The End of the European Era / Edition 5

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2002 Trade paperback 5th ed. New Trade paperback (US). Glued binding. 668 p. Contains: Illustrations. Norton History of Modern Europe. Audience: General/trade.

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Since its first publication over thirty years ago, The End of the European Era: 1890 to the Present has offered students a concise and authoritative historical narrative of the events that shaped twentieth-century Europe.
The Fifth Edition retains these strengths while embracing recent developments and current research. The text covers a century of rapid and tumultuous change, from increased population and migration in the early 1900s through the ongoing unrest in the Balkans.

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Editorial Reviews

A standard text now brought current through 1989-1990. A new edition (3d was in 1984) will be needed to reflect events of August 1991. A solid and concise treatment with a modest bibliography. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780393976427
  • Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
  • Publication date: 1/1/2002
  • Series: The Norton History of Modern Europe Series
  • Edition description: Fifth Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 688
  • Product dimensions: 5.50 (w) x 8.20 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Felix Gilbert, late of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, was the first recipient of the American Historical Association’s Award for Scholarly Distinction in 1985.

David Clay Large is professor of history at Montana State University and the author of Berlin (2000) and Where Ghosts Walked: Munich’s Road to the Third Reich (1997).

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Part I Europe's Apogee
Chapter 1 The Beginning of a New Century 3
A Rising Population 3
Intellectual Disquiet and Cultural Revolt 7
The Second Industrial Revolution and the Global Dimensions of European Politics 12
The Structure of Society 15
The Workers
The Ruling Group in Europe
The Middle Classes
The Waning of Political Consensus 28
Chapter 2 Politics and Society, 1890-1914 36
Great Britain 36
From the Victorian to the Edwardian Age
The Politics of the Ruling Class
The Labor Movement and Social Reform
Imperialism versus Domestic Reform
The Triumph of the Liberal Party
Intensification of Internal Conflicts: Women's Rights and the Irish Question
The Waning of Confidence
France 55
Social Basis of French Parliamentarianism
The Republican Regime versus Monarchist Traditions
The Consolidation of the Republic
The Rise of New Tensions
Foreign Policy
Italy 65
Germany 70
Constitution and Social Structure
The Empire under William II
The Habsburg Monarchy 80
The Dual Monarchy
Russia 85
The Autocracy in Practice
The Drive toward Industrialization
The Opposition
The Russo-Japanese War and the Revolution of 1905
Chapter 3 The First World War 95
The Rigidification of the Alliance System 95
The Crises of 1905-1914 98
The First and Second Moroccan Crises
The Bosnian Crisis
War and Crisis in the Balkans
The Outbreak of the First World War 105
The European Attitude toward War in 1914
The Nature of Total War 112
The Home Front
The War Aims
The Tides of Battle 121
The Expanding Theater of War
Stalemate in the West
German Success in the East
Why Men Fought
1917: The Turning Point of the War 130
The Revolution in Russia 133
Decision in the West 139
A New Combatant: The United States
Consequences of the First World War 143
Part II The Peace That Failed
Chapter 4 Peacemaking 151
The Statesmen and Their Aims 151
The Settlements in Eastern Europe 154
The Treaty of Sevres and the Birth of Modern Turkey
The Treaties of Neuilly, Trianon, and St. Germain and Developments in Southeastern and Eastern Europe
The Treaty of Versailles 167
Beginnings of the Weimar Republic 169
The League of Nations 173
Soviet Russia and the Peace Settlement 177
Chapter 5 The Era of Stabilization 186
Unrest and Chaos in Germany: 1919-1924 186
The Road to the Reparations Settlement 191
Great Britain
Britain as Europe's Leader: 1925-1929 201
Italy and Russia in the Twenties 205
The Rise of Fascism in Italy
The Stabilization of Communism in Russia
From Lenin to Stalin
Socialism in One Country
The Ambiguity of the Weimar Republic 224
Brave New World 229
Chapter 6 The Economic Crisis and the Rise of Nazism 235
The World Economic Crisis 235
The First Stirrings of Revolt Against European Control of the Globe 241
The Change in the Far East: Japan and China
The Rise of Nazism in Germany 248
Adolf Hitler and the Foundation of the Nazi Party
Decline of Parliamentary Government in the Weimar Republic
The Implementation of the Nazi Program
Nazi Policies toward Women
The Beginning of Nazi Foreign Policy
The Italian Conquest of Ethiopia
The Remilitarization of the Rhineland
Chapter 7 Toward the Inevitable Conflict 276
The Years of Appeasement 276
Great Britain
The General Strike
From Ramsay MacDonald to Neville Chamberlain
The Democracies in Retreat 290
The Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War and European Diplomacy
Anschluss and the Invasion of Czechoslovakia
The End of Appeasement
Soviet Russia During the Interwar Years 304
Stalinism and the Purge Trials
Stalin's Foreign Policy
Chapter 8 The Second World War 311
The European War 311
Germany in Command
The "Phony War"
The Opening of the Western Offensive
The Battle of Britain
The Shift of the Theater of War From the West to the East 318
England's Chances of Survival
The Mediterranean Campaign
The Eastern Offensive
The War At Its Height 324
The Global War
Total War
Europe under the Nazis
The Hinge of Fate 332
Germany before Surrender
The Overthrow of Mussolini
The End of the War in Europe
The Fall of Japan
Part III Rebuilding Europe
Chapter 9 Postwar Uncertainties 349
From Wartime Cooperation to Conflicts Over the Peace Settlement 349
Europe at the End of Hostilities
Wartime Preparations for Postwar Europe
The Potsdam Conference
The United States and Soviet Russia Confront Each Other in Europe 359
The Problem of the Peace Treaties and the Development of East-West Conflict
The Problem of German Reparations and the Break between Russia and the West
The Beginning of the Cold War: The Berlin Blockade
Extension of the Cold War to the Far East 367
Asia at the End of Hostilities
The Retreat from Colonialism
A Chain of Open Conflicts
The Struggle in China
The Korean War
The French Defeat in Indochina and the End of the Cold War
Chapter 10 Reconstruction and Revolt: The 1950s 372
The Basic Tasks of Reconstruction 372
The Context of Reconstruction: Science, Technology, and Economics 374
Reconstruction in the Eastern Bloc 376
Reconstruction in Soviet Russia
Reconstruction in the Satellite Countries
Treaty Bonds between Soviet Russia and the Satellites
The Establishment of a New Order in the Satellite Countries
The Defection of Tito and the Stalinist Purges
Reconstruction in the West 385
Treaty Bonds in the Western Bloc
Internal Developments in Western Bloc Nations
The Recovery of the Defeated Powers
West Germany
Postwar Strains in France and Britain 394
The Growth of Tensions Within the Eastern and Western Blocs 403
Crisis in the East 404
Unrest in Poland and Hungary
The Revolt in Hungary
The Suez Affair 408
Part IV Resurgent Europe
Chapter 11 Europe's Abundant Decade: The 1960s 413
The Pursuit of Stability and Prosperity in the West 415
Conservative Government in Great Britain, 1956-1964
Labor's Return to Power
France: The Return of de Gaulle
Independence for Algeria
De Gaulle's Vision for France
Italy's Opening toward the Left
Germany: A Western Power
Western Europe: Coherence and Tension
De-Stalinization in Eastern Europe 434
Khrushchev's Domestic Policies
Khrushchev's Foreign Policies and the Sino-Soviet Split
Poland and Hungary
Romania and East Germany
A Shift in Theory
Chapter 12 The Years of Disillusionment: 1967-1973 444
Shattered Hopes 444
Prague Spring 445
Student Revolt 447
The Roots of Revolt
Reactions to the Revolution that Failed 451
The Oil Crisis 457
Women in Revolt 459
Contradictory Impulses 463
Chapter 13 The Decade of Detente: 1969-1979 465
Superpower Detente and Arms Control 466
The SALT I Negotiations
The Helsinki Accords
West European Politics in the Decade of Detente 470
West Germany
Great Britain
Democracy Comes to Portugal and Greece 470
A time of Uncertainty 484
Chapter 14 Western Europe in the Troubled 1980s 487
Thatcher's Britain 488
West Germany Turns Right 493
Mitterrand's France 497
Southern Europe 501
European-American Relations in the Reagan Era 505
The Collapse of Detente
The Euromissile Controversy
Return to Detente
The European Economic Community: Planning for 1992 513
Chapter 15 A New Order in Eastern Europe 517
The Soviet Union 517
The Brezhnev Era
The Andropov-Chernenko Interregnum
Gorbachev: Glasnost and Perestroika
Exit Gorbachev, Enter Yeltsin 529
The Return to Diversity in Eastern Europe 532
High Noon in Poland
The New Hungarian Revolution
East Germany: The Wall Comes Down
Czechoslovakia: From Velvet Revolution to Velvet Divorce
Changing Guard in Bulgaria
Romania: Ceausescu's Bloody End
Yugoslavia: Ethnic Turmoil in the Balkans
Women in Post-Communist Eastern Europe 558
Chapter 16 Europe in the 1990s: New Beginnings, Old Agonies 562
Western Europe Adrift: France, Britain, and Italy 562
From Bonn to Berlin: United Germany 576
Yeltsin's Russia 584
The Collapse of Yugoslavia 594
Globalization and its Discontents: New Challenges for the European Union and Nato 606
Suggestions for Further Reading 619
Illustration Credits 633
Index 635
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