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Energy Science: Principles, Technologies, and Impacts / Edition 1

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Overview

Do renewable energy sources really provide a realistic alternative to fossil fuels and nuclear power? How much power can be obtained from all the various forms of energy? Can global warming be combated with the energy technologies currently available? Energy Science: Principles, Technologies, and Impacts enables students to evaluate the key energy sources that are at our disposal today on the basis of sound quantitative understanding. Covering renewable, fossil fuel, and nuclear energy sources, the book relates the science behind these sources to the environmental and economic issues which surround their use. It also explores the fundamentals of energy generation, storage, and transmission, to build a complete picture of energy supply, from hydroelectric dams, wind turbines, or nuclear reactors, to our homes.

Different energy sources have different social, environmental, and economic impacts. The book uses examples and case studies throughout to help students to make quantitative estimates and to critically assess the information to hand, enabling them to reach a well-rounded, informed view of the relative merits and drawbacks of the energy sources available. The problems with current and future energy use and supply extend globally; Energy Science: Principles, Technologies, and Impacts introduces the potential solutions which science can offer, within a framework that encourages the critical assessment of the pros and cons of each. Explains the physical basis of all energy sources and discusses their environmental and economic impacts, to give a well-balanced, objective overview of the field. Worked examples are used throughout, to help students see the relevance of concepts beingintroduced in real, applied contexts, and so increasing the motivation to learn. Mathematical content is fully explained, and more detailed material is set apart from the main text, offering flexibility of use for students with varying levels of interest in the quantitative aspects of the subject. Extensive questions at the end of each chapter encourage students to engage more fully with the concepts presented, both to check understanding and to develop critical thinking skills.

About the Author:
John Andrews is a Visiting Fellow in the Department of Physics at the University of Bristol, UK

About the Author:
Nick Jelley is a Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Oxford

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780199281121
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 3/3/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 344
  • Product dimensions: 9.60 (w) x 7.40 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

John Andrews is currently a Visiting Fellow at Bristol University where he lectures in physics and applied mathematics; until recently he also lectured at Nottingham and Oxford Universities. His main research interest is in mathematical modelling of industrial process. Before returning to the academic world, he spent 30 years in the electricity supply industry, where he was involved in research activities related to conventional, nuclear and alternative energy technologies. He has lectured on Energy Studies at Bristol and Oxford Universities.

Nick Jelley is a Professor at the University of Oxford and Fellow of Lincoln College, where he has taught physics and carried out research in nuclear and particle physics for the last 25 years. His current research is on solar neutrinos with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) in Ontario, Canada, for which he is UK co-spokesperson. He has written a textbook on Nuclear Physics and is presently lecturing on Energy Studies.

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Table of Contents


Acknowledgement of sources     xiv
Introduction     1
A brief history of energy technology     1
Global energy trends     8
Global warming and the greenhouse effect     10
Units and dimensional analysis     13
Summary     15
Further Reading     15
Web Links     15
Exercises     16
Thermal energy     18
Heat and temperature     18
Heat transfer     19
First law of thermodynamics and the efficiency of a thermal power plant     24
Closed cycle for a steam power plant     24
Useful thermodynamic quantities     27
Thermal properties of water and steam     29
Disadvantages of a Carnot cycle for a steam power plant     32
Rankine cycle for steam power plants     33
Gas turbines and the Brayton (or Joule) cycle     36
Combined cycle gas turbine     38
Fossil fuels and combustion     39
Fluidized beds     41
Carbon sequestration     41
Geothermal energy     42
Summary     47
Further Reading     49
Web Links     49
List of MainSymbols     49
Exercises     50
Essential fluid mechanics for energy conversion     53
Basic physical properties of fluids     53
Streamlines and stream-tubes     54
Mass continuity     54
Energy conservation in an ideal fluid: Bernoulli's equation     55
Dynamics of a viscous fluid     58
Lift and circulation     62
Euler's turbine equation     65
Summary     66
Further Reading     67
List of Main Symbols     68
Exercises     68
Hydropower, tidal power, and wave power     70
Hydropower     71
Power output from a dam     72
Measurement of volume flow rate using a weir     73
Water turbines     74
Impact, economics, and prospects of hydropower     79
Tides     80
Tidal power     84
Power from a tidal barrage     84
Tidal resonance     85
Kinetic energy of tidal currents     86
Ecological and environmental impact of tidal barrages     87
Economics and prospects for tidal power     87
Wave energy     88
Wave power devices      90
Environmental impact, economics, and prospects of wave power     95
Summary     95
Further Reading     96
Web Links     97
List of Main Symbols     97
Exercises     97
Wind power     99
Source of wind energy     99
Global wind patterns     100
Modern wind turbines     103
Kinetic energy of wind     104
Principles of a horizontal-axis wind turbine     105
Wind turbine blade design     107
Dependence of the power coefficient C[subscript p] on the tip-speed ratio [lambda]     111
Design of a modern horizontal-axis wind turbine     114
Turbine control and operation     117
Wind characteristics     118
Power output of a wind turbine     121
Wind farms     122
Environmental impact and public acceptance     122
Economics of wind power     125
Outlook     126
Conclusion     129
Summary     129
Further Reading     130
Web Links     130
List of Main Symbols     130
Exercises     130
Solar energy      134
The solar spectrum     135
Semiconductors     136
p-n junction     138
Solar photocells     141
Efficiency of solar cells     143
Commercial solar cells     148
Developing technologies     155
Solar panels     160
Economics of photovoltaics (PV)     161
Environmental impact of photovoltaics     163
Outlook for photovoltaics     164
Solar thermal power plants     164
Summary     170
Further Reading     171
Web Links     171
List of Main Symbols     171
Exercises     172
Biomass     175
Photosynthesis and crop yields     175
Biomass potential and use     179
Biomass energy production     180
Environmental impact of biomass     194
Economics and potential of biomass     195
Outlook     197
Summary     197
Further Reading     198
Web Links     198
List of Main Symbols     198
Exercises     198
Energy from fission     200
Binding energy and stability of nuclei     201
Fission     205
Thermal reactors     212
Thermal reactor designs     219
Fast reactors     228
Present-day nuclear reactors     230
Safety of nuclear power     233
Economics of nuclear power     234
Environmental impact of nuclear power     235
Public opinion on nuclear power     236
Outlook for nuclear power     237
Summary     239
Further Reading     240
Web Links     240
List of Main Symbols     240
Exercises     240
Energy from fusion     244
Magnetic confinement     245
D-T fusion reactor     246
Performance of tokamaks     251
Plasmas     251
Charged particle motion in E and B fields     253
Tokamaks     257
Plasma confinement     258
Divertor tokamaks     264
Outlook for controlled fusion     266
Summary     271
Further Reading     272
Web Links     272
List of Main Symbols     272
Exercises     272
Generation and transmission of electricity, energy storage, and fuel cells     274
Generation of electricity     274
High voltage power transmission     278
Transformers     280
High voltage direct current transmission     281
Electricity grids     282
Energy storage     282
Pumped storage     283
Compressed air energy storage     284
Flywheels     285
Superconducting magnetic energy storage     286
Batteries     286
Fuel cells     287
Storage and production of hydrogen     288
Outlook for fuel cells     292
Summary     292
Web Links     293
List of Main Symbols     293
Exercises     294
Energy and society     295
Environmental impact of energy production     295
Economics of energy production     299
Cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment     304
Designing safe systems     306
Carbon abatement policies     308
Stabilization wedges for limiting CO[subscript 2] emissions     309
Conclusions     312
Summary     313
Further Reading      313
Web Links     314
Exercises     314
Numerical answers to exercises     316
Index     319
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