EMDR and The Art of Psychotherapy With Children

EMDR and The Art of Psychotherapy With Children

by Robbie Adler-Tapia, Carolyn Settle

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ISBN-10: 0826111173

ISBN-13: 9780826111173

Pub. Date: 06/16/2008

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

"...[This book contains] invaluable material for the child therapist with varied theoretical backgrounds to more confidently apply EMDR to children.

-- Frances Klaff, for Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 3, Number 3, 2009

In this book the authors present an overview of how therapists can get started in conceptualizing psychotherapy


"...[This book contains] invaluable material for the child therapist with varied theoretical backgrounds to more confidently apply EMDR to children.

-- Frances Klaff, for Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 3, Number 3, 2009

In this book the authors present an overview of how therapists can get started in conceptualizing psychotherapy with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) methodology through Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) theory. The focus of the book is to teach therapists to effectively use the entire EMDR protocol with young children.

The first chapter provides a comprehensive overview of how to get started with EMDR after completing basic training. The book continues with chapters that detail the basic skills in using EMDR with children and then transitions to more advanced skills in using EMDR with children with specific diagnosis and presenting issues. They follow with a chapter summarizing the published evidence to date supporting the practice of EMDR with children. Data is then incorporated into a chapter summarizing their research on EMDR with young children in order to provide evidence of therapists' ability to adhere to the EMDR protocol with children, and to document their research findings about training therapists to use EMDR with children.

Finally, they conclude the book with goals for the future of EMDR with children while encouraging therapists to consider conducting research in order to compel the practice of EMDR with children into the mainstream of child psychotherapy. It is a major task of the book to inspire therapists to begin thinking about conducting research and how important research is to therapists in order to validate and advance the practice of psychotherapy.

In the end, the most significant goal of this book is to provide best practice for children who are in need of expert psychotherapy in order to change the trajectory of their lives. The hope is to provide guidance and support to therapists in order to launch them in their practice of EMDR. This is the art of treating children with EMDR.

