Encyclopedia of Stress

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Stress is a phenomenon that affects us all. While many books have been written on the subject, the Encyclopedia of Stress is the first of its type. Comprised of nearly 400 entries by leading experts in the field, the Encyclopedia of Stress covers almost every conceivable aspect and ramification of stress. It has something for everyone - practitioners of orthodox or alternative medicine, politicians, social policy makers and social scientists, counselors, psychiatrists, physicians, surgeons, and molecular ...
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Overview

Stress is a phenomenon that affects us all. While many books have been written on the subject, the Encyclopedia of Stress is the first of its type. Comprised of nearly 400 entries by leading experts in the field, the Encyclopedia of Stress covers almost every conceivable aspect and ramification of stress. It has something for everyone - practitioners of orthodox or alternative medicine, politicians, social policy makers and social scientists, counselors, psychiatrists, physicians, surgeons, and molecular biologists. It even appeals to readers just interested in getting a feel for what stress is all about. In addition to an introduction that will be understood by many readers, the subjects are covered at a depth that make the entries valuable as an a update or background reading for graduate students, post-doctoral scientists, and specialists in the field. This, together with the fact that stress straddles several major disciplines, makes the Encyclopedia of Stress a compelling addition to the laboratory, library or office. Reference libraries that serve the biomedical and social sciences are likely to find the Encyclopedia a popular and frequently used handbook.

"...includes nearly 400 articles on the biological mechanisms involved in the stress response & the disorders that may arise as a consequence of acute or chronic stress."

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
This three-volume reference contains 394 articles covering the entire scope of the subject, including not only the physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects but also the relationship of stress to human health, cognition, and emotion. Organized alphabetically by title (beginning with the specific noun or noun phrase indicating the topic, with any general descriptive terms following), entries cover animal studies, disasters, diurnal rhythms, drugs (effects and treatment), general concepts, human cognition and emotion, physical illness, psychopathology, immunology and inflammation, laboratory studies and tests, other therapies, psychological therapy, and physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. A topical outline highlighting important aspects of each article is followed by a glossary of terms, an introductory paragraph defining and summarizing the content of the article, and the various subtopics. Volume 3 contains a subject index for the entire work as well as an alphabetical list of contributors. Edited by George Fink (research, Pharmos Corporation, Israel) and eight experts from leading laboratories, universities, and schools of medicine. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780122267383
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
  • Publication date: 1/1/2000
  • Pages: 757

Meet the Author

George Fink is a neuroendocrinologist and neuropharmacologist who has had a major interest in stress since the start of his career. He was recently appointed vice president and director of research of the Pharmos Corporation in Israel and the United States, and is the former director of the Medical Research Council's Brain Metabolism Unit and honorary professor in the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Dr. Fink has published over 340 neuroendocrine papers and several authoritative books, and is past president of the European Neuroendocrine Association.
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Table of Contents

