Encyclopedia of Special Education: A Reference for the Education of Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Disabilities and Other Exceptional Individuals / Edition 3

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Overview

The Third Edition of the highly acclaimed Encyclopedia of Special Education has been thoroughly updated to include the latest information about new legislation and guidelines. In addition, this comprehensive resource features new biographies of important figures in special education, school psychology, and neuropsychology and reviews of new tests and curricula that have been developed since publication of the second edition in 1999. Unique in focus, the Encyclopedia of Special Education, Third Edition addresses issues of importance ranging from theory to practice and is a critical reference for researchers as well as those working in the special education field.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Now in its 3rd edition, this three-volume encyclopedia is impressive both in its breadth of coverage and in its thoroughness of the topics treated." (American Reference Books Annual, 2008)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471678014
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/2/2007
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 704
  • Product dimensions: 8.84 (w) x 11.04 (h) x 1.53 (d)

Meet the Author

Elaine Fletcher-Janzen, Ph.D., teaches at the University of Northern Colorado and consults to area school districts. She also serves as a trainer for American Guidance Systems, a publisher of clinical assessment instruments for school psychologists. She is the coeditor of the Handbook of School Neuropsychology (with Cecil Reynolds and Rik D'Amato).

Cecil Reynolds, Ph.D., is Professor of Educational Psychology and Professor of Neuroscience at Texas A&M University. He is the author or editor of numerous books, including the Handbook of School Psychology (with Terry Gutkin, Wiley), and several Essentials books (Essentials of Behavioral Assessment, with Randy Kamphaus and Michael Ramsay, and Essentials of Assessment with Brief Intelligence Tests, with Liz Lichtenberger). He has also developed a number of psychological assessment instruments, including the RIAS (published by PAR) and the BASC (published by AGS).

Both authors have collaborated on several previous projects, including the Encyclopedia of Special Education, Second Edition, the Concise Encyclopedia of Special Education, Second Edition, and the Childhood Disorders Diagnostic Desk Reference.

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Read an Excerpt

A AAAS
See AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.

Note: Some of the Figures and/or Tables mentioned in this sample chapter do not appear on the Web.

AAMD CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

The American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) was founded in 1876 to support and promote the general welfare of people who are mentally retarded through professional programs, dissemination of research and program advances, and development of standards for services and facilities. The organization is comprised of approximately 10,000 professionals from many different disciplines who are concerned with the prevention and treatment of mental retardation. The association publishes two research journals, Mental Retardation and American Journal of Mental Deficiency. A national conference, along with many regional and state conferences, is held each year to give professionals the opportunity to share significant information regarding the education and welfare of children and adults with mental retardation.

The first diagnostic and classification system was published in 1921. It was reviewed and revised in 1933, 1941, 1957, 1959, 1973, 1977, and 1983. In each case, the manual was revised based on new developments in philosophy and knowledge of the field. To make the revisions and clarify important issues, input is culled from presentations at national and regional meetings of the AAMD, national and local hearings, and discussions with representatives of many professional, social, and political action groups. All revisions are made by the AAMD's Terminology and Classification Committee after a careful examination of the present classification system and the new data. Major revisions over the years have centered around the presentation of a dual classification system, medical and behavioral; clarification of the definitions of adaptive and measured intelligence; the addition of an extensive glossary; an illustration of levels of adaptive behavior; and procedures for diagnosing mental retardation in the behavioral system. With this last example, it is important that clinicians understand, in diagnosing mental retardation, the concept of standard error of measurement and its use in making a clinical determination of retardation and level of functioning.

The 1983 AAMD classification system developed by the AAMD's Terminology and Classification Committee has been written to reflect current thinking in the field. This latest edition has three distinct purposes. First, the 1983 edition was an attempt to provide an acceptable system to be used worldwide. It was developed in coordination with the International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) of the World Health Organization, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-III (DSM-III), and the American Association on Mental Deficiency's Classification in Mental Retardation.

The second purpose was to improve opportunities to gather and disseminate information regarding diagnosis, treatment, and research activities. The third purpose of this classification system was to provide opportunities for the identification of causes of mental retardation with implications for prevention.

The definition of mental retardation accepted by most authorities is the one used by the American Association on Mental Deficiency. The definition was presented first by Heber in 1961 and later revised by Grossman in 1973 to read: "Mental retardation refers to significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period." Based on the definition, to be classified mentally retarded, the person must be below average in both measured intelligence and adaptive behavior.

The AAMD classification of the retarded has been useful to professionals as well because it is based on the severity of retardation. The terms used by the AAMD are mild, moderate, severe, and profound.

The AAMD causal classification scheme centers around nine general groupings for mental retardation. These groups include infections and intoxication, trauma or physical agent, metabolism or nutrition, gross brain disease, unknown prenatal influence, chromosomal anomalies, other conditions originating in the perinatal period following psychiatric disorder, and environmental influences.

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