMC     403
System versus product EMC     403
Compliance requirements     403
Functional requirements     404
Earthing and bonding     404
The purpose of the earth     404
Installation techniques for multi-purpose earthing     406
Earth conductors     408
Bonding techniques     408
Cabinets, cubicles and chambers     410
Transfer impedance of the earth reference     411
Layout and placement within the enclosure     412
Conductive hardware     415
Installation and maintenance of screened enclosures     416
Cabling     417
Cable classification, segregation and routing     417
Parallel Earth Conductor (PEC) techniques      420
Lightning protection     421
How lightning phenomena can affect electronic apparatus     421
Overview of design of a lightning protection system (LPS)     423
EMC Management     426
Managing the EMC process     426
Putting EMC in context     426
The EMC co-ordinator     427
The design process     428
The product specification     428
Design rules     428
Design reviews     429
Identifying EMC-critical aspects     429
Test management     430
When to do the tests     430
In-house or external?     432
The various types of report     433
Compliance during production and beyond     434
Degrees of quality assurance     435
Production QA testing     435
Engineering change control     437
The control plan and documentation for Directives     437
The purpose of the control plan     437
The EMC Assessment     438
Contents     439
Design checklist     441
CAD for EMC     444
Overview     444
Modelling packages     445
Circuit CAD     446
Case studies     448
Cockpit display     448
Liquid tank sensor     449
The problem with wall-warts     450
The dipole problem: a box in two halves     454
Useful tables and formulae     547
The deciBel     457
Antennas     458
Fields     459
Shielding     462
Capacitance, inductance and PCB layout     463
Filters     466
Fourier series     467
The EU and EEA countries     470
Glossary     471
Bibliography     474
Index     489

Customer Reviews

Average Review:

Write a Review

and post it to your social network

     

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See all customer reviews >