Product Details

Springer Publishing Company
Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword   Robbie Dunton     xv
Preface     xix
Acknowledgments     xxv
Theoretical Underpinnings and Research on EMDR with Children     1
Basic Training in EMDR     1
Adaptive Information Processing and EMDR in Child Psychotherapy     2
Assessing the Literature on EMDR With Children     5
Research on EMDR     5
Research on EMDR in Psychotherapy With Children     6
EMDR Individual Studies With Children     6
EMDR Group Studies With Children     12
Our First Research Study     13
Summary     17
Getting Started With EMDR     19
Getting Started With EMDR     20
Books on EMDR     20
Research on EMDR     21
The Eight Phases of EMDR     22
Client History and Treatment Planning Phase     22
Preparation Phase     25
Assessment Phase     27
Desensitization Phase     30
Installation Phase     32
Body Scan Phase     33
Closure Phase     33
Reevaluation Phase     36
First Client Considerations     37
The Therapist's Role in EMDR     38
Setting Up the Office for EMDR, and Especially for Working With Children     38
Integrating Play Therapy Into the EMDR Protocol     39
EMDR Progress Notes     39
Cognitive Interweaves     40
Additional Tools for Getting Started With EMDR     40
Study Groups     40
Listservs     41
Summary     41
EMDR Phase 1: Client History and Treatment Planning     43
Client History     44
Interviewing Parents and Children     49
Procedural Considerations     50
Listening for Targets     52
Presenting Problem     52
Psychosocial History     52
Parent-Child Attachment/Attunement     53
Educational History     53
Religious Affiliations/Cultural Dynamics     54
Developmental History     54
Medical History     54
Assessment of Current Stability     55
Affect Tolerance     55
Trauma History     56
Current Resources, Innerpersonal, and Interpersonal Skills     56
Potential Targets     56
Listening for Negative Cognitions     57
Treatment Planning      58
Therapist Script for Client History and Treatment Planning     59
Informed Consent     60
Establishing the Therapeutic Relationship and Engaging the Client in Therapy     60
Assessment Tools for Evaluating Children     61
Ethical and Legal Issues     61
Cognitive/Intellectual Assessment     62
Academic/Achievement Assessment     62
Developmental Assessment     62
Behavioral Assessment     63
Emotional Assessment     63
Assessing Children's Readiness for Therapy/Selection Criteria     64
Monitoring Child Symptoms     65
Providing Psychoeducational Information     65
Summary     66
Initial EMDR Session Protocol     66
EMDR Phase 2: Preparation Phase     69
Explaining EMDR and Informed Consent for Treatment     69
Explaining EMDR to Parents     69
Explaining EMDR to Children     70
Assessing the Child's Resources     71
Assessing the Child's Internal Resources and Skills     71
Assessing the Child's External Resources     74
Teaching the Mechanics of EMDR     77
Bilateral Stimulation (BLS)     77
Clinical Decision Making With BLS      79
Differences Between Adults and Children Regarding BLS     80
Speed and Number of Saccades     81
Demonstrating BLS to Clients     81
Safe/Calm Place     82
Safe/Calm Place Protocol for Children     85
Stop Signal     87
Metaphor for EMDR     88
Procedural Considerations     89
Techniques for Distancing and Titrating Intense Affect     92
Containers and Types of Containers     92
Organizing the Office for Treating Children With EMDR     96
Resourcing and Mastery Skills     96
Skills for Dealing With Between Sessions and Incomplete Sessions     96
Summary     97
Preparation Phase Session Protocol     97
EMDR Phase 3: Assessment Phase     99
Procedural Steps of the Assessment Phase of EMDR     100
Target Identification     101
Clinical Implications     102
Tools for Target Identification With Child Clients     106
Touchstone Event     106
Interviewing Children and Parents to Identify Targets     108
Floatback Technique     116
Creative Techniques for Identifying Targets for Reprocessing With EMDR     120
Mapping Targets for EMDR Processing     120
Graphing EMDR Mastery Experiences, Targets, and Symptoms     129
Additional Techniques for Target Identification of Children     134
Negative (NC) and Positive Cognitions (PC)     138
Identifying NCs and PCs With Children     140
Cognitive Themes: Responsibility/Safety/Choices     147
NCs and PCs and Cognitive Interweaves     148
Assessing the Validity of Cognition (VoC)     148
Procedural Considerations for Measurements in EMDR     149
Measuring the VoC     149
Identifying Emotions or Feelings and Body Sensations     151
Measuring the Subjective Units of Disturbance     151
Procedural Considerations for Body Sensations     153
Summary     153
Procedural Steps of the Assessment Phase     153
EMDR Phase 4: Desensitization     157
The Goal of the Desensitization Phase     157
Procedural Considerations     158
Evidence of Reprocessing During Desensitization With Children     158
Children Process Quickly     159
Affective and Behavioral Indicators of Reprocessing With Children     160
Implication of Developmental Milestones on Reprocessing     160
Use of Bilateral Stimulation (BLS) With Children During Reprocessing     161
Sets of BLS     161
Need to Change Type of BLS or Play or Focus     161
Eye Movements     161
Issues Unique to Desensitization With Children     162
Children May Display Hesitancy and Avoidance Behavior     162
