History is an encounter with the past, and the past is a history of encounters. Encounters in World History is designed to introduce students to both of these sorts of encounters. Using primary and visual sources, the authors employ the encounter theme as a fundamental organizing principle. By nesting sources in thematically integrated chapters, comparison and analysis of sources can be more substantive, while also providing more internal structure for instructors. At the same time, this is a world history reader, and it follows a chronological format. The material has been presented in such a way that instructors can craft their own courses, emphasizing the aspects they think most important. Chapters are organized so that the general theme is presented in a chapter introduction and then revisited in the separate introductions to specific readings. The readers can be used to highlight preferred eras, cultural zones, or themes, or a unique mixture of all three.
Part I: Expanding Horizons, 1500-1750
Chapter 1: Expanding Global Encounters in the 14th-16th Centuries
Ibn Battuta's Travels in the Islamic World
Reading: Ibn Battuta, My Travels (1355)
The Chinese Naval Expeditions of Zheng He
Reading: Zheng He, Inscription of World Voyages
Vasco da Gama's Voyage to Africa and India
Reading: A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama
Columbus' First Voyage to the “New World”
Reading: Christopher Columbus, Prologue to the Logbook of the First Voyage
Reading: Christopher Columbus, Letter Describing His First Voyage
Map 1.1. Global Expeditions and Encounters in the 14th - 16th Centuries.
Map 1.2. Ibn Battuta's Travels.
Map 1.3. The Naval Expeditions of Zheng He
Map 1.4. Vasco da Gama's First Voyage to Africa and India
Map 1.5. Columbus' First Voyage to the New World
Chapter 2: Cross-Cultural Perceptions in the New World
An Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico
Reading: Bernardino de Sahagun, The General History of New Spain
A Spanish Account of the Conquest of Mexico
Reading: Bernaz Diaz del Castillo, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain
Images of the Conquest
Fig. 2.1. Massacre at Cholula
Fig. 2.2. Massacre of the Mexica Nobility
Fig. 2.3. Battle of Tenochtitlan
Map 2.1. Cortés' Route to Tenochtitlan
Chapter 3: Perspectives on the Atlantic Slave Trade
Perspective of a Slave Trader
Reading: Jacques Barbot, The Slaving Voyage of the Albion-Frigate
Perspective of a Slave
Reading: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano
Perspective of a Slave Owner
Reading: Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia
Map 3.1. General Patterns in Atlantic Trade.
Map 3.2. West Africa, 17th- 18th centuries.
Figure 3.1. Barbot presents himself to the King of Sestro, 1681.
Figure 3.2. Diagram of a Slave Ship.
Figure 3.3. Olaudah Equiano.
Chapter 4: Paths to Enlightenment
René Descartes' Deductive Method of Inquiry
Reading: Rene Descartes, Discourse on Method
The Empirical Reasoning of John Locke
Reading: John Locke, "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding"
The Enlightened Path of Wang Yang-ming
Reading: Wang Yang-ming, "Inquiry on The Great Learning"
Chapter 5: Great Men and Virtues of Leadership
Sundiata: Founder of the Malian Empire
Reading: Sundiata, An Epic of of Old Mali
Akbar of Mughal India, Rulings on Temporal Government, in Sources of Indian Tradition,
Reading: Barni, "Rulings on Temporal Government"
Reading: Father Antonio Monserrate, Commentary on his Journey to the Court of Akbar
Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty in China
Reading: Kangxi, "On Ruling"
Reading: Kangxi, "Valedictory"
Peter the Great of Russia
Reading: "Decree on the Invitation to Foreigners"
Reading: "Decrees on the Building of St. Petersburg"
Reading: "Prohibition on Kneeling"
Reading: "Order to the Army Before the Battle of Poltava"
Reading: "Peter's Conception of Imperial Authority"
Reading: "An Old Believer Manuscript from Solotevsky Monastery"
Reading: "A Nineteenth-Century Assessment of Peter the Great"
Part II: The Age of Revolution, Industrialization, and Nationalsim, 1750-1898
Chapter 6: Liberty and Revoultion in the Atlantic World, 1776-1850
The American Revolution
1. The Revolutionary Ideals of Jefferson, 1776
Reading: Thomas Jefferson, Declaratino of Independence
2. The Fears of the Founding Fathers, 1787-1788
Reading: James Madison, Federalist No. 10
3. An Argument for Democratic Reform, 1835
Reading: George Bancroft, "The Office of the People in Art, Government, and Religion"
4. A Critique of American Liberty from a Former Slave, 1852
Reading: Frederick Douglass, "What to the Slave Is the 4th of July?"
