Encyclopedia of Volcanoes / Edition 1

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Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, if sometimes deadly, destructiveness.
Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes. Through its thematic organization around the melting of the earth, it provides a comprehensive source of information on the multidisciplinary influences of volcanic eruptions—both the destructive as well as the beneficial aspects.
The majority of the chapters focus on the geoscience-related aspects of volcanism (radioactive heat source, melting rock, ascent of magma, surface phenomena associated with exiting magma, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). In addition, complementary chapters discuss the multidisciplinary aspects of volcanism; these include the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity.

In addition to its appeal to educators, students, and professional and amateur scientists, the Encyclopedia of Volcanoes functions as an important information resource for administrators and officials responsible for developing and implementing volcanic hazard mitigation around the world.

• The first and only reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology
• More than 80 separate peer-reviewed articles—all original contributions by leading authors from major institutions of science around the world, commissioned for this work
• An integrated transition from the volcanic process through hazards, risk, and societal impacts, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society
• Convenient single-volume format with topics arranged thematically—articles provide coverage of nine different aspects of volcanology
• Each entry in the Encyclopedia begins with an outline of the article content and a concise definition of the subject of the article
• 3,000 Glossary entries explain key terms
• Further Reading lists appear at the end of each entry
• Extensive cross-referencing system links related articles
• Sixteen pages of color will convey the science and excitement of this often violent phenomena
• Large 8 1/2" x 11" page size, easy-to-read double-column format

Audience: Earth system educators, students, and amateur scientists as well as professional volcanologists interested in comprehending specialties outside their own expertise.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The comprehensive and up-to-date Encyclopedia of Volcanoes represents good, broad scientific writing. Important topics about volcanoes that are rarely addressed in stuffy scientific journals, such as volcanoes in art, literature and film, are to be found here...The authors did not "dumb down" other work, or cut and paste from their scientific publications, but instead present difficult science clearly...If you are a scientist who has thought about volcanoes, but haven't followed up your interest, this book should encourage you to go further."
- William I. Rose, Michigan Technical University, USA in Nature
Stephen Blake
The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes covers just about everything one could wish to know about volcanoes and at 1,359 pages of text no other single book can hope to compete with the mass of volcanological information it contains (all 3.5 kg of it). Written by 112 expert authors, the Encyclopedia of Volcanoes will be the reference work for a long time....Undergraduate geology students, professional volcanologists, planetologists, and historians of science will find the Encyclopedia has something for them. With so much material on display, the Encyclopedia is a browser's delight and members of sub-disciplines will find their interests being pulled towards new undreamt of areas of volcanology as they flick through the pages. It's difficult to stop reading it...All science libraries should have a copy.
— (Stephen Blake, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, IAVCEI News)
Library Journal
This impressive work covers all aspects of volcanism. Written by over 100 international scholars in the field, the articles are arranged in nine thematic sections, beginning in the center of the earth with the origin and transport of magma, moving through the different types of eruptions, and finally investigating volcanic interactions, hazards, and economics. There is even a section on extraterrestrial volcanism. Geared for college students and researchers, the well-written articles include a glossary that defines terms within the context of the article, which is very helpful to readers unfamiliar with the terminology. A list of related articles and a bibliography of further readings provide users with additional sources of information. The encyclopedia also includes a catalog of historically active volcanoes on Earth. Works such as The Encyclopedia of Earthquakes & Volcanoes (Facts on File, 1994) are nowhere near as comprehensive as this volume. The thematic organization allows the user the choice of reading a single article on a limited topic or reading the entire section for a full overview. In fact, the entire work could be read from beginning to end, if desired. An excellent source for those who want more than general information on any aspect of volcanology, this volume is highly recommended for academic libraries.--Teresa Berry, Univ. of Tennessee Lib., Knoxville Copyright 2000 Cahners Business Information.\
Each of 82 articles contains a topical outline, glossary, defining statement, the body of the article, cross-references, and a bibliography. Topics include origin and transport of magma; eruption; effusive, explosive, and extraterrestrial volcanism; volcanic interactions and hazards; eruption response and mitigation; and economic benefits and cultural aspects of volcanism. The extensive text is generously amplified by b&w illustrations and photographs as well as a series of color plates. About 100 international experts were directed by editor-in-chief Sigurdsson (U. of Rhode Island School of Oceanography) and co-editors Bruce Houghton (New Zealand's Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences), Stephen R. McNutt (U. of Alaska's Geophysical Institute), Hazel Rymer (Open University, UK) and John Stix (geology, McGill U.). Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780126431407
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 10/15/1999
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1417
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 11.60 (h) x 2.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Bruce Houghton is the Gordon MacDonald Professor in Volcanology at University of Hawaii at Manoa and Hawaiian State Volcanologist and a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He is also Science Director at the National Disaster Preparedness Training Center at University of Hawaii. Previously he had a career of twenty five years as a volcanologist in New Zealand, culminating in leading the scientific response to the 1995-96 eruption of Ruapehu volcano. Bruce has published over 220 research papers in international journals and has worked in Alaska, Chile, El Salvador, Greece, Hawaii, Iceland, Italy, Germany, Nicaragua, Thailand and New Zealand.

