Encyclopedia of Early Cinema / Edition 1

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Overview

The Encyclopedia of Early Cinema, now in a new paperback edition, is a unique one-volume reference work which explores the first 25 years of cinema's development, from the early 1890s to the mid-1910s. These early years of the history of cinema have lately been the subject of resurgent interest and a growing body of scholarship, and have come to be recognized as an extraordinarily diverse period, when moving pictures were quite unlike the kind of cinema that later emerged as the dominant norm.

This encyclopedia covers all aspects of scholarship on early cinema, both traditional and revisionist. It contains articles on the technological and industrial developments, the techniques of film production, the actors and filmmakers of the time, and on the changing modes of representation and narration, as well as the social and cultural contexts within which early films circulated, including topics such as distribution, exhibition and audience. Beyond the USA and Europe, attention is also given to the wider international picture, including those regions in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and South and Central America where filmmaking may have been relatively undeveloped but movie-going was significant.

More than 950 entries have been commissioned from internationally recognized specialists. Alphabetically organized, the entries range in length from short factual articles to full essays that offer clear and stimulating discussions of the key issues, people, practices, and phenomena of early cinema. A thematic list of entries is a useful guide through the book, and all entries contain detailed cross-references. The longer articles have considered suggestions for further reading, which are complemented by a general bibliography of specialized works on early cinema.

The Encyclopedia of Early Cinema is an invaluable and fascinating resource for students and researchers interested in the history of cinema.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
'A unique reference that will be welcomed by serious students of film history. It is a fascinating story and this reference will help students and other interested readers explore its full scope.' - Against the Grain

'This definitive new encyclopedia provides an essential reference tool...This work represents a long-awaited accumulation of knowledge on the international emergence of cinema. Highly recommended for all reference collections.' - Choice

'It's a great pleasure to report that such an Encyclopedia has now been published, and that the job has been uncommonly well done ... both for the newcomer and for the specialist, the Encyclopedia of Early Cinema is highly recommended ... this is a book that deserves a place on virtually any film enthusiast's bookshelf.' - Nineteenth Century Theatre & Film

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415778565
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 5/1/2010
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 832