Contents by Subject Area
Preface
Guide to the Encyclopedia
Acute Stress Disorder and Postraumatic Stress Disorder
Acute Stress Response: Experimental
Acute Trauma Response
Adenylyl Cyclases and Stress Response
Adjustment Disorders
Adolescence
Adrenal Cortex
Adrenaline
Adrenal Insufficiency
Adrenal Medulla
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Adrenogenital Syndrome
Aerobics in Stress Reduction
Affective Disorders
Aggression
Aggressive Behavior
Aging and Psychological Stress
Aging and Stress, Biology of
AIDS
Alarm Phase and General Adaptation Syndrome
Alcohol, Alcoholism and Stress: A Psychobiological Perspective
Alcohol and Stress: Social and Psychological Aspects
Aldosterone
Allostasis and Allostatic Load
Alternative Therapies
Alzheimer's Disease
Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring
Amenorrhea
Amnesia
Amygdala
Androgen Action
Anger
Angiotensin
Animal Models (Nonprimate) for Human Stress
Antibody Response
Antidepressant Actions on Glucocorticoid Receptors
Antisocial Disorders
Anxiety
Anxiolytics
Apoptosis
Arterial Baroreflex
Arthritis
Asthma
Atherosclerosis
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Stress and
Autoimmunity
Autonomic Nervous System
Autotolerance
Avoidance
Behavior, Overview
Behavior Therapy
Bereavement
Beta-Adrenergic Blockers
Beta-Endorphin
Blacks, Stress in
Blood Pressure
Borderline Personality Disorder
Brain and Brain Regions
Brain Trauma
Breast Cancer
Burnout
Calbindin
Calcium-Dependent Neurotoxicity
Calcium, Role of
Cancer
Cancer Treatment
Captivity, Adaptation to
Captivity, Recovery from
Cardiovascular System and Stress
Caregivers, Stress and
Catecholamines
Central Stress Neurocircuits
Cerebral Metabolism, Brain Imaging
Chaperone Proteins
Chernobyl, Stress Effects of
Child Abuse
Childhood Stress
Child Sexual Abuse
Cholesterol and Lipoproteins
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Circadian Rhythms, Effects of Prenatal Stress in Rodents: An Animal Model
for Human Depression
Circadian Rhythms, Genetics of
Cognition and Stress
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Combat, Acute Reactions to
Combat Reaction, Chronic
Combat Stress Reaction
Community Studies
Comparative Anatomy and Physiology
Complementary Medicine in North America
Concentration Camp Survivors
Conservation of Resources Theory
Control and Stress
Coping Skills
Coping, Stress and
Corticosteriod-Binding Globulin
Corticosteroid Receptors
Corticosteroids and Stress
Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF)
Corticotropin Releasing Factor-Binding Protein
Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptors
Crime Victims
Critical Thermal Limits
Crowding Stress
Cultural Factors
Cultural Transition
Cushing's Syndrome, Medical Aspects
Cushing's Syndrome, Neuropsychiatric Aspects
Cytokines
Cytokines, Stress, and Depression: A Mechanism Involving
Corticotropin-Releasing Factor
Cytotoxic Lymphocytes
Death Anxiety
Defensive Behaviors
Dental Stress
Depersonalization
Depression and Manic-Depressive Illness
Depression Models
Desensitization
Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST)
Diabetes, Type I
Diet and Stress, Non-Psychiatric
Disasters, Public, Effects of
Disaster Syndrome
Disease, Stress Induced, Overview
Dissociation
Distress
Divorce, Children of
Domestic Violence
Dopamine, Central
Drosophila Genes and Anoxia
Drosophila Studies
Drug Use and Abuse
Earthquakes, Stress Effects of
Eating Disorders and Stress
Educational Levels and Stress
Elder Abuse
Electrodermal Activity
Emergency Personnel, Stress in
Emotional Inhibition
Emotions: Structure and Adaptive Functions
Endocrine Systems
Enuresis
Environmental Factors
Environmental Stress, Effects on Human Performance
Epilepsy
Estrogen
Ethanol and Endogenous Opiods
Evolutionary Origins and Functions of the Stress Response
Excitatory Amino Acids
Excitotoxins
Exercise
Familial Patterns of Stress
Fatigue and Stress
Fear
Febrile Response
Feedback Systems
Fibrinogen and Clotting Factors
Fight-or-Flight Response
Firefighters, Stress in
Fish, Stress in
Floods, Stress Effects of
Food Intake and Stress, Human
Food Intake and Stress, Non-Human
Food Shift Effect
Freud, Sigmund
GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid)
Gastrointestinal Effects
Gender and Stress
Genetic Factors and Stress
Genetic Predispositions to Stressful Conditions
Glia or Neuroglia
Glucocorticoid Negative Feedback
Glucocorticoids, Effects of Stress on
Glucocorticoids, Neuroendangerment and Neurotoxicity
Glucocorticoids, Overview
Glucocorticoids, Role in Stress
Glucose Transport
Glycobiology of Stress
Gonadotropin Secretion, Effects of Stress on
Grieving
Group Therapy
Gulf War Syndrome, Psychological and Chemical Stressors
Health and Socioeconomic Status
Health Behavior and Stress
Heart Disease/Attack
Heart Rate
Heat Resistance
Heat Shock Genes, Human
Heat Shock Proteins: HSP60 Family Genes
Heat Shock Response, Overview
Herpesviruses
Hippocampal Neurons
Hippocampus, Corticosteroid Effects on
Hippocampus, Overview
HIV Infection/AIDS
