Encyclopedia of Volcanoes / Edition 1

Encyclopedia of Volcanoes / Edition 1

by Haraldur Sigurdsson, Hazel Rymer, John Stix, Steve McNutt
     
 

ISBN-10: 012643140X

ISBN-13: 9780126431407

Pub. Date: 10/15/1999

Publisher: Elsevier Science

Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, if sometimes deadly, destructiveness.
Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions

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Overview

Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, if sometimes deadly, destructiveness.
Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes. Through its thematic organization around the melting of the earth, it provides a comprehensive source of information on the multidisciplinary influences of volcanic eruptions—both the destructive as well as the beneficial aspects.
The majority of the chapters focus on the geoscience-related aspects of volcanism (radioactive heat source, melting rock, ascent of magma, surface phenomena associated with exiting magma, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). In addition, complementary chapters discuss the multidisciplinary aspects of volcanism; these include the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity.

In addition to its appeal to educators, students, and professional and amateur scientists, the Encyclopedia of Volcanoes functions as an important information resource for administrators and officials responsible for developing and implementing volcanic hazard mitigation around the world.

• The first and only reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology
• More than 80 separate peer-reviewed articles—all original contributions by leading authors from major institutions of science around the world, commissioned for this work
• An integrated transition from the volcanic process through hazards, risk, and societal impacts, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society
• Convenient single-volume format with topics arranged thematically—articles provide coverage of nine different aspects of volcanology
• Each entry in the Encyclopedia begins with an outline of the article content and a concise definition of the subject of the article
• 3,000 Glossary entries explain key terms
• Further Reading lists appear at the end of each entry
• Extensive cross-referencing system links related articles
• Sixteen pages of color will convey the science and excitement of this often violent phenomena
• Large 8 1/2" x 11" page size, easy-to-read double-column format

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780126431407
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
10/15/1999
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
1417
Product dimensions:
8.60(w) x 11.60(h) x 2.80(d)

Table of Contents

Article Index
Contributors
Foreword
Preface
Guide to the Encyclopedia
Introduction1
The History of Volcanology15
Pt. IOrigin and Transport of Magma
Mantle of the Earth41
Melting the Mantle55
Migration of Melt69
Plate Tectonics and Volcanism89
Composition of Magmas115
Origin of Magmas133
Volatiles in Magmas149
Physical Properties of Magmas171
Magma Chambers191
Rates of Magma Ascent207
Plumbing Systems219
Magma Ascent at Shallow Levels237
Pt. IIEruption
Earth's Volcanoes and Eruptions: An Overview249
Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions263
Volcanic Episodes and Rates of Volcanism271
Pt. IIIEffusive Volcanism
Basaltic Volcanoes and Volcanic Systems283
Lava Flows and Flow Fields291
Lava Domes and Coulees307
Lava Fountains and Their Products321
Basaltic Volcanic Fields331
Flood Basalt Provinces345
Submarine Lavas and Hyaloclastite361
Seamounts and Island Building383
Subglacial Eruptions403
Pt. IVExplosive Volcanism
Magmatic Fragmentation421
Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation431
Hawaiian and Strombolian Eruptions447
Vulcanian Eruptions463
Plinian and Subplinian Eruptions477
Surtseyan and Related Phreatomagmatic Eruptions495
Phreatoplinian Eruptions513
Volcanic Plumes527
Pyroclast Transport and Deposition545
Pyroclastic Fall Deposits555
Pyroclastic Surges and Blasts571
Ignimbrites and Block-and-Ash Flow Deposits581
Lahars601
Debris Avalanches617
Volcaniclastic Sedimentation Around Island Arcs627
Calderas643
Composite Volcanoes663
Scoria Cones and Tuff Rings683
Pt. VExtraterrestrial Volcanism
Volcanism on the Moon697
Volcanism on Io709
Volcanism on Venus727
Volcanism on Mars771
Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System785
Pt. VIVolcanic Interactions
Volcanic Gases803
Geothermal Systems817
Surface Manifestations of Geothermal Systems with Volcanic Heat Sources835
Deep Ocean Hydrothermal Vents857
Volcanic Lakes877
Mineral Deposits Associated with Volcanism897
Pt. VIIVolcanic Hazards
Volcanic Ash Hazards to Aviation915
Volcanic Aerosol and Global Atmospheric Effects931
Hazards from Pyroclastic Flows and Surges945
Lava Flow Hazards957
The Hazard from Lahars and Jokulhlaups973
Hazards of Volcanic Gases997
Volcanic Tsunamis1005
Volcanic Seismicity1015
Impacts of Eruptions on Human Health1035
Volcanic Contributions to the Carbon and Sulfur Geochemical Cycles and Global Change1045
The Ecology of Volcanoes: Recovery and Reassembly of Living Communities1057
Volcanism and Biotic Extinctions1083
Pt. VIIIEruption Response and Mitigation
Seismic Monitoring1095
Ground Deformation, Gravity, and Magnetics1121
Gas, Plume, and Thermal Monitoring1141
Synthesis of Volcano Monitoring1165
Volcano Warnings1185
Volcanic Crises Management1199
Volcanic Hazards and Risk Management1215
Risk Education and Intervention1229
Pt. IXEconomic Benefits and Cultural Aspects of Volcanism
Exploitation of Geothermal Resources1243
Volcanic Soils1259
Volcanic Materials in Commerce and Industry1271
Volcanoes and Tourism1283
Archaeology and Volcanism1301
Volcanoes in Art1315
Volcanoes in Literature and Film1339
App. 1: Common Units and Conversion Factors1361
App. 2Catalog of Historically Active Volcanoes on Earth1365
Acknowledgments1385
Index1389

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