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Richard Abel is director of the Graduate Certificate Program in Film and Video Studies at the University of Michigan. His essays have appeared in dozens of journals and been translated into French, German, Italian, Spanish and Dutch. Along with several of those essays, four of his books have won national or international awards. Recently he began research on a new project, Trash Twins: Moving Pictures and Newspapers in the USA, 1911-1914.

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Table of Contents

access; Acres, Birt; acting styles; actualités; Addams, Jane; advertising; advertising films; Africa, Belgian; Africa, French; Africa, German colonies; Agence cinématographique générale; Agence Générale Cinématographique (AGC); AGFA; Aiken, Harry; Aikens, Fred C.; airdomes; AKGT/PAGU; Alberini, Filoteo; Alpha Trading Company; Altenloh, Emilie; Alva Brothers; amateur films; Ambrosio, Arturo; American Biograph (France); American Film Co.; American Mutoscope and Biograph; Amet, Edward; amplifiers; amusement parks; Anderson, G. M.; Andréani, André; Andreyor, Yvette; Andriot, (Camille-) Josette; animal pictures; animation; Ankerstjerne, Johan; Anschütz, Ottomar; Aquila; archaeology of cinema/pre-cinema; Arche, Alto; archives; Argentina; Arguillière, Alexandre; Armat, Thomas; Arnaud, Etienne; Asia Film Co.; Atelier Apollo; Aubert, Etablissements L.; Aubert, Louis; audience: issues and debates; Aurora Cinema; Australasian Films; Australia; Austro-Hungarian Empire; authentication; autorenfilm; Baggott, King; Bakshy, Alexander; Balaban, Barney & A. J.; Balkans, the (including Greece); Balshoffer, Fred; Bamforth; Barcinógrafo; Barker Film; Barker Motion Photography; Barker, Will; Barnes, Justin D.; Baron, Auguste; Bartling, Georg; Bassermann, Albert; Bauer, Evgenii; Baumann, Charles; Becce, Giuseppe; Becerril, Guillermo; Bedding, Thomas; Belge Cinéma SA (Pathé); Belgium; Belot, Charles; Benoît-Lévy, Edmond; benshi; Bergqvist, John; Bernard, Ferdinand Bon; Bernhardt, Sarah; Berst, J. A.; Bertini, Francesca; Bhatvedekar, Harishchandra; Bianchi, Joseph T.; biblical films; Billboard; Binger, Maurits Herman; Biograph; Biorama; Bioscope (British trade journal); Bioscope Company of Canada; Bitzer, Billy; black cinema, USA; Blackton, J. Stuart; Blair Film Company (USA); Blom, August; Boggs, Francis; Bolivia; Bolten-Baeckers, Heinrich; Bonine, Robert; Bonnard, Mario; Borelli, Lyda; Bos, Annie; Bosetti, Romeo; Bosworth, Hobart; Bourbon, Ernest; Bouregois, Gérard; boxing films; Brazil; Breteaux; Brézillon, Léon; British & Colonial Kinematograph (B & C); British Gaumont; British Mutoscope and Biograph; British Pathe London; Broncho Film Co.; Brown, Theodore; Brulator, Jules; Buckwalter, H. H.; Bull, Lucien; Bullock, William; Bunny, John; Bunzli, Victor; Burguet, Charles; Burlingham, Frederick; Bush, W. Stephen; Bushman, Francis K.; Bussenius, Gabriela; Butcher's Film Service; Cabanne, William Christie; Caesar; café-concerts, France; Cairo, Humberto; Calcina; Calmettes, André; Cambodia; camera movement; camera, distance and angle; camera: Casler & Co. Biograph 70mm; camera: Newman & Sinclair Reflex; cameras: Aeroscope; cameras: Bell & Howell Studio; cameras: Biograph; cameras: Debris; cameras: Edison Kinetograph camera; cameras: Gaumont; cameras: Pathé; Canada; Canudo, Ricciotto; Capellani, Albert; Capellani, Paul; capitalism, USA; Capozzi, Alberto; Carl, Renée; Carpentier, Jules; Carré, Michel; Caserini, Mario; Cassaus, Jose E.; Castillo, Louis; Caucasus