Fluctuations in SUD Ratings     163
Children May Process in Fantasy Before Processing in Reality     164
Therapists' Role     165
Therapists' Skills, Tools, and Use of Self in Therapy With Children     165
Strategies for Regulating the Speed of Reprocessing     166
Flooding     166
Techniques for Distancing and Titrating Intensity of Memory Reprocessing With Children     167
Containers     168
Incomplete Accessing     169
Cognitive Interweaves     169
Procedural Considerations     170
Themes for Cognitive Interweaves: Responsibility/Safety/Choices     171
End of a Channel     172
Checking the Target     173
Incomplete Sessions     173
Procedure for Closing Incomplete Sessions     173
Summary     174
Instructions to the Client and Therapist's Script for Desensitization Phase      174
Case Presentation: EMDR Session With a 3-Year-Old Child     176
Transcript of a Therapy Session     177
EMDR Phases 5, 6, and 7: Installation, Body Scan, and Closure     193
Phase 5: Installation Phase     193
Script for Installation of Positive Cognition (PC)     195
Challenges to Installing the PC With Children     196
Procedural Considerations     197
Phase 6: Body Scan     197
Script for Body Scan     198
Procedural Considerations     198
Future Template     199
Future Template Script     202
Phase 7: Closure     203
Choosing an Ending Point for the Session     204
Tools for Assisting a Child to Debrief and Regroup at the End of a Session     204
Tools for Between Sessions, Including Coping Strategies if Additional Information Arises Between Sessions     205
Script for Closure/Debriefing the Experience     206
Summary     206
EMDR Phase 8: Reevaluation     207
Reevaluation Phase     209
Review What Is Currently Happening in the Child's Environment     209
Clinical Implications     209
Review the Child's Response to Previous Sessions      210
Reevaluate the Specific Target     210
Procedural Considerations     211
Reevaluation at the End of Treatment     213
Treatment Reevaluation With Single-Incident Traumas     214
Treatment Reevaluation With Chronic Trauma     214
Summary     216
Emotional Resources, Coping Skills, and Strengthening Mastery Experiences for Children     219
Goals of Resourcing, Coping, and Mastery     219
Emotional Resources, Coping, and Mastery Skills     220
Relaxation Skills     220
Breathing Techniques     221
Guided Imagery     221
Containers     221
Get a Grip     222
Techniques for Discharging Intense Emotions     224
Calming and Soothing Skills and Techniques     224
Mastery Skills for Children     226
Procedural Considerations for Mastery Skills     227
Resource Development and Installation (RDI) Skills for Children     228
Procedural Considerations for RDI With Child Clients     228
Scripts for RDI     233
Procedural Considerations for RDI Protocols With Children     234
Summary     236
Abbreviated RDI Protocol for Children     237
Tools for Blocked Processing and Cognitive Interweaves     239
Blocked Processing     240
Editing     240
Looping     241
Numbing     241
Avoidance/Reluctance     242
Dissociation     243
Abreactions     244
Intense Emotional Reactions     245
Clinical Implications for Therapists Working With Blocked Processing     245
Cognitive Interweaves     246
Motor Interweaves     247
Sensory Interweaves     247
Educational Interweaves     247
Narrative Interweaves     249
Cognitive Interweaves With Children     249
Examples of Cognitive Interweaves to Restart Processing With Children     250
Cognitive Interweaves for Current or Future Issues     254
Summary     255
Specialty Topics on Using EMDR With Children     257
Parents, Parenting Skills, and Active Parenting     258
General Categories of Childhood Concerns     259
Clinical Diagnoses of Childhood     260
Clinical and Behavioral Issues     281
Behavioral/Developmental Issues of Childhood     283
Situational Issues Unique to Children      293
Testifying in Court     293
Dealing With Divorce     294
Motor Vehicle Accidents     295
Child Abuse     296
Educational Issues     299
Summary     303
The Future of EMDR With Children     309
Adaptive Information Processing and EMDR in Child Psychotherapy     310
How Therapists Conceptualize Treatment With Children     311
How Children Construct Reality     311
How Children Learn     311
The Relationship Between the Child and Therapist     312
The Therapist's Role in Psychotherapy With Children     312
Theoretical Orientations of Psychotherapy     313
Theoretical Orientations and Psychotherapy Approaches With Children     314
Play Therapy     314
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)     315
The EMDR Treatment Model as a Template for a Comprehensive Approach to Child Psychotherapy     316
EMDR With Children as Evidence-Based Practice     317
What Really Matters: The Children's Stories     318
The End Is Just the Beginning     319
Consent/Assent for Treatment Form     323
EMDR Client History/Treatment Planning Form     325
Child/Adolescent Symptom Monitoring Form     327
Safe/Calm Place Protocol for Children Worksheet     329
Mapping Targets for EMDR Processing     331
Graphing EMDR Targets or Symptoms     339
Recent Event Protocol for Children     345
Scripts for Assessment, Desensitization, Installation, Body Scan, Closure, and Reevaluation     347
Kids' List of Cognitions     357
EMDR Fidelity Questionnaire     359
References     361
Index     367

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