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The End of the European Era / Edition 5

The End of the European Era / Edition 5

by Felix Gilbert, David Clay Large, Felis Gilbert, David Clay Large, David Clay Large

ISBN-10: 0393976424

ISBN-13: 9780393976427

Pub. Date: 01/01/2002

Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.

Since its first publication over thirty years ago, The End of the European Era: 1890 to the Present has offered students a concise and authoritative historical narrative of the events that shaped twentieth-century Europe.
The Fifth Edition retains these strengths while embracing recent developments and current research. The text covers a century of rapid and


Since its first publication over thirty years ago, The End of the European Era: 1890 to the Present has offered students a concise and authoritative historical narrative of the events that shaped twentieth-century Europe.
The Fifth Edition retains these strengths while embracing recent developments and current research. The text covers a century of rapid and tumultuous change, from increased population and migration in the early 1900s through the ongoing unrest in the Balkans.

Product Details

Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
Publication date:
The Norton History of Modern Europe Series
Edition description:
Fifth Edition
Product dimensions:
5.50(w) x 8.20(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Part IEurope's Apogee
Chapter 1The Beginning of a New Century3
A Rising Population3
Intellectual Disquiet and Cultural Revolt7
The Second Industrial Revolution and the Global Dimensions of European Politics12
The Structure of Society15
The Workers
The Ruling Group in Europe
The Middle Classes
The Waning of Political Consensus28
Chapter 2Politics and Society, 1890-191436
Great Britain36
From the Victorian to the Edwardian Age
The Politics of the Ruling Class
The Labor Movement and Social Reform
Imperialism versus Domestic Reform
The Triumph of the Liberal Party
Intensification of Internal Conflicts: Women's Rights and the Irish Question
The Waning of Confidence
Social Basis of French Parliamentarianism
The Republican Regime versus Monarchist Traditions
The Consolidation of the Republic
The Rise of New Tensions
Foreign Policy
Constitution and Social Structure
The Empire under William II
The Habsburg Monarchy80
The Dual Monarchy
The Autocracy in Practice
The Drive toward Industrialization
The Opposition
The Russo-Japanese War and the Revolution of 1905
Chapter 3The First World War95
The Rigidification of the Alliance System95
The Crises of 1905-191498
The First and Second Moroccan Crises
The Bosnian Crisis
War and Crisis in the Balkans
The Outbreak of the First World War105
The European Attitude toward War in 1914
The Nature of Total War112
The Home Front
The War Aims
The Tides of Battle121
The Expanding Theater of War
Stalemate in the West
German Success in the East
Why Men Fought
1917: The Turning Point of the War130
The Revolution in Russia133
Decision in the West139
A New Combatant: The United States
Consequences of the First World War143
Part IIThe Peace That Failed
Chapter 4Peacemaking151
The Statesmen and Their Aims151
The Settlements in Eastern Europe154
The Treaty of Sevres and the Birth of Modern Turkey
The Treaties of Neuilly, Trianon, and St. Germain and Developments in Southeastern and Eastern Europe
The Treaty of Versailles167
Beginnings of the Weimar Republic169
The League of Nations173
Soviet Russia and the Peace Settlement177
Chapter 5The Era of Stabilization186
Unrest and Chaos in Germany: 1919-1924186
The Road to the Reparations Settlement191
Great Britain
Britain as Europe's Leader: 1925-1929201
Italy and Russia in the Twenties205
The Rise of Fascism in Italy
The Stabilization of Communism in Russia
From Lenin to Stalin
Socialism in One Country
The Ambiguity of the Weimar Republic224
Brave New World229
Chapter 6The Economic Crisis and the Rise of Nazism235
The World Economic Crisis235
The First Stirrings of Revolt Against European Control of the Globe241
The Change in the Far East: Japan and China
The Rise of Nazism in Germany248
Adolf Hitler and the Foundation of the Nazi Party
Decline of Parliamentary Government in the Weimar Republic
The Implementation of the Nazi Program
Nazi Policies toward Women
The Beginning of Nazi Foreign Policy
The Italian Conquest of Ethiopia
The Remilitarization of the Rhineland
Chapter 7Toward the Inevitable Conflict276
The Years of Appeasement276
Great Britain
The General Strike
From Ramsay MacDonald to Neville Chamberlain