region; Celio celluloid film stock development; Centaur/Nestor; Chaplin, Charles; Chardynin, Petr; Charles Urban Trading Company; chase films; Chautard, Emile; chautauquas; Cheetham, Arthur; Chernova, Nina; Chicago Film Exchange; Chile; China; Chomón, Segundo de; Christensen, Benjamin; Chronochrome Gaumont; chronophone; chronophotography; churches as exhibition venues; Ciné-Journal; Cinema; cinema circuits or chains; Cinéma du peuple, Le; Cinéma et l'Echo du cinéma, Le; cinema of attractions; Cinema, The; Cinematografia Italiana ed Estera, La; Cinés; Cino-Fono, La; Clarendon Film Company; classical Hollywood cinema; Clement, Josephine; Clement-Maurice; Cline, Eugene; Clune, William; Codina, J. M.; Cohl, Emile; Coissac, Guillaume-Michel; collections; Collier, John; Collins, Alf; Collo, Alberto; Colombia; colonialism: Europe; color; Comandon, Jean; comedies; Comerio; comic series; comic strips; Comica; Commerical Press Motion Picture Department; communication; Compagnie des Cinéma Halls; concerts; consumer cooperatives, Europe; Continental-Kunstfilm; Continsouza, Pierre-Victor; Corbett, James; Costello, Maurice; costumes; Courrier cinématographique; Crawford, O. T.; criminal films, series and serials; Cuba; Cuesta Valencia; Cunard, Grace; cuts, dissolves, fades; dance films; Dania Biofilm; D'Annunzio, Gabriele; Dansk Biograf; Darling, Alfred; Das Lichtbild-Theater; Davidson, Paul; Davis, Harry; Dawley, J. Searle; De Bedts, George William; De Grandsaignes d'Hauterives, Henry; De Liguoro, Giuseppe; de Riso, Camillo; Debrie, Joseph and André; Decourcelle, Pierre; Decroix, Charles; Deed, André; Del Colle; Delac, Charles; Delmont, Joseph; Demaria, Jules; Demenÿ, Georges; DeMille, Cecil B.; Denmark; department stores; Der Kinematograph; Desfontaines, Henri; Desmet, Jean; detective films, series and serials; Deuter, Martin; Deutsche Mutoskop und Biograph; Di Domenico family; dialogue accompaniment; Diaz Quesada, Enrique; Dickson, W. K. L.; dime museums; Dinesen, Robert; Dintenfass, Mark; dioramas/panoramas; distribution, Europe; distribution, North America; distribution: issues and debates; Donisthorpe, Wordsworth; d'Ors, Eugeni; Doublier, Francis; Doyen, Docteur; Dranem; Drankov (company); Drankov, Alexandr; Durand, Jean; Dureau, Georges; Duse, Eleonara; Duskes, Alfred; Dussaud, François; Dutch Mutscope and Biograph; Dwan, Allan; Dyer, Frank L.; early reactions to moving pictures; Eastern Europe; Eastman Kodak; Eastman, George; Éclair; Éclair American; Eclipse; Ecuador; Edamasa Yoshiro; Edison Manufacturing Co.; Edison, Thomas; editing: early practices and techniques; editing: spatial relations; editing: tableau style; editing: temporal relations; education; Egypt and other Arab countries; electricity; Elfelt, Peter; English pattern cameras; Ermoliev, Yakov; Erste Internationale Film-Zeitung; Esoofally, Abdulally; Essanay; ethnographic films; European Blair Camera Company; Evans, Fred; Ewers, Heinz; Exclusive Supply; exhibition services; exhibitions: issues and debates; expedition films; Fabre, Marcel; facial expression films; fairgrounds: Europe; Falena, Ugo; Famous Players; Farnum, Dustin; Fascinateur, Le; fashion; fast-motion films; féeries or fairy plays; Fengtai photography studio; Ferreya, Jose Augstin 'Le Negro'; Fescourt, Henri; festivals; Feuillade, Louis; film