Hazel Rymer is presently the Dean and Director of Studies in the Faculty of Science and Profesor of Environmental Volcanology.

Hazel has developed and championed the use of microgravity as a tool for monitoring active volcanoes. She has used this method to identify sub-surface processes at calderas in a state of unrest and at persistently active volcanoes and this has given geoscientists considerable insight into the range of mechanisms responsible for initiating and sustaining volcanic activity. The technique Hazel pioneered is now the standard method for gravity monitoring on volcanoes; it remains the only way to quantify the sub-surface mass changes that occur before, during and after eruptions.

John Stix has studied active volcanoes for 26 years, specializing in volcanic gases, eruption mechanisms, and the impact of volcanic activity. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in volcanology, natural hazards, and environmental geology. He also is involved in field courses, where he exposes students to hands-on observations of natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and floods. He has been involved in many training courses and workshops in Canada, the US, and Latin America to teach volcanology. He has collaborated extensively with colleagues in Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Ecuador in volcano studies and volcanic hazards. From 2003 to 2010 he was the Editor-in-Chief of the Bulletin of Volcanology, the leading international journal related to the study of volcanoes and volcanism. He is currently part of an international team to drill into an active silicic magma body beneath Krafla volcano in Iceland.

Steve McNutt is a Professor in the School of Geosciences at the University of South Florida (USF). He has worked on volcanic processes using seismology, infrasound, and lightning instruments for over 35 years. He worked half time for the Alaska Volcano Observatory from 1991-2012 and was closely involved in monitoring efforts for eruptions at Spurr, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Augustine, Okmok, Kasatochi, and Redoubt volcanoes. He coordinates seismology research at USF, and presently supervises 3 graduate students and a Post-Doc. His research interests include: 1) studies of source and propagation effects for volcanic tremor, low-frequency events, and explosion earthquakes; 2) volcanic hazards assessments in Alaska, California, and Central America; 3) the mechanical behavior of volcanoes, including periodicity of eruptions, and the effects of earth tides, sea level variations, and tectonic stresses on triggering eruptive activity; 4) volcano infrasound; and 5) volcanic lightning. From July 1999 to July 2007 he served as Secretary-General for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

