Energy Storage: A New Approach / Edition 1

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Energy Storage: A New Approach presents practical solutions to the problem of energy storage on a massive scale. This problem is especially difficult for renewable energy technologies such as wind and solar power, which currently can only be utilized when the wind blows or while the sun shines.

If energy storage on a large scale were possible, this would solve many of our society's problems. For example, power grids would not go down during peak usage, and power plants that run on natural gas would no longer burn natural gas during the off-hours as they do now. These are just two problems society faces today that could be solved with energy storage technology.

This revolutionary book describes technologies that include basic chemical concepts that engineers have been practicing for years and presents new material that could transform the energy industry. Regardless of where power is generated from-oil, natural gas, coal, solar, wind, or any of the other emerging sources-energy storage is something that the industry must learn and practice. With the world energy demand increasing, mostly due to industrial growth in many fast-developing countries, and the West becoming increasingly more interested in fuel efficiency and "green" endeavours, energy storage is potentially a key technology in our energy future.

This groundbreaking new volume:

Presents a method for making energy supply portable from non-portable sources

Gives engineers practical solutions on how to store energy from on an ongoing source for use at a later time and how to change the ratio of power-to-energy so that turbines in electrical plants could operate more efficiently.

Covers concentration cells in detail and the potential of using them for massive energy storage

Presents scientific alternatives to the current technologies available for storing energy on a large scale

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Recommended. Professional chemists and chemical engineers interested in electrochemical energy storage." (Choice , 1 April 2011)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470625910
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/2/2010
  • Series: Wiley-Scrivener Series , #26
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 303
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents


Dedications and Acknowledgements

1 Introduction 1

2 Comments on Classical Mechanics 7

2.1 Force 12

2.2 Energy Sources 18

3 Conversion and Storage 21

3.1 Availability of Solar Energy 25

3.2 Conversion Processes 27

3.2.1 Photovoltaic Conversion Process 27

3.2.2 Thermoelectric Effects: Seebeck and Peltier 28

3.2.3 Multiple P-N Cell Structure Shown with Heat 30

3.2.4 Early Examples of Thermoelectric Generators 30

3.2.5 Thermionic Converter 32

3.2.6 Thermogalvanic Conversion 32

3.3 Storage Processes 34

3.3.1 Redox Full-Flow Electrolyte Systems 34

3.3.2 Full Flow and Static Electrolyte System Comparisons 35

4 Practical Purposes of Energy Storage 41

4.1 The Need for Storage 41

4.2 The Need for Secondary Energy Systems 44

4.2.1 Comparisons and Background Information 45

4.3 Sizing Power Requirements of Familiar Activities 47

4.3.1 Examples of Directly Available Human Manual Power Mechanically Unaided 49 Arm Throwing 49 Vehicle Propulsion by Human Powered Leg Muscles 49 Mechanical Storage: Archer's Bow and Arrow 51

