End-to-End Quality of Service over Cellular Networks: Data Services Performance Optimization in 2G/3G / Edition 1

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This comprehensive resource contains a detailed methodology for assessing, analyzing and optimizing End-to-End Service Performance under different cellular technologies (GPRS, EDGE, WCDMA and CDMA2000). It includes guidelines for analyzing numerous different services, including FTP, WEB streaming and POC, including examples of analysis and troubleshooting from a user point-of-view.

  • Focuses on the end-user perspective, with a detailed analysis of the main sources of service performance degradation and a comprehensive description of mobile data services
  • Includes a detailed presentation of generic key performance indicators (KPIs) which can be re-defined to comply with each particular network
  • Provides service performance benchmarking for different technologies from real networks
  • Explores a new approach to service management known as customer experience management, including the reasons why it is overcoming traditional service management and its impact on revenues and customer satisfaction
  • Illustrates all points throughout using real world examples gleaned from cutting-edge research

This book draws together findings from authoritative sources that will appeal to cellular network operators and vendors. The theory-based, practical approach will be of interest to postgraduate students and telecommunication and consulting companies working in the field of cellular technologies.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470011805
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 6/10/2005
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 316
  • Product dimensions: 6.81 (w) x 10.06 (h) x 0.93 (d)

Read an Excerpt

End-to-End Quality of Service over Cellular Networks

By Gerardo Gomez

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-470-01180-7

Chapter One


John Cullen, Mattias Wahlqvist and Gerardo Gomez

1.1 Mobile Services in Perspective

Twenty years ago mobile phones were a rarity with less than 5 million subscribers worldwide. They tended to be fitted to cars as car phones as they were bulky and power hungry, used by the elite due to the high prices charged for equipment and service, provided only voice call capabilities and only delivered service over what we would consider a small area today. At the same time, even those companies launching mobile services predicted that the overall market would be very small. Ten years later, many industry observers still believed that the market would remain relatively small.

Today, mobile devices are used by around 1.5 billion people worldwide, a three-hundred-fold increase since 1985, which equates to a worldwide penetration slightly over 20%. Mobile communications is now a technology for everyone. For many people it is now an indispensable part of their life with their mobile being among their key personal possessions alongside their watch and wallet.

The mobile device has changed all our lives and the way we live it. Listed below are a number of examples.

Mobility: Today, we are travelling more for both business and leisure. This has lead to a heavier reliance on the mobile phone to stay in touch with colleagues and friends/family.

Planning: As everyone is reachable, we do not plan ahead. How many times have you heard: 'Yes. Let's meet at 12 in the city centre. I'll call you when I arrive, so that we find each other.'

Communities: Part of the tremendous popularity of mobile devices is that wherever you are, communication-wise you are very close to your friends and colleagues. Teenagers today rely heavily on their mobiles to keep in touch with their friends and to organize their social lives. To do this they heavily rely on text to communicate with their community.

Participation TV: TV shows are trying to appeal more to their audiences by allowing their audiences to interact with their shows so as to affect the outcome of the show (e.g. reality TV shows) or generate content (dating/chat shows) while also providing a revenue generation opportunity.

Marketing: Many consumer brands have started launching competitions or offers whereby entries are made via SMS and an instant response can be given to customers. In some cases, prizes are downloads for handsets that allow customers to personalize their handsets with ring tones or wallpapers. At the same time, the consumer brands are able to build up marketing databases using entry information.

Security: Today, most of us would not think of travelling long distances in a car without having a mobile with us in case of an emergency. Also today, in richer countries, many parents are giving their young children mobile phones so that their children can contact them in an emergency and so that they can keep track of their children.

For many young people today, their first commercial relationship with any communications company is with their mobile operator. For this wireless generation, the mobile is at the hub of their social lives. When they first move away from home, they maintain a relationship with their mobile and in most cases the mobile service becomes the only communications service they subscribe to themselves. As a consequence, their relationship with a mobile operator is their prime relationship with the communications industry replacing the traditional prime relationship enjoyed by fixed operators. Today, this unique relationship with the mobile industry tends to be broken only when an individual moves into their own property and starts to consume services that require fixed lines such as broadband Internet services.

Looking forward, we are setting out as an industry on a new phase of market development where with Third Generation (3G) radio technologies the number of services and the richness of those services is greatly expanded. Five years ago, the mobile industry talked about the highest data rates that would be available for 3G. These high data rates are still an issue for laptop PC users with data cards, but for average handset users 3G opens up the ability to use new richer services and capacity that would not have been possible for mass-market customers with Second Generation (2G) technologies. Listed below are a number of examples of how mobiles could be changing our lives in the future.

Communication: Video calling is starting to allow consumers to communicate face to face and to share their environment with their colleagues. In today's busy world with frequent travel, it allows families to keep in touch while on the move.

Entertainment: Music download and streaming is allowing people to get and listen to music on the move, releasing them from computers and fixed communications. At the same time, the ability to download games, which is possible today, will be enhanced by the capability to play them on the move with online friends so providing a new dimension to gaming.

Current affairs: Already the first 3G operators are offering consumers the ability to keep up with events on the move via video clips so allowing consumers to be able to see, for example, their team winning a sports game while on the move.

Content creation: The emergence of smart phones incorporating cameras, good quality displays and reasonable processing capabilities will allow consumers to create and share content. Content could be owner-generated pictures, videos, audio, text or any combination of these media types. Sharing could be by picture/video messaging, via online electronic journals (blogs) or by peer-to-peer file sharing. To safeguard personal content, network backup capabilities will become essential.

Purchasing: The arrival of large colour displays on devices will make it more practical for consumers to buy services from the Internet and carry out transactions on the move so freeing consumers from their fixed PCs and allowing them to make use of dead time when travelling, waiting for friends, etc. It will also provide a rich channel for governments to communicate and interact with their citizens.

Business: On our company networks today we have from our PCs high-speed access to company resources and to the Internet. On the move, our PC connectivity has been limited by either connection speeds or the availability of hotspot coverage. The emergence of 3G technologies will enable us to improve this situation by providing coverage over large geographic areas.

Like the Internet world, the success of mobile data services will be built for giving consumers access to a rich set of services so as to satisfy a multitude of customer needs at the right cost. Unlike the Internet world, in the mobile environment the winning services and service providers will be determined not only by the simplicity of using services on the move but also by the quality of the experience in using services-the best service in the world will not sell if a user needs an answer in ten seconds and it takes one hour. This book aims to look at how the service performance can be tailored to give the right performance at the right price.

1.2 Mobile Technology Evolution

Today, mobile telephony is a global industry with a global footprint in a large part of the populated world. In the beginning, however, mobile telephony systems were typically a local solution on country level.

1.2.1 Reasons for Mobile Technology Evolution

There has been a tremendous evolvement of mobile telephony during the last 20 years, both technology-wise and service-wise. One interesting aspect of the evolution of mobile technologies is to ask yourself what is really the driving force being the engine for the switchover from one technology to another. That is a complex question, and there is not one true answer. It is also so that the answer will depend on whom you ask. Here we anyhow try to illustrate the complexity of this question by giving a few opinions from different points of view.

Customer service requirements: Is it so that end-users are demanding better and more requiring services, which leads operators and vendors to implement new technologies? This statement is partly true and it is important to observe that it will likely become truer as time passes. In the beginning, the mobile telephone service was just a telephone service you could use on the go. Today, there are additional services (SMS, WAP etc.) that are adding new requirements to the system. It is also so that the end-users today are much more advanced in terms of comparisons with, for example, services on the fixed Internet. If a person can download a large email on the fixed computer, there should be no reason why he/she should not be able to do it in his/her mobile phone.

Customer and traffic growth: Is it so that the growth in the customer base and the traffic that generates are implying that the operators need to reinvest in newer more efficient systems? This is not really true. Typically, new features (e.g. half-rate codecs, frequency hopping etc.) are introduced to enhance capacity and quality, but it is of course important for the operator to protect his CAPEX investment as long as possible. It is also so that the time to design a new system makes it impossible to rely on a new more spectrum efficient handling of the traffic. The problems are here today, and the future system will take many years to get into the field.

Differentiation of services and Quality of Service (QoS): Is it so that new systems are developed to be able to perform service differentiation and offer QoS? To some extent yes. It is a common understanding that service differentiation and QoS is the only way to costefficiently offer a wide range of services. Still, the service differentiation has already been gradually introduced in today's systems, and so making service differentiation a main reason for the development of new systems is only partly true.

Spectrum availability: When new spectrum is made available there is of course an urge to make use of it in the best possible way. Spectrum is a scarce natural resource, and the introduction of new more efficient systems is done easily if it is introduced together with a new spectrum band.

End-user requirements: The end customer has normally a firm opinion on whether he likes a service or not ('like' in this context normally means that he thinks that it is worth paying the stipulated price for getting the service). That opinion heavily affects his usage of the service. Still, considering the time it takes for a service to become a mass-market service, makes us believe that it is not end-user requirements that are driving the need for new systems. The majority of the end-users are not advanced enough to know what they will need in a five-year time frame.

Commercial aspects: There are of course commercial aspects that influence the willingness to introduce new systems into the markets. Vendors might want to protect or increase their market share; operators might want to create a high-end profile towards their end customers etc. Considering the time frame to introduce new systems, it is anyhow clear that the commercial aspects are mainly considered on high strategic level.

To conclude, we can see that there is a variety of reasons for new mobile systems to be introduced, with the strongest ones being the need to make more and more efficient use of a limited natural resource, the spectrum. On top of that, there are a multitude of other reasons to consider.

1.2.2 Mobile Technology Evolution Paths

Analog technologies were dominant in the cellular market up to 1997, when their global market share was exceeded by that of 2G digital technologies. From that date, the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) revolutionarily changed the way we look at and think of mobile telephony. After its introduction we have seen a rapid evolution of services, technologies and performance. GSM technology's market share shows a sustained growth and today it has become the global 2G standard, deployed by more than 460 operators around the world and accounting for more than 70% of the total number of cellular subscribers.

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology, developed as a Packet Switched (PS) extension of the GSM network, allowed high-speed access to IP-based services and at the same time it provided an efficient use of the network resources. Some time later, Enhanced Data for Global Evolution (EDGE) technology increased the radio data rates by including some enhancements in the modulation and coding schemes. (E)GPRS can be considered as the convergence point between the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) developed in North America and GSM technologies, and is the foundation for the PS domain of the 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).

Another parallel technology evolution path is the one coming from cdmaOne. Despite an important growth during its first year of deployment, cdmaOne's (and its main successors: CDMA2000-based family) market share has stabilized around 15% of market share in 2004. Although a natural evolution from CDMA2000-1x would be the support of 1xEV-DO (1xEvolution, Data Optimized) and 1xEV-DV (1xEvolution, Data and Voice), many CDMA operators are currently migrating towards GPRS and EDGE technologies as an alternative option (with the later integration of WCDMA). This last option is however dependent on the cellular-operator's licensed bandwidth, since WCDMA technology is currently not supported in the 800-MHz band, the future availability of dual mode cdmaOne/WCDMA terminals and the integration effectiveness of the technologies.

Expected WCDMA launch is nowadays becoming a reality as the evolution path of 2G technologies, being already supported over several markets around the world. The convergence of 2G technologies towards the UMTS multi-radio 3G evolution path is clear. The entities, such as operators, global associations and standardization bodies, which are representing and driving the evolution of three out of the four current most representative 2G technologies, have endorsed the UMTS multi-radio evolution path. Figure 1.1 summarizes the evolution paths associated with the existing 2G technologies.

The evolution of the mobile technology's market share and how these technologies are distributed around the world is depicted in Figures 1.2 and 1.3, respectively [1].

Thanks to the evolution of the networks towards PS technologies, data services have experienced a huge increase in terms of data transmission capabilities, leading to an important increment in operator revenues. Currently, SMS and MMS are still the most profitable, although other services like email, content downloading (i.e. Java applications, games, tones, etc.) or streaming are already pushing hard.

SMS and MMS, together with ring tones and information downloads, have represented between 2 and 7% of operator's revenue in both North American and Latin American regions in Q2 2004. China Mobile handled more SMS than any other operator, 30.9 billion in Q2 2004 [1]. Although in those regions, CDMA2000-1x was the most widely deployed technology, data usage has been boosted by the continued deployment of advanced data networks (GPRS/ EDGE), as shown in Figure 1.3.

In Europe, GPRS and partially WCDMA have been deployed until today, where an average data percentage of revenue reached 13.6% in Q2 2004. SMS traffic in western Europe grew approximately 17-18% in the 12 months by the end of June 2004 [1].

MMS had been launched commercially by 237 operators in 88 countries in September 2004. MMS usage and traffic volumes on the whole remain low, being KTF Korea and Verizon (USA) the ones reporting a higher number of MMS (over 21 million in Q2 2004).

Total mobile subscribers to GPRS, CDMA2000-1x, I-mode and other advanced data services exceeded the 150 million mark in Q2 2004, and the total reached just over 152 million as at 30 June 2004, or 9.9% of the world's total mobile users. The reader is kindly referred to Chapter 2 for a detailed description of the different technologies listed along this section.


Excerpted from End-to-End Quality of Service over Cellular Networks by Gerardo Gomez Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors.




1 Introduction (John Cullen, Mattias Wahlqvist and Gerardo Gómez).

1.1 Mobile Services in Perspective.

1.2 Mobile Technology Evolution.

1.3 Motivation for QoS.


2 Cellular Wireless Technologies (Petteri Hakalin, Pablo Tapia, Juan Ramiro-Moreno, Raquel Rodríguez, Ma Carmen Aguayo-Torres and Rafael Sánchez).

2.1 Introduction.



2.4 IS-95/CDMA2000-1x, EV-DV, EV-DO.

2.5 WLAN.

2.6 Future Outlook.


3 Data Services Architecture and Standardization (Salvador Hierrezuelo, Alejandro Gil, Juan Guerrero, Raquel Rodríguez, Juan Torreblanca, Mattias Wahlqvist and Gerardo Gómez)

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Services Architecture.

3.3 Data Protocols Characteristics.

3.4 SMS/MMS.

3.5 WAP.

3.6 Web.

3.7 Push-to-Talk over Cellular (PoC).

3.8 Network Gaming Services.


4 Quality of Service Mechanisms (Raquel Rodríguez, Daniel Fernández, Héctor Montes, Salvador Hierrezuelo and Gerardo Gómez).

4.1 What is Quality of Service?

4.2 IP-Based QoS.

4.3 QoS Architecture in 3GPP and 3GPP2.

4.4 QoS Policy Management.


5 End-to-End Service Performance Analysis (Rafael Sánchez, Gerardo Gómez, Pablo Ameigeiras, Jorge Navarro and Gabriel Ramos).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Service Performance Characterization.

5.3 Data Link Effects.

5.4 Transport and Application Layer Effects.

5.5 Impact of Network Dimensioning in the Service Performance.


6 Service Performance Verification and Benchmarking (Rafael Sánchez, Manuel Martínez, Salvador Hierrezuelo, Juan Guerrero and Juan Torreblanca).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Key Performance Indicators.

6.3 Trial Methodology.

6.4 Technology Benchmarking.

6.5 Performance Analysis Example.


7 Customer Experience Management (Brian Carroll).

7.1 Overview of Customer Experience Management.

7.2 CEM and Service Management.

7.3 Advantages CEM Brings to an Operator.

7.4 Summary.


8 Service Performance Optimization (Gerardo Gómez, Juan Torreblanca and Mattias Wahlqvist).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Network-Level Optimization.

8.3 Transport-Level Optimization.

8.4 Compression Techniques.

8.5 Performance Enhancing Proxies.




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