The Democracies in Retreat290
The Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War and European Diplomacy
Anschluss and the Invasion of Czechoslovakia
The End of Appeasement
Soviet Russia During the Interwar Years304
Stalinism and the Purge Trials
Stalin's Foreign Policy
Chapter 8The Second World War311
The European War311
Germany in Command
The "Phony War"
The Opening of the Western Offensive
The Battle of Britain
The Shift of the Theater of War From the West to the East318
England's Chances of Survival
The Mediterranean Campaign
The Eastern Offensive
The War At Its Height324
The Global War
Total War
Europe under the Nazis
The Hinge of Fate332
Germany before Surrender
The Overthrow of Mussolini
The End of the War in Europe
The Fall of Japan
Part IIIRebuilding Europe
Chapter 9Postwar Uncertainties349
From Wartime Cooperation to Conflicts Over the Peace Settlement349
Europe at the End of Hostilities
Wartime Preparations for Postwar Europe
The Potsdam Conference
The United States and Soviet Russia Confront Each Other in Europe359
The Problem of the Peace Treaties and the Development of East-West Conflict
The Problem of German Reparations and the Break between Russia and the West
The Beginning of the Cold War: The Berlin Blockade
Extension of the Cold War to the Far East367
Asia at the End of Hostilities
The Retreat from Colonialism
A Chain of Open Conflicts
The Struggle in China
The Korean War
The French Defeat in Indochina and the End of the Cold War
Chapter 10Reconstruction and Revolt: The 1950s372
The Basic Tasks of Reconstruction372
The Context of Reconstruction: Science, Technology, and Economics374
Reconstruction in the Eastern Bloc376
Reconstruction in Soviet Russia
Reconstruction in the Satellite Countries
Treaty Bonds between Soviet Russia and the Satellites
The Establishment of a New Order in the Satellite Countries
The Defection of Tito and the Stalinist Purges
Reconstruction in the West385
Treaty Bonds in the Western Bloc
Internal Developments in Western Bloc Nations
The Recovery of the Defeated Powers
West Germany
Postwar Strains in France and Britain394
The Growth of Tensions Within the Eastern and Western Blocs403
Crisis in the East404
Unrest in Poland and Hungary
The Revolt in Hungary
The Suez Affair408
Part IVResurgent Europe
Chapter 11Europe's Abundant Decade: The 1960s413
The Pursuit of Stability and Prosperity in the West415
Conservative Government in Great Britain, 1956-1964
Labor's Return to Power
France: The Return of de Gaulle
Independence for Algeria
De Gaulle's Vision for France
Italy's Opening toward the Left
Germany: A Western Power
Western Europe: Coherence and Tension
De-Stalinization in Eastern Europe434
Khrushchev's Domestic Policies
Khrushchev's Foreign Policies and the Sino-Soviet Split
Poland and Hungary
Romania and East Germany
A Shift in Theory
Chapter 12The Years of Disillusionment: 1967-1973444
Shattered Hopes444
Prague Spring445
Student Revolt447
The Roots of Revolt
Reactions to the Revolution that Failed451
The Oil Crisis457
Women in Revolt459
Contradictory Impulses463
Chapter 13The Decade of Detente: 1969-1979465
Superpower Detente and Arms Control466
The SALT I Negotiations
The Helsinki Accords
West European Politics in the Decade of Detente470
West Germany
Great Britain
Democracy Comes to Portugal and Greece470
A time of Uncertainty484
Chapter 14Western Europe in the Troubled 1980s487
Thatcher's Britain488
West Germany Turns Right493
Mitterrand's France497
Southern Europe501
European-American Relations in the Reagan Era505
The Collapse of Detente
The Euromissile Controversy
Return to Detente
The European Economic Community: Planning for 1992513
Chapter 15A New Order in Eastern Europe517
The Soviet Union517
The Brezhnev Era
The Andropov-Chernenko Interregnum
Gorbachev: Glasnost and Perestroika
Exit Gorbachev, Enter Yeltsin529
The Return to Diversity in Eastern Europe532
High Noon in Poland
The New Hungarian Revolution
East Germany: The Wall Comes Down
Czechoslovakia: From Velvet Revolution to Velvet Divorce
Changing Guard in Bulgaria
Romania: Ceausescu's Bloody End
Yugoslavia: Ethnic Turmoil in the Balkans
Women in Post-Communist Eastern Europe558
Chapter 16Europe in the 1990s: New Beginnings, Old Agonies562
Western Europe Adrift: France, Britain, and Italy562
From Bonn to Berlin: United Germany576
Yeltsin's Russia584
The Collapse of Yugoslavia594
Globalization and its Discontents: New Challenges for the European Union and Nato606
Suggestions for Further Reading619
Illustration Credits633

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