Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures Topics and Cultures A-K - Volume 1; Cultures L-Z - Volume 2 / Edition 1by Carol R. Ember
In many animal species, one can hardly tell the difference between females and males. Their size, coloring, and behavior may be so similar that even experts cannot readily tell the difference until they are ready to reproduce. In contrast, human females and males differ not only in secondary sexual characteristics, but they also generally exhibit differences in… See more details below
In many animal species, one can hardly tell the difference between females and males. Their size, coloring, and behavior may be so similar that even experts cannot readily tell the difference until they are ready to reproduce. In contrast, human females and males differ not only in secondary sexual characteristics, but they also generally exhibit differences in height, weight, and ratio of muscle to fat. Given the reproductive differences, as well as differences in appearance between males and females, it is hardly surprising that most, if not all societies conceive of females and males as important social categories. These reproductive and biological facts by themselves cannot explain the enormous variability in the way societies treat persons of the different biological sexes. The most sexually egalitarian societies may hardly treat males and females differently. But there are no societies that clearly give more overall advantages to females than to males, and those that advantage males vary considerably from mild to extreme inequality. The central aim of this encyclopedia is to give the reader a comparative perspective on issues involving conceptions of gender, gender differences, gender roles, relationships between the genders, and sexuality. This is done within the two main sections within the encyclopedia: Topics and Cultures. The topical overviews are divided into four sections: cultural conceptions of gender; observed differences between males and females in behavior and personality; institutionalized aspects of gender; sexuality and male-female interaction. The Cultures sections contains 82 specific cultural articles written by anthropologists or other social scientists who have lived with the people they write about and are able to give a vivid portrait of life in that society, which provide a "portrait" of how boys and girls grow up and become men and women in that society. Cultures from the widest possible spectrums-fro
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Table of Contents* Preface.
• Cultural Conceptions of Gender. Cultural Constructions of Gender; E.S. Segal. Gender Stereotypes; D.L. Best. Gender Differences. Biological Bases of Sex Differences; B.S. Low. Socialization of Boys and Girls in Natural Contexts; C. Pope Edwards, L. Knoche, A. Kumru. Adolescence; G.E. Weisfeld. Personality and Emotion; C. Whissell.
• Gender Roles, Status, and Institutions. Courtship and Marriage; L. Hendrix. Parental Roles; R.A. Veneziano. Economic Activities and Gender Roles; R. O'Brian. Leadership, Power and Gender; K. Kauppinen, I. Aaltio. War and Gender; J.S. Goldstein. Religion, Religiosity, and Gender; B. Beit-Hallahmi. Gender-Based Social Groups; C.R. Ember, M. Ember. Relative Status of Men and Women; M.L. Margolis. Economic Development and Gender; R. O'Brian. Language & Gender; B. McElhinny. Transitions in the Life-Course of Women; J.K. Brown.
• Sexuality and Male-Female Interaction. Sexual Attitudes and Practices; G.J. Broude. Modesty and Sexual Restraint; C.E. Rothenberg. Husband-Wife Interaction and Aloofness; G.J. Broude. Homosexuality; F.L. Cardoso, D. Werner. Transgender and Transsexuality; T.M. Witten. Rape and Other Sexual Aggression; L. Zimmer-Tamakoshi.
• Sex and Gender in the World's Cultures. Abaluyia; M.G. Cattell. Abelam; R. Scaglion. Armenians; A. Ishkanian. Aymara; W. Mitchell. Bakairí; D.S. Picchi. Bakkarwal; A. Rao. Balinese; L. Parker. Bamiléké; P. Feldman-Savelsberg. Beng; A. Gottlieb. Blackfoot; A. Kehoe. Canela; W.H. Crocker. Cherokee; M.J. Tippeconnic Fox. Chinese Americans; Xiaojian Zhao. Chipewyan; R. Jarvenpa. Czechs; T.M. Hall. Eastern Tukanoans; J.M. Chernela. Germans; J.M. Pastoetter. Glebo; M.H. Moran. Greeks of Kalymnos; D.E. Sutton. Hadza; F. Marlowe. Han Chinese; W. Jankowiak. Hma' Btsisi'; B.S. Nowak. Hmong of Laos and the United States;Dia Cha, T. Dunnigan. Hopi; A. Schlegel. Hungarians; B.A. West, I. Annus. Iatmul; E. Kline Silverman. Ifugao; L.M. Kwiatkowski. Igbo; D.J. Smith. Iranians; M.E. Hegland. Israelis; M.P. Safir, A. Rosenmann. Italians; V.A. Goddard. Jamaica; W. Wedenoja. Kayapo; W.H. Fisher. Kazakhs; C. Werner. Kyrgyz; K. Kuehnast. Lahu; Shanshan Du. Maasai; A. Talle. Manjako; M. Buckner. Mardu; R. Tonkinson, M. Tonkinson. Marquesans; K.C. Riley. Maya; J.R. Sosa, B. Montes, M.-A. Yeager, E. Paqcha Benites. Mehinako; U. Prinz. Mexicans; J. Pauli. Mormon Fundamentalists; W.R Jankowiak. Mountain Arapesh; P. Roscoe. Mundugumor; N. McDowell. Na; E.R. Walsh. Nahua; J.M. Taggart. Nandi; R. Smith Oboler. Navajo; M.T. Schwarz. Nepali; M.M. Cameron. Northeast India: Orissa and West Bengal; S.C. Seymour. Orang Suku Laut; L. Lenhart. Puerto Ricans; M. Asencio. Rungus Dusun; G.N. Appell, L.W.R. Appell. Sakha; S.A. Crate. Samburu; B. Straight, J. Holtzman. Samoans; J.M. Mageo. San Blas Kuna; J. Howe. Shipibo; W.M. Hern. Shoshone; R.H. Crapo. Spanish; S. Tax Freeman. Swat Pathan; C. Lindholm. Swazi; B.J. Harris. Taiwan; Chien-Juh Gu, R.S. Gallin. Taiwanese Americans; C. Avenarius. Tanna; L. Lindstrom. Tarahumara; F.S. Wyndham. Tikopia; J. Macdonald. Timpaus Banggai; H.B. Broch. Tlingit; L.F. Klein. Trobriands; W. Schiefenhövel. Tswana; R.L. Upton. Ukrainians; S.D. Phillips. Uzbek; M.R. Kamp, A.C. Shalinsky. Waorani; P.I. Erickson. West Indian Americans; O. LaBennett. Yanomami; G. Herzog-Schröder. Yapese; R.A. Marksbury. Yupik Eskimos; C. Zane Jolles. Yuqui; A. MacLean Stearman. Zapotec; L. Stephen. Glossary. Alternative Culture Names. Index.
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