The French Revolution
1. A Declaration of the Rights of Man, 1789
Reading: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
2. A Feminist Perspective of the Revolution, 1791
Reading: Declaration of the Rights of Women
3. Terror in Defense of Liberty, 1794
Reading: Maximillien Robespierre, "The Moral and Political Principle"
Revolutions in the Caribbean and Latin America
1. The Haitian Revolution, 1793-1800
Reading: Toussaint L'Ouverture, Speeches and Letters on the Haitian Revolution
2. The Liberator of South America, 1815
Reading: Simon Bolivar, "The Jamaican Letter"
Chapter 7: The Industrial Revolution and its Impact on Work, Wealth, and Power
The Rationality and Benefits of Industrial Capitalism and Economic Liberalism
Reading: Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations
Two Perspectives on the Factory System in England, 1830s
Reading: Testimony of Matthew Crabtree from the Sadler Committee Report (1832)
Reading: Andrew Ure, The Philosophy of Manufactures
The Marxist Critique of Industrial Capitalism and the Communist Alternative
Reading: Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto
Andrew Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth
Reading: Andrew Carnegie, "Wealth"
Wealth, Power, and Conspicuous Consumption in America
Reading: Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class
Industrialization in Imperial Russia
Reading: Sergei Witte, Secret Memorandum on Industrialization
Chapter 8: The Frontier Experience and Cultural Self-Images
The Frontier in American History
1. The Frontier and American identity
Reading: Frederick Jackson Turner, "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
Reading: Chief Joseph of Nez Perce, Selected Statements, Speeches and Letters
2. Myths of the American West
Reading: Owen Wister, The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains
3. The Frontier Remembered
Reading: Ronald Reagan, Remarks at the Completion of the Fourth Mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia
The Frontier in South African History
1. The Frontier War and the Rise of the Zulu
Reading: Jantshi Ka Nongila, The History of Shaka
2. Shaka Remembered: A Different Story
Reading: Mazisi Kunene, Emperor Shaka the Great: A Zulu Epic (Oxford: Heinemann, 1979), 98-99; 185-187.
3. The Frontier and the Afrikaner ‘Great Trek'
Reading: Piet Retief, "Manifesto of the Emigrant Farmers"
Reading: Sarel Cilliers, The Battle of Blood River
4. The Trek Remembered
Reading: Daniel Malan, "The Second Great Trek"
Fig. 8.1 John Gast, “American Progress” (1872).
Map 8.1 The American Frontier.
Map 8.2 The South African Frontier.