d'art; Film d'Arte Italiana (Pathé); Film Fabrikken Danmark; film stock developments; Film Supply; Film, Le; Filmen; Filmfabrikken Danmark; Films Valetta; Finch, Flora; Finland; Finlandia Film; Fiske, Minnie Maddern; Fitzhamon, Lewin; flashbacks; Fleck-Kolm, Luise; Floury, Edmond; Foersterling, Hermann; Ford, Francis; Ford, Hugh; Foster, William; Fotokinema/ASUM; Fotorama; Fox, William; framing; France: audience; France: distribution/exhibition; France: regulation/censorship; Frau, Raymond; Freer, James Simmons; Fregoli; Fregoli; Fregou, Leopoldo; Frenkel (Bouwmeester) Jnr, Theo; Frenkel (Bouwmeester) Snr, Theo; Friberg, C. A.; Friese-Greene, William; Froelich, Carl; Frusta; Fukuhodo theater chain; Fuller, Mary; Furniss, Harry; Fynes, J. Austin; Gabet, Francisque; Gad, Urban; Gallo, Mario; Ganes, William; Ganguly, D. N.; Gardin, Vladimir; Gardner, Helen; Gärtner, Adolf; Gasnier, Louis; Gaumont; Gaumont Chronophone; Gaumont, Léon; Gauntier, Gene; Gauvreau, Georges; Gavin, John; Gelabert, Fructuoso; General Film; Germany, audiences; Germany, distribution; Germany, exhibition; Germany, production; Germany, regulation; Ghione, Emilio; Giambastiani, Salvado; Giampietro, Josef; Gibbons, Walter; Gildenmeijer, Johan; Gilmore, William J.; Gish, Lillian; Gladtvet, Ottar; Gliewe, Max; Globe Films; Gloria; Glucksman, Max; Gluckstadt; Glückstadt, Vilhelm; Goncharov, Vasili; Gottschalk, Ludwig; Grandais, Suzanne; Grau, Robert; Grauman, Sid(ney); Great Britain: exhibition, audience, regulation; Great Britain: production, distribution; Greater New York Film Co.; Green, George; Green, John C.; Griffin, John C.; Griffith, D. W.; Grimoin-Samson, Raoul; Gual, Adrià; Guazzoni, Enrico; Guillaume, Ferdinando; Gundersen, Jens Christian; Guy, Alice; Gys, Leda; Häfker, Hermann; Haggar, William; Hale's Tours; Hamman, Joë; Hans Frey, Talleres; Hansen, Kai; Harrison, Louis Reeves; Hart, William S.; Hartlooper, L.; Hatot, Georges; Heise, William; Hepworth; Hepworth, Cecil; Heuzé, André; Higgins, Ernest; Hintner, Cornelius; Hispano films; historical films; Hodkinson, W. W.; Hofer, Franz; Holger-Madsen; Holland, Annie; Hollandia Film; Hollandsche Film (Pathé); Holmes, E. Burton; Holmes, Helen; Hopwood, Henry Vaux; Horseley, David; Howe, Lyman; Hulfish, David S. (Sherrill); Hurbeck, William; Hurley, Frank; Hutchinson, Samuel; illustrated lectures; illustrated magazines; illustrated songs; Illustrazione cinematografica, L'; immigration/emigration: Europe; immigration/emigration: USA; IMP; imperialism/colonialism: USA; Ince, Ralph; Ince, Thomas; India; industrial films; Industriel forain, L'; intercutting/cross-cutting; Iran (Persia); Ireland; Irigoyen, Julio; Isola, Emile and Vincent; Itala; Italia Almirante Manzini; Italy; Ivens, C.A.P.; Jacobini, Maria; Janssen, Jules; Japan; Jasset, Victorin; Jeffs, Waller; Jenkins, C. Francis; Johnson and Gibson; Johnson, Arthur; Johnson, Jack; Johnson, Noble; Joly, Henri; Jones, Aaron; Jourjon, Charles; Joyce, Alice; Joye, Abbé; Jury, William; juvenile series; Kaeriyama Norimasa; Kalem; Kamm, Leonard Ulrich; Katz, Sam(muel); Kay Bee; Kearton, Cherry; Kemp, George; Kennedy, Jeremiah; Kessel, Adam; Keystone; Khanzhonkov (company); Khanzhonkov, Alexandr; Kholodnaya, Vera; Kinematographische Rundschau; Kinetoscope; Kinofa; Kinografen; Kinora; Klaw and Erlinger; Kleine