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Overview
Engineering Electromagnetics provides a solid foundation in electromagnetics fundamentals by emphasizing physical understanding and practical applications. Electromagnetics, with its requirements for abstract thinking, can prove challenging for students. The authors' physical and intuitive approach has produced a book that will inspire enthusiasm and interest for the material.
Benefiting from a review of electromagnetic curricula at several schools and repeated use in classroom settings, this text presents material in a rigorous yet readable manner.
FEATURES/BENEFITS
Back Cover
Benefiting from a review of electromagnetics curricula at several schools and repeated use in classroom settings, this text presents material in a comprehensive and practical yet readable manner.
Features:
Provides historical notes, abbreviated biographies, and hundreds of footnotes to motivate interest and enhance understanding.
Editorial Reviews
Booknews
A textbook for third and fourth year college engineering students which emphasizes physical understanding and practical applications. Topics include steadystate waves on transmission lines, the static electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic waves. ^^^^ Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.Product Details
Related Subjects
Meet the Author
Aziz S. Inan is Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Portland, where he has also served as Department Chairman. A winner of the University,s faculty teaching award, he conducts research in electromagnetic wave propagation in conducting and inhomogeneous media.
Read an Excerpt
This book provides engineering students with a solid grasp of electromagnetic fundamentals by emphasizing physical understanding and practical applications. The topical organization of the text starts with an initial exposure to transmission lines and transients on highspeed distributed circuits, naturally bridging electrical circuits and electromagnetics.
Engineering Electromagnetics is designed for upperdivision (3rd and 4th year) college and university engineering students, for those who wish to learn the subject through selfstudy, and for practicing engineers who need an uptodate reference text. The student using this text is assumed to have completed typical lowerdivision courses in physics and mathematics as well as a first course on electrical engineering circuits.
KEY FEATURES
The key features of this textbook are:
We use a physical and intuitive approach so that this engineering textbook can be read by students with enthusiasm and with interest. We provide continuity with circuit theory by first covering transmission linesan appropriate step, in view of the newly emerging importance of transmission line concepts,not only in microwave and millimeterwave applications but also in highspeed digital electronics, microelectronics, integrated circuits, packaging, and interconnect applications. We then cover the fundamental subject material in a logical order, following the historical development of human understanding of electromagnetic phenomena. We base the fundamental laws on experimental observations and on physical grounds, including brief discussions of the precision of the fundamental experiments, so that the physical laws are easily understood and accepted. Once the complete set of fundamental laws is established, we then discuss their most important manifestation: the propagation, reflection, transmission, and guiding of electromagnetic waves.
Emphasis on Physical Understanding
Future engineers and scientists need a clear understanding and a firm grasp of the basic principles so that they can understand, formulate, and interpret the results of complex practical problems. Engineers and scientists nowadays do not and should not spend time working out formulas and obtaining numerical results by substitution. Most of the number crunching and formula manipulations are left to computers and packaged application and design programs, so a solid grasp of fundamentals is now more essential than ever before. In this text we maintain a constant link with established as well as new and emerging applications (so that the reader's interest remains perked up), while at the same time emphasizing fundamental physical insight and solid understanding of basic principles. We strive to empower the reader with more than just a working knowledge of a dry set of vector relations and formulas stated axiomatically. We supplement rigorous analyses with extensive discussions of the experimental bases of the laws, of the microscopic versus macroscopic concepts of electromagnetic fields and their behavior in material media, and of the physical nature of the electromagnetic fields and waves, often from alternative points of view. Description of the electrical and magnetic properties of material media at a sufficiently simple, yet accurate manner at the introductory electromagnetics level has always been a challenge, yet a solid understanding of this subject is now more essential than ever, especially in view of many applications that exploit these properties of materials. To this end we attempt to distill the essentials of physicallybased treatments available in physics texts, providing quantitative physical