4.4 On-the-road Vehicles 52

4.4.1 Land Vehicle Propulsion Requirements Summary 53

4.5 Rocket Propulsion Energy Needs Comparison 54

5 Competing Storage Methods 55

5.1 Problems with Batteries 56

5.2 Hydrocarbon Fuel: Energy Density Data 59

5.3 Electrochemical Cells 62

5.4 Metal-Halogen and Half-Redox Couples 63

5.5 Full Redox Couples 68

5.6 Possible Applications 71

6 The Concentration Cell 75

6.1 Colligative Properties of Matter 76

6.2 Electrochemical Application of Colligative Properties 77

6.2.1 Compressed Gas 79

6.2.2 Osmosis 81

6.2.3 Electrostatic Capacitor 82

6.2.4 Concentration Cells: CIR (Common Ion Redox) 83

6.3 Further Discussions on Fundamental Issues 89

6.4 Adsorption and Diffusion Rate Balance 94

6.5 Storage by Adsorption and Solids Precipitation 97

6.6 Some Interesting Aspects of Concentration Cells 100

6.7 Concentration Cell Storage Mechanisms that Employ Sulfur 104

6.8 Species Balance 106

6.9 Electrode Surface Potentials 107

6.10 Further Examination of Concentration Ratios 108

6.11 Empirical Results with Small Laboratory Cells 111

6.12 Iron/Iron Concentration Cell Properties 114

6.13 The Mechanisms of Energy Storage Cells 115

6.14 Operational Models of Sulfide Based Cells 121

6.15 Storage Solely in Bulk Electrolyte 123

6.16 More on Storage of Reagents in Adsorbed State 126

6.17 Energy Density 130

6.18 Observations Regarding Electrical Behavior 130

6.19 Concluding Comments 133

6.20 Typical Performance Characteristics 133

6.21 Sulfide/Sulfur Half Cell Balance 134

6.22 General Cell Attributes 135

6.23 Electrolyte Information 136

6.24 Concentration Cell Mechanism and Associated Mathematics 138

6.25 Calculated Performance Data 140

6.26 Another S/S-2 Cell Balance Analysis Method 143

6.27 A Different Example of a Concentration Cell, Fe+2/Fe+3 145

6.28 Performance Calculations Based on Nernst Potentials 146

6.28.1 Constant Current Discharge 147

6.28.2 Constant Power Discharge 148

6.29 Empirical Data 150

7 Thermodynamics of Concentration Cells 153

7.1 Thermodynamic Background 153

7.2 The CIR Cell 156

8 Polysulfide - Diffusion Analysis 165

8.1 Polarization Voltages and Thermodynamics 166

8.2 Diffusion and Transport Processes at the (-) Electrode Surface 168

8.3 Electrode Surface Properties, Holes, and Pores 169

8.4 Electric (Ionic) Current Density Estimates 174

8.5 Diffusion and Supply of Reagents 176

8.6 Cell Dynamics 177

8.6.1 Electrode Processes Analyses 177

8.6.2 Polymeric Number Change 178

8.7 Further Analysis of Electrode Behavior 190

8.7.1 Flat Electrode with Some Storage Properties 190

8.8 Assessing the Values of Reagent Concentrations 198

8.9 Solving the Differential Equations 199

8.10 Cell and Negative Electrode Performance Analysis 211

8.11 General Comments 218

9 Design Considerations 219

9.1 Examination of Diffusion and Reaction Rates and Cell Design 219

9.2 Electrodes 220

9.3 Physical Spacing in Cell Designs 221

9.3.1 Electrode Structures 221

9.4 Carbon-Polymer Composite Electrodes 225

9.4.1 Particle Shapes and Sizes 228

9.4.2 Metal to Carbon Resistance 229

9.4.3 Cell Spacing 229

9.5 Resistance Measurements in Test Cells 231

9.6 Electrolytes and Membranes 233

9.7 Energy and Power Density Compromises 234

9.8 Overcharging Effects on Cells 237

9.9 Imbalance Considerations 238

10 Calculated Cell Performance Data 239

10.1 Electrical Performance Modeling 239

11 Single Cell Empirical Data 253

11.1 Design and Construction of Cells and the Materials Employed 253

11.2 Experimental Data 257

12 Conclusion: Problems and Solutions 261

12.1 Pros and Cons of Concentration Cells 262

12.2 Future Performance and Limitations 263

Appendix 1 A History of Batteries 265

A1.1 A History of the Battery 266

A1.2 The Electric Car and the Power Source Search 268

A1.3 The Initial Survey 270

A1.4 Review of a Research Path for a Long-life, High ED Battery 271

Appendix 2 Aids and Supplemental Material 283

A2.1 Properties of Homogeneous Membranes 283

A2.1.1 Diffusion Tests 284

A2.2 The van der Waals Equation and its Relevance to Concentration Cells 285

A2.3 Derivation of Electrolyte Interconnectivity Losses 286

A2.4 Efficiency Calculations 290

A2.5 Specific Resistivity and Specific Gravity of Some Reagents 294

Bibliography 297

Index 301

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