Chapter 9: The World Encounters the West
Chinese Responses to Imperialism
1. An Imperial Response to the British King, 1793
Reading: The Qianlong Emperor, Letters to George III
2. The Anti-Foreign Boxer Uprising, 1900
Reading: Proclamation of the Boxers United in Righteousness
Indian Responses to Imperialism
1. The View of an Indian Modernizer
Reading: Ram Mohun Roy, Letter to Lord Amherst on Education
2. A Critique of British Exploitation, 1904
Reading: Ramesh Dutt, India in the Victorian Age
African Responses to Imperialism
1. An African Missionary Promotes Christian Conversion, 1854
Reading: Samuel Crowther, Letter to the Rev. H. Venn
2. A View of Village Life in British Kenya, 1920s
Reading: Oginda Odinga, "At the Feet of the Village Elders
A British View of the Paradoxes of Empire
1. Confessions of a British Administrator, 1936
Reading: George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant
Chapter 10: Nationalism and Nation-Building in the Nineteenth Century
1. States' Rights versus the Union
Reading: John C. Calhoun, On Nullifcation and the Force Bill
Reading: Abraham Lincoln, First Inaugural Address (March 1861)
2. The Question of Immigration and “Americanization” in the 1890s
Reading: Josiah Strong, Our Country
Reading: Theodore Roosevelt, “What ‘Americanism' Means,”
Japanese Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century
1. Initial Responses to the West
Reading: Tokugawa Nariaki, "Memorandum to the Bakufu"
2. Japanese National Identity and the Meiji Restoration
Reading: Ito Hirobumi, Reminiscences on the Drafting of the New Constitution
3. Japanese Nationalism and Imperialism
Reading: Fukusawa Yukichi, "Good-Bye Asia"
German Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century
1. A Call for German Unity
Reading: Johann Gottlich Fichte, Addresses to the German Nation
2. Unification through ‘Blood and Iron”
Reading: Otto von Bismarck, Memoirs
3. A German “Place in the Sun”
Reading: Heinrich Treitschke, German History in the Nineteenth Century
Part III: The Twentieth Century World and Future Prospects
Chapter 11: Collectivist Ideologies in the Twentieth Century
Reading: Nikolai Bukharin and Eugeny Preobrazhensky, The ABC of Communism
Reading: Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf
Debates on Collectivism in American
Reading: Herbert Hoover, Presidential Campaign Speech
The Great Depression and Roosevelt's Call to Action
Reading: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address
Collectivism and Development in Tanzania
Reading: Julius Nyerere, Socialism and Rural Development
Chapter 12: Confronting Human Agression
Two Soldiers View the Great War
Reading: Herbert Asquith, "The Volunteer"
Reading: Wilfred Owen, "Dulce et Decorum Est"
Psychology and the Instinct for Destruction
Reading: Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents
A Communist Assessment
Reading: Mao Zedong, Fighting for Perpetual Peace
A Woman Writer's Perspective
Reading: Virginia Woolf, Three Guineas
The Banality of Evil
Reading: Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem
An Islamic Voice
Reading: Ruhollah Khomeini, "Message to the Pilgrims"
Chapter 13: Perspectives on the Cold War, Decolonization, and the Vietnam War
Soviet Views of the United States and the Cold War
Reading: Josef V. Stalin, "On the Tasks of the Workers on the Economy"
Reading: Nikolai Novikov, "Telegram to Moscow"
American Views of the Soviet Union and the Cold War
Reading: X [George F. Kennan], "The Sources of Soviet Conduct"
Reading: Harry S. Truman, "The Truman Doctrine"
Reading: J. Edgar Hoover, "The Threat of Communism"
Vietnamese Views on Decolonization and the Vietnam War
Reading: Ho Chi Minh, The Vietnamese Declaration
Reading: Vo Nguyen Giap, "The People's War"
Reading: Nguyen Tan Thanh, "Why I Joined the Vietcong"
American Views on Decolonization and the Vietnam War
Reading: Lyndon B. Johnson, "Why Americans Fight in Vietnam"
Reading: John Kerry, "Why I Oppose the Vietnam War"
Chapter 14: Shifting Identities of Ethnicity, Race, Gender, and Sexuality
Self-Identity, Self-Rule, and Decolonization
Reading: Mohandas K. Gandhi, Hind Swaraj (Self-Rule)
Women as the “Other”
Reading: Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex
Civil Rights, Racial Identity, and Black Nationalism in America
Reading: Malcolm X, Address to a Meeting in New York
Black Consciousness in South Africa
Reading: Steve Biko, "Black Consciousness and the Quest for a True Humanity"
Sexual Identity, Self-Oppression, and Gay Rights
Reading: The London Gay Liberation Front, "Manifesto"
Chapter 15: Perspectives on Globalization
The Global Environment
Reading: J.R. McNeill, "Peculiarities of a Prodigal Century"
Data on Environmental and Social Change
Technology and Lifestyle
Reading: Righting Wrongs
Reading: The Human Development Balance Sheet
Towards a Global Culture?
Reading: Globally Speaking: Global Culture
Picture Gallery of Global Culture