Optical; Kleine, George; Klercker, Georg af; Kobayashi Kisaburo; Kohinoor Film; Kolm, Louise Veltée; Kolowrat-Krakowsky, Alexander "Sascha" Joseph; Komada Koyo; Komatsu; Konishi Photographic Store; Kosmofilm; Krauss, Henry; Krüger; La Bonne Press; labor movements, Europe; labor movements, USA; Laemmle Film Service; Laemmle, Carl; Lamster, Johann Christian; Lange, Konrad; Larrain, Arturo; Larsen; Larsen, Viggo; Lasky, Jesse; Latham Brothers; Lauste, Eugène; Lautensack, Heinrich; Lavauchy-Clarke, François-Henri; law, cinema and the; Lawrence, Florence; Le Bargy, Charles; Le Blond, Elizabeth Alice; e Prince, Louis Aime Augustin Léar (Albert Kirchner); lecturer (as sound accompaniment); legitimate theater; leisure time and space, Europe; leisure time and space, USA; leisure time and spance: North America; Leonard, Marion; Lepine, Charles-Lucien; Leprince, René; Les Grands Films Populaires; Levesque, Marcel; Lichtbild-Bühne; lighting; Lincoln, W.J.; Lind, Alfred; Linder, Max; Lo Savio, Gerolamo; Loew, Marcus; Londe, Albert; Long, Samuel; Longford, Raymond; Lordier, Georges; Lowenstein, Hans Otto; Lubin Manufacturing Company; Lubin, Siegmund; Lubitsch, Ernst; Lumière et fils; Lumière, Louis; Lundberg, Frans; Lux, Société des phonographes et cinématographes; Luxembourg; Lykke-Seest, Peter; Lyrra Filmi; Machin, Alfred; Maciste; Mack, Max; Madan Theatres Ltd; Madan, J. F.; Maggese cinematografica; Maggi, Luigi; magic lantern shows; Magnusson, Charles; Maguire and Baucus; Maharashtra Film; Maison de la Bonne Presse; Maître, Maurice André; Majestic; Makino Shozo; Marey, Etienne-Jules; Marion, Frank; Mark, Mitchell; Marro, Albert; Martin Duncan, Francis; Martoglio, Nino; Marvin, Arthur; Marvin, Harry; Mary, Clement; Masao Inoue; Mason, Bert; Mason, J. C. Bee; Mastbaum, Jules and Stanley; Matuszewski, Boleslaw; May, Joe; McCutcheon, Wallace; McDowell, J. B.; McKay, Winsor; McRae, V. H.; medical films; Méliès, Gaston; Méliès, Gaston; Méliès, Georges; melodrama theater; melodramas: domestic; melodramas: sensational; Mendel, Georges; Menichelli, Pina; Mercanton, Louis; Merzback Freres; Mesguich, Felix; Messter; Messter Biophon; Messter, Oskar; Mexico; microscopic films; Migé, Clément; Milano; Miles Brothers; Miller, Arthur; Minier, Louis; Mistinguett; Misu, Mime; Mitchell and Kenyon; Mix, Tom; Modot, Gaston; Monca, Georges; monopoly; capitalism, Europe; Moore, Owen; Morano, Gigetta; Morlhon, Camille de; Mosjoukine, Ivan; Motion Picture Distributing & Sales; Motion Picture Story Magazine; Mottershaw, Frank; Moving Picture News; moving picture novels; moving picture theaters; Moving Picture World; MPPC; Mudaliar, Nataraja; Mullens Brothers; Müller-Lincke, Anna; multiple reel films, Europe; multiple reel films, USA; Münsterberg, Hugo; Murdock, J. J.; Musée Grévin; museum life exhibits; music (cultural context); music halls; music scores; musical accompaniment; Musidora Mutual Film Co.; Muybridge, Eduard; Nalpas, Louis; Napierkowska, Stacia; Napoli; Natan, Bernard; National Board of Censorship; National Film Renting; Natural Colour Kinematograph; Navarre, René; Negroni, Baldassar; Nepoti; Netherlands; New York Clipper; New York Dramatic Mirror; New York Motion Picture (Bison); New Zealand; Newman, Arthur; news event films; newspapers; newsreels; Nickelodeon/Motography; nickelodeons; Nielson, Asta; Nikkatsu (conglomerate); Nilsson, N. P. and Axel; Noggerath Snr and Jnr, Ferdinand Anton; Noguès, Pierre; non-commercial distribution; Nonguet, Lucien; Nordisk; Nordisk Film Tidning; Normand, Mabel; North American Phonograph; Norton, Goodwin; Norway; Notari, Elvira; Novelli, Amleto; novels/short stories; Numa Peterson's Trading Company; Oceania/South Pacific; Olcott, Sidney; Oliver, David; Oliver, Felix; Olsen, Ole; Omegna, Roberto; Onoe Matsunosuke; opera; Optical Lantern Weekly/Kinematograph and Lantern Weekly; Orientaliska teatern; Osterreichischer Komet; Ouimet, Léo-Ernest; Oxilia, Nino; pageants/outdoor spectacles; painting; palace cinemas; Palestine; Paley & Steiner; Paley, William; Panama; Pantakar Friends & Co.; Paris morgue; Parnaland, Ambroise-François; Pasquali & Tempo; Pasquali, Ernesto Maria; Pastrone, Giovanni; Pathé (Australia); Pathé (Japan); Pathé Cinematograph; Pathé Film (Sweden); Pathé Frères; Pathé Russe (company); Pathé, Charles; Pathécolor; Paul, Robert W.; penny arcades; Peon, Ramon; Perret, Léonce; Perry, Joseph; Peru; Peterson, Numa; Phalke, D.-G.; Phalke's Films; phantom train rides; Phantoscope; Philippines; Phono-Ciné-Gazette; Phono-Cinéma-Théâtre; Phonogram; phonography (technology/cultural context); phonoscènes; Phonoscope; photography; Photoplay; Pickford, Mary; Pictures and the Picturegoer; Piel, Harry; Pike, Oliver; Pinschewer, Jules; Pinthus, Kurt; Pirou, Eugène; Poland; polar exploration films; Poli, Sylvester; Polidor; Ponting, Herbert; Popert, Siegmund; pornography; Porten, Henny; Porter, Edwin S.; Portugal; Posnansky, Arthur; post cards; post-production; Pouctal, Henri; POV shot; Power, Nicholas; Powers; Powers; Poyen, René; pre-cinema preservation; Prince, Charles; Pringle, Ralph; production departments; production modes; production: issues and debates; program formats; projectionists; Projectograph; projector: Simplex; projectors; projectors: Casler & Co. Biograph 70mm; projectors: double-film-band; projectors: Edison Home Kinetoscope; projectors: Erneman Imperator; projectors: Gaumont; projectors: glass-plate; projectors: Lumiere; projectors: Nurnberg toy; projectors: optical intermittant; projectors: Pathé; projectors: Pathe KOK; projectors: Powers Cameragraph; projectors: Warwick Bioscope; Projektion; Promio, Alexandre; propaganda films; Proszinski, Kazimirerz; Protazanov, Yakov; Psilander, Valdemar; publicity; Py, Eugenio; Pyke, Montague; Quebec; racial segregation: USA; Raff and Gammon; Raleigh and Robert; Ramos, Antonio; Raymond, Matt; Redfern, Jasper; re-enactments; Reicher, Ernst; Reinhardt, Max; Réjane, Gabrielle; Reliance; religious filmmaking; Relph, Harry (Little Tich); representation: issues and debates; Reulos, Lucien; Rex; Reynaud, Emile; Richardson, Frank Herbert; Riche, Daniel; Riley, Roberti; Robertson, D. W.; Robinne, Gabrielle; Rock, William T.; Rodolfi, Eleuterio; Rogers, George; Roland, Ruth; Rolfe, Alfred; Rollini, G.; Rosas, Enrique; Rosenthal, Joseph; Rossi, Carlo; Rothapfel, S. L. (Roxy); Royal Bioscope; Russian Empire; Rye, Stellan; Sabinski, Czeslaw; Sales Co.; saloons; Salvation Army; Sandberg, Serge; Sandow, Eugene; Santos y Artigua; Sargent, Epes Winthrop; Sascha-Film; Saturn; Saunders, Arthur; Savoia; Saxe, John and Thomas; SCAGL; Schenk, Nicholas and Joseph; Schneider, Eberhard; Schuberg, John; scientific