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Table of Contents

Article Index
Guide to the Encyclopedia
Introduction 1
The History of Volcanology 15
Pt. I Origin and Transport of Magma
Mantle of the Earth 41
Melting the Mantle 55
Migration of Melt 69
Plate Tectonics and Volcanism 89
Composition of Magmas 115
Origin of Magmas 133
Volatiles in Magmas 149
Physical Properties of Magmas 171
Magma Chambers 191
Rates of Magma Ascent 207
Plumbing Systems 219
Magma Ascent at Shallow Levels 237
Pt. II Eruption
Earth's Volcanoes and Eruptions: An Overview 249
Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions 263
Volcanic Episodes and Rates of Volcanism 271
Pt. III Effusive Volcanism
Basaltic Volcanoes and Volcanic Systems 283
Lava Flows and Flow Fields 291
Lava Domes and Coulees 307
Lava Fountains and Their Products 321
Basaltic Volcanic Fields 331
Flood Basalt Provinces 345
Submarine Lavas and Hyaloclastite 361
Seamounts and Island Building 383
Subglacial Eruptions 403
Pt. IV Explosive Volcanism
Magmatic Fragmentation 421
Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation 431
Hawaiian and Strombolian Eruptions 447
Vulcanian Eruptions 463
Plinian and Subplinian Eruptions 477
Surtseyan and Related Phreatomagmatic Eruptions 495
Phreatoplinian Eruptions 513
Volcanic Plumes 527
Pyroclast Transport and Deposition 545
Pyroclastic Fall Deposits 555
Pyroclastic Surges and Blasts 571
Ignimbrites and Block-and-Ash Flow Deposits 581
Lahars 601
Debris Avalanches 617
Volcaniclastic Sedimentation Around Island Arcs 627
Calderas 643
Composite Volcanoes 663
Scoria Cones and Tuff Rings 683
Pt. V Extraterrestrial Volcanism
Volcanism on the Moon 697
Volcanism on Io 709
Volcanism on Venus 727
Volcanism on Mars 771
Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System 785
Pt. VI Volcanic Interactions
Volcanic Gases 803
Geothermal Systems 817
Surface Manifestations of Geothermal Systems with Volcanic Heat Sources 835
Deep Ocean Hydrothermal Vents 857
Volcanic Lakes 877
Mineral Deposits Associated with Volcanism 897
Pt. VII Volcanic Hazards
Volcanic Ash Hazards to Aviation 915
Volcanic Aerosol and Global Atmospheric Effects 931
Hazards from Pyroclastic Flows and Surges 945
Lava Flow Hazards 957
The Hazard from Lahars and Jokulhlaups 973
Hazards of Volcanic Gases 997
Volcanic Tsunamis 1005
Volcanic Seismicity 1015
Impacts of Eruptions on Human Health 1035
Volcanic Contributions to the Carbon and Sulfur Geochemical Cycles and Global Change 1045
The Ecology of Volcanoes: Recovery and Reassembly of Living Communities 1057
Volcanism and Biotic Extinctions 1083
Pt. VIII Eruption Response and Mitigation
Seismic Monitoring 1095
Ground Deformation, Gravity, and Magnetics 1121
Gas, Plume, and Thermal Monitoring 1141
Synthesis of Volcano Monitoring 1165
Volcano Warnings 1185
Volcanic Crises Management 1199
Volcanic Hazards and Risk Management 1215
Risk Education and Intervention 1229
Pt. IX Economic Benefits and Cultural Aspects of Volcanism
Exploitation of Geothermal Resources 1243
Volcanic Soils 1259
Volcanic Materials in Commerce and Industry 1271
Volcanoes and Tourism 1283
Archaeology and Volcanism 1301
Volcanoes in Art 1315
Volcanoes in Literature and Film 1339
App. 1: Common Units and Conversion Factors 1361
App. 2 Catalog of Historically Active Volcanoes on Earth 1365
Acknowledgments 1385
Index 1389
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If one could drain the world's oceans and remove their sediment cover, you would quickly realize that the majority of the Earth's surface is covered with lava flows. Although the human race has lived in close contact with volcanic activity since our early origins in the African Rift Valley, only recently have we begun to comprehend how volcanically active our planet really is....Given our growing awareness of the importance of volcanism to the past, present, and future history of Earth and its celestial partners, the publication of the Encyclopedia of Volcanoes is clearly needed and appropriate at this time.
—Dr. Robert D. Ballard, President, Institute for Exploration and Emeritus of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
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