Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction Era [Two Volumes] [2 volumes]: Greenwood Milestones in African American History

Overview

Reconstruction sought to bring order from the tremendous social, political, economic, physical, and constitutional changes wrought by secession and the Civil War, changes that included the abolition of slavery, the expansion of governmental power and constitutional jurisdiction, the rise of the Republican Party, the explosion of northern industry and the national market, and the appearance of a social dynamism that supported struggles by new social groups for political and civil...

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Overview

Reconstruction sought to bring order from the tremendous social, political, economic, physical, and constitutional changes wrought by secession and the Civil War, changes that included the abolition of slavery, the expansion of governmental power and constitutional jurisdiction, the rise of the Republican Party, the explosion of northern industry and the national market, and the appearance of a social dynamism that supported struggles by new social groups for political and civil equality.

In American history, Reconstruction is the term applied to the period 1862-1877, when the United States sought to bring order from the tremendous social, political, economic, physical, and constitutional changes wrought by secession and the Civil War.The decision by eleven southern states to attempt secession and reject the national government, and the decision by the federal government under President Abraham Lincoln to deny that attempt and enforce federal law, unleashed forces that forever changed the American Republic. These changes included the abolition of slavery, the expansion of governmental power and constitutional jurisdiction, the rise of the Republican Party, the explosion of northern industry and the national market, and the appearance of a social dynamism that supported struggles by new social groups for political and civil equality. No one anticipated the totality, the viciousness, and the intensity of the civil war, and as a result no one was prepared to deal with its consequences. Topics covered include who should direct Reconstruction; how the federal government treated conquered states, their governments, and their soldiers; the role of the freed people in the new republic; and how the war altered the Constitution, the party system, and the American economy, among many others.

Many entries describe and analyze the lives, careers, and impacts of the individuals, North and South, black and white, who shaped the course of Reconstruction, including the following: Ames, Adelbert Bruce, Blanche K. Douglass, Frederick Gordon, John B. Hancock, Winfield S. Howard, Oliver O. Pinchback, Pinckney B.S. Revels, Hiram R. Sheridan, Philip H. Wade, Benjamin F. Other entries deal with broad topics and themes related to Reconstruction and its consequences, including the following: Abolition of Slavery, Black Politicians, Black Suffrage, Bloody Shirt, Economic Policies, Race Riots, Reconstruction, Theories of Scandals During Reconstruction, State Constitutional Conventions, Violence During Reconstruction. Still other entries cover a wide variety of events, groups, acts, agencies, and amendments that were part of the story of Reconstruction, including the following: American Indians, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands Compromise of 1877, Democratic Party, Fourteenth Amendment, Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Loyalty Oaths, Military Reconstruction Acts, Stalwarts, Tenure of Office Act. Among the more than 270 entries are 11 that discuss the course and consequences of Reconstruction in each of the former Confederate states, and 6 that discuss the outcome and significance of the presidential and key congressional elections held between 1864 and 1876. The encyclopedia also offers a timeline of Reconstruction, a bibliography of print and electronic information resources, a selection of primary documents, a table of important dates, numerous illustrations, and a detailed subject index.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Of all of the available reference works on the topic, Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction Era is the one most appropriate for academic collections. Scholarly yet accessible, it is recommended for academic and large public library collections."

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Booklist/Reference Books Bulletin

"This work is a step toward illuminating this important and often overlooked era….[t]his is a formidable collection of data….[a]dvance placement students, teachers, and more serious scholars could well profit from these volumes."

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Library Media Connection

"This is the first encyclopedia devoted solely to the period of Reconstruction in American history (1862-77). Zuczek, a notable Reconstruction scholar, clarifies the term's meaning. Reconstruction refers to both a period and a process, the result of the political, social, legal, and economic changes in the South and the nation brought about by the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves. Zuczek and other historians contribute more than 260 articles on persons, concepts, institutions, gender and race, laws and cases, elections, organizations, and each Southern state. Ranging from a page (gun clubs) to about nine pages (African Americans, Andrew Johnson, South Carolina), the articles are well written, and include both see also references and references to further reading. Also featured are 97 pages of primary documents and convenient tables on key military and political leaders in the Southern states, states' reentry into the Union, and the Redemption period, when conservative Democrats retook power. A chronology, detailed subject index, and a guide to articles (grouped by broad subjects) enhance access to the volumes. Highly recommended. Lower-level undergraduates through faculty/researchers; general readers."

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Choice

"This, the first encyclopedia to cover the subject, will be a most useful and creative addition to the history shelves of US academic libraries and the larger general collections."

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Reference Reviews

"Middle school and high school libraries are the principal audience for this series of multivolume encyclopedias on the African-American experience. Through the Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction Era students will become knowledgeable about the era in American history (1862-1877), how the United States worked to bring order to the devastated South, and the myriad social, political economic, physical, and Constitutional changes brought on by secession and the Civil War."

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Multicultural Review

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Product Details

Meet the Author

RICHARD ZUCZEK is an associate professor at the United States Coast Guard Academy, where he has been teaching since 1999. Previously, Zuczek was at The University of Tennessee, where he was both an assistant professor and an assistant editor of The Papers of Andrew Johnson. In 1996, he published State of Rebellion: South Carolina during Reconstruction (University of South Carolina Press, 1996). He is the co-author (with Glenna Schroeder-Lein) of the Andrew Johnson Companion (ABC-Clio, 2000), and has published on the Civil War and Reconstruction in Civil War History, The South Carolina Historical Magazine, The Handbook on the Vice Presidents, The South Carolina Encyclopedia, and Greenwood's The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research.

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Table of Contents

Foreword by Eric Foner

Preface

Introduction

Guide to Related Topics

Chronology

Map 1: Reconstruction Military Districts and Dates of Readmission and Redemption

Map 2: Slaves as a Percent of Total Population 1860

A-Z Entries

Primary Documents

Appendix 1: Commanding Generals of Military Districts, as per the Military Reconstruction Act of March 2, 1867

Appendix 2: Reconstruction Governors for Former Confederate States

Appendix 3: Dates of Readmission, Redemption, and Ratification of 13th and 14th Amendments for Former Confederate States

List of Contributors

Bibliography

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