Holocaust, Stress Effects of
Holocaust Survivors, Experiences of
Homeostasis
Homosexuality, Stress and
Hostility
11 beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
Hyperractivity (Cardiovascular)
Hypertension
Hyperthermia
Hyperthyroidism
Hyperventilation
Hypnosis
Hypoglycemia
Hypotension, Hypovolemia, and Septic Shock
Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Anatomy of
Hypothermia
Hypothroidism
Hysteria
Immobilization Stress
Immune Cell Distribution, Effects of Stress on
Immune Function, Stress-Induced Enhancement of
Immune Response
Immune Suppression
Immune System, Aging
Immunity
Impotence, Stress and
Impulse Control
Incest
Indigenous Societies
Industrialized Societies
Infection
Instinct Theory
Insulin Resistance
Interactions between Stress and Drugs of Abuse
Korean Conflict, Stress Effects of
Learned Helplessness
Learning and Memory, Effects of Stress on
Left Ventricular Mass
Leishmania
Life Events Scale
Lipocortin 1
Lockerbie Air Crash, Stress Effects of
Lymph Nodes
Lymphocytes
Lymphocyte Trafficking
Macrophage Antimycobacterial Activity, Effects of Stress on
Macrophages
Major Depressive Disorder
Male Partner Violence
Marital Conflict
Marital Status and Health Problems
Marriage
Maternal Deprivation
Medical Profession and Stress
Membrane Glucocorticoid Receptors
Memory and Stress
Memory Impairment
Menopause and Stress
Menstrual Cycles and Stress
Mental Stress Testing
Metabolic Syndrome and Stress
Metastasization
Metyrapone: Basic and Clinical Studies
Migraine
Minorities and Stress
Motor Vehicle Accidents, Stress Effects of
Mucosal Immunity, Stress and
Multiple Personality Disorder
Multiple Sclerosis
Musculoskeletal Problems and Stress
Myopathy
Natural Killer (NK) Cells
Negative Affect
Nelson's Syndrome
Neuroendocrine Systems
Neurogenesis
Neuroimmunomodulation
Nightmares
Nitric Oxide
Northern Ireland, Studies of Stress in
Nuclear Warfare, Threat of
Nutrition
Obesity, Stress and
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Oklahoma City Bombing, Stress Effects of
Opioids
Optimism
Oxidative Stress
Oxidative Stress and Acidosis, Molecular Responses to
Oxytocin
Pain
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Paranoia
Paraventricular Nucleus
Peacekeeping
Peptides
Persian Gulf Ware, Stress Effects of
Personality Processes
Pharmacological Treatments of Stress
Pheromones
Pituitary Regulation, Role of
Police, Stress in
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Delayed
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Neurobiology of
Posttraumatic Therapy
Premenstrual Syndrome
Pressures, Effects of Extreme High and Low
Primate Hierarchies and Personality
Primate Models, Behavioral-Immunological Interactions
Primate Models, Cardiovascular Disease
Primate Models, Overview
Prison
Prisoners of War
Problem-Solving Skills Training
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)
Prostaglandins
Protein Synthesis
Psychoanalysis
Psychological Stressors, Overview
Psychoeuroimmunology
Psychosocial Factors and Stress
Psychosomatic Medicine
Psychotherapy
Psychotic Disorders
Reductive Stress
Reenactment Techniques
Refugees, Stress in
Regional Blood Flow, Stress Effects
Relaxation Techniques
Religion and Stress
Renal and Adrenocortical Actions of Dopamine
Reproduction, Effects of Social Stress on
Reproductive Dysfunction in Primates, Behaviorally Induced
Resistance
Restraint Stress
Salivary Cortisol
Salt Appetite
Schizophrenia
School Stress and School Refusal Behavior
Seasonal Changes in Stress Responses
Secretagogue
Self-Esteem, Stress and Emotion
Selye, Hans
Serotonin
Sex Differences in Human Stress Response
Sex Steroids, Response to Stress and Susceptibility to Depression
Sexual Assault
Sexual Dysfunction
Sickle Cell Disease and Stress
Sleep Loss, Jet Lag, and Shift Work
Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Stress
Smoking and Stress
Social Capital
Social Status and Stress
Social Stress, Animal Models of
Social Support
Somatic Disorders
Startle Response
Steroid Hormone Receptors
Steroid Hydroxylases
Stress, Definitions and Concepts of
Stress Effects, Overview
Stress Generation in the Context of Depressive Disorders
Stress Hyporesponsive Period
Stress Management and Cardiovascular Disease
Stress Management, CAM Approach
Suicide, Biology of
Suicide, Psychology of
Suicide, Sociology of
Surgery and Stress
Survivor Guilt
Sympathetic Nervous System
Synthetic Glucocorticoids
Teaching and Stress
Temperature Effects
Terrorism
Thermal Stress
Thermotolerance, Thermoresistance, and Thermosensitivity
Three Mile Island, Stress Effects of
Thymus
Thyroid Hormones
Torture
Trauma and Memory
Type A Behavior
Type A Personality, Type B Personality
Ulceration, Gastric
Understimulation/Boredom
Urocortin
Vasoactive Peptides
Vasopressin
Vietnam Veterans, Postwar Experiences of
Violence
Waist-Hip Ratio
War-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Treatment of
War Stress in the former Yugoslavia
Workplace Stress
Contributors
Index
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Preface

"Stress" remains one of the most frequently used, but ill-defined words in the English language. Stress is a phenomenon that has quite different meanings for the politician, social scientist, physician, nurse, psychotherapist, physiologist, or molecular biologist, and perhaps for you and me.

This diversity of meanings was one impetus for creating the Encyclopedia of Stress, the aim being to derive a definition of stress from a variety of expert descriptions. The second impetus was the obvious need for an up-to-date compendium on one of the most important social, medical, and psychological phenomena of our age. We were fortunate in attracting stars for our Editorial Board and a set of most distinguished contributors for the 400 or so entries - indeed, the list of contributors is a Who's Who in stress research.

We anticipate that the diversity of our readers will equal the diversity of the topics covered. They will find that the coverage of the Encyclopedia extends well beyond the General Adaptation theory of Hans (Janos) Selye and the fight-or-flight response of Walter Cannon. Nonetheless, the general principles enunciated by these two great pioneers in the field still underpin our understanding of the biology of the stress phenomenon. That is, stress is a real or perceived challenge, either endogenous or exogenous, that perturbs body equilibrium or "homeostasis." The stressor may range from overcrowding, traffic congestion, violence, bereavement, redundancy or unemployment, to physical, chemical, biological, or psychological insults. Whether the person can adapt to or cope with the stress will depend on the nature and severity of the stressor and the person's physical and mental state, which is determined by genetic, experiential, social, and environmental factors. These issues are discussed in depth in the Encyclopedia, as are the mechanisms of coping and the impact of stress on health and predisposition to diseases such as cancer, infection, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, high blood pressure, and mental disorder.

Aggression remains a hallmark of human behavior, even as we move into the third millennium, and therefore the Encyclopedia covers several topical areas that have only recently been analyzed systematically. These include war and specific wars, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; formerly thought of vaguely as "shell shock"), rape, torture, marital discord and spousal abuse, and the Holocaust. In tackling these topics, we accept that our entries may not include all the nuances that are necessary for a full understanding of what these phenomena are all about and described so graphically and sensitively in Tolstoy's War and Peace or Pat Barker's monumental Regeneration trilogy on the horrific psychological traumas of the First World War. Nonetheless, an important start has been made in that we now accept that PTSD is not just lack of "bottle" (courage or "guts"), but rather a syndrome that needs to be, and can be, understood within the framework of Medicine and Psychology.

Biologically, the stress response reflects a set of integrated cascades in the nervous, endocrine and immune defense systems. As in most areas of biology, molecular genetics has made a significant difference in the precision with which we now understand the physiopathological processes of the stress response. And so the adage, formerly applied to diabetes mellitus, may now apply equally to stress: "understand stress and you will understand Medicine."

In summary, we hope that this first Encyclopedia of Stress will indeed define the term and at the same time provide a valuable source of information on a phenomenon that affects us all. In setting out on this adventure, we were aware that there is nothing new under the sun, and that "stress" has been around since the first biological particles, bacteria, or even viruses competed for the same mechanisms for replication. There is a tendency for each generation to imagine that stress and its untoward effects are uniquely harsh for them; but it is not this misconception that underlies this Work. Rather, the stress of "stress" itself - the massive accumulation of knowledge - made it seem propitious to bring the information together in a systematic manner that allows ready access to all who need or wish to understand the phenomenon.

The idea of producing this encyclopedia was conceived at an Academic Press reception in San Diego held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in 1996. I am deeply indebted to Erika Conner for enabling conversion of the idea to a concept and then a project, and Jennifer Wrenn, Christopher Morris, and Carolan Gladden, all of the Press, for their enthusiasm, encouragement and Herculean efforts which converted the concept into a reality. For giving generously of their intellect, expertise, sound advice, and unstinting work, I am greatly indebted to my friends and colleagues on the Editorial Board who made the project such a satisfying experience. To all our contributors go our profound thanks for taking time out from wall-to-wall schedules to produce their entries, which together have made this Encyclopedia.

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