films: Europe; scientific films: USA; Scotland; screens; scriptwriting; Seeber, Guido; Selig Polyscope; Selig, William; Sen, Hiralel; Sennett, Mack; Serena, Gustavo; serials; set design; Sfinks; shadow theater; Shakespeare films; Sheffield Photo; Shepard, Archie; shift to multiple reel/feature films; Shipman, Nell [Helen]; Shirogoro Sawamura; Show World; Sienna, Pedro; Silvio, Alex; Singh, Suchet; Sivan, Casimir; Sjöström, Victor; Skaarup; Skaarup, Frede; Skandinavisk-Russik; Skandinavisk-Russisk Filmskompagni; Skladanowsky, Max and Emil; Skouras, Spyros; Slieker, Christian; Smalley, Philips; Smirnova, Elena; Smith, Albert E.; Smith, F. Percy; Smith, G. A.; Smith, J. W.; Smith, John W.; Solax; sound effects; sound films : Pathé-Frères; sound machines; sound machines; sound projection; Spain; Specht, Georges; spectatorship: issues and debates; Spencer, Cozens; Spoor, George; sports films; staging in depth; Starewicz, Wladyslaw; stars; Steiner, William; stereographs; Sterling, Ford; Stiller, Mauritz; Stokvis, S. B.; Stollwerck, Ludwig; stop motion; Storey, Edith; Stow, Percy; Studio Films; studios; Svenska Biografteatern; Svensk-Amerikanska Filmkompaniet; Swanson; Swanson, William; Sweden: production, distribution, exhibition, audience, regulation; Sweet, Blanche; Switzerland; Tachibana Teijiro; talker pictures; Tally, Thomas Lincoln; Talmadge, Norma; Tanaka Eizo; Tannenbaum, Herbert; Taylor, William; Tenkatsu; Thailand (Siam); Thanhouser; Theophile Pathe et Cie; Thévenon; Thieman & Reinhardt Company; Thiemann, Pavel; Thomas, Arthur Duncan; Thurston, Charles; titles and intertitles; Togores, José; Tokugawa Musei; tonbilder; Topical Film Company; Torino; Toscano, Salvador; Tourneur, Maurice; trade press; transportation; Trautschold, Gustav; traveling exhibitors; travelogues; trick films; Trujillo Duran, Manuel; Turkey/Ottoman Empire; Turner, Florence; Turpin, Ben; Umeya Shokichi; Universal Film Company; Urban, Charles; urbanization; Uruguay; USA, distribution; USA, exhibition; USA, production; USA, regulation/censorship; USA: audiences; Valentin, Karl; Valetta Films; Valle, Federico; Van Goitsenhaven, Louis; Vandel, Marcel; Variety; vaudeville; Velle, Gaston; Venezuela; Venkiah, R.; Vesuvio; Veyre, Gabriel; Vidali; Vietnam; Views and Films; Index/Film Index; Viking Film; visual-audio reproduction, theories of; Vita cinematographica, La; Vitagraph; Vitascope; von Bernard, Bertrand; Von Herkomer, Sir Herbert; Vtrotti; Wales; Walker, William; Walthall, Henry; Walturdaw; war films; Warner, Harry; Warners; Warwick Trading; Waters, Percival; Weber, Lois; Wegener, Paul; Weisse, Hanni; Werner, Michel and Eugène; West, Alfred; West, T.J.; westerns: cowboy and Indian films; white slave films; White, Chrissie; White, James H.; White, Pearl; Wiener Kunstfilm-Industrie; Williams, Kathlyn; Williams, Randall; Williamson, James; WKF/Express; Wolf, Nathan Hyman; Wolff, Philip; women's movement, Europe; women's movement, USA; women's suffrage films; Woods, Frank; world fairs; World Film (USA); World War I; Worringen, Paul von; Wrench Film Company; X-ray films; Yermol'ev; Yokota Einosuke; Yokota Shokai; Yoshizawa Shoten; Young Deer, James; Zacconi, Ermete; Zecca, Ferdinand; Zhang, Shichuang; Zheng, Zhengqiu; Zukor, Adolph

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