Ending and Extending Life

Overview

Contemporary Issues in Science is an eight-volume set designed to dispel the myth that a deeper understanding of new findings in science and technology is out of reach to nonspecialists. The books review current topics of universal relevance—such as global warming, conservation, weapons of mass destruction, genetic engineering, medical research ethics, and life extension—and explore through a personal lens how recent discoveries have changed daily life and will affect the ...

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Overview

Contemporary Issues in Science is an eight-volume set designed to dispel the myth that a deeper understanding of new findings in science and technology is out of reach to nonspecialists. The books review current topics of universal relevance—such as global warming, conservation, weapons of mass destruction, genetic engineering, medical research ethics, and life extension—and explore through a personal lens how recent discoveries have changed daily life and will affect the future.

Ending and Extending Life examines several bold medical innovations that have improved the lives of millions of patients—mechanical ventilation, organ transplantation and other life-saving surgical techniques, new diagnostic technologies (such as CT and MRI scans), advanced chemotherapy and antiviral drugs, and tube feeding—and their exciting and complex implications for patients, loved ones, and health-care practitioners.

The volume includes information on

aging and life extension

animal research

end-of-life intervention

ethical standards in medical research

health, disease, and wellness

the rising cost of health care

technology and life expectancy “vulnerable” populations

The book contains more than 40 photographs and line illustrations, sidebars, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. Contemporary Issues in Science is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the technical and ethical subtleties of recent issues in science and technology.

The Contemporary Issues in Science Set

Beginning Life

Biodiversity

Communication and Information

Ending and Extending Life

Energy and Transportation

The Environment

National Security and Weapons

Natural Resources

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780816062058
  • Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 3/1/2010
  • Series: Contemporary Issues in Science Series
  • Pages: 240
  • Age range: 12 - 17 Years
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface viii

Acknowledgments xiii

Introduction xiv

1 Ethical Principles in Medical Research 1

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study 1

Ethical Principles: Nuremberg to Belmont 8

Institutional Review Boards 11

The HIV Vertical Transmission Trials 15

Summary 22

2 Vulnerable Populations 23

Research with Children: The Willowbrook Hepatitis Study 25

Protections for Children 27

The Kennedy Krieger Institute Lead-Paint Study 29

Lead-Based Paint in Homes 33

Research with Emergency Room Patients: Ebb Cade and the Plutonium Injections 34

Protections for Emergency Room Patients 37

PolyHeme: The Synthetic Blood Trial 38

Summary 45

3 Research with Animals 46

Ethical Positions on Animal Research 50

Harry Harlow and Attachment Theory 54

OncoMouse 55

Protections for Animal Subjects 61

Xenotransplantation 63

Summary 72

4 When Life Ends 74

Karen Quinlan 74

Defining Death 76

Extend Life or Hasten Death? 85

Theresa Schiavo 87

Living Wills and Medical Proxies 91

Summary 95

5 Life-Extending Technology 98

The Mechanical Ventilator 98

Tamoxifen: The First Chemopreventive Drug for Cancer 102

Tube Feeding 106

Neuroimaging 109

Organ Transplants 114

Summary 120

6 Life Extension, Aging, and Palliative Care 122

The Science of Life Extension 123

Ethical Positions on Extending the Human Life Span 125

Life Expectancy at the Start of the 21st Century 126

Long-Term Care 128

The Growing Global Burden of Chronic Disease 129

Hospice and Palliative Care 132

Summary 134

7 New Technology and The Cost of Treatment 136

The Rising Costs of Health Care 136

Health Care Coverage in the United States 139

Costs of New Technology 140

The HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Disparities in Distribution of Care 146

U.S. Funding for HIV Treatment and Prevention 148

Summary 156

8 Health, Disease, and Wellness 158

Denning Health and Disease 158

Contemporary Debates: What Is Fair, and What Counts as Treatment? 161

Drugs to Treat Childhood Behavior 170

Summary

Chronology 174

Glossary 180

Further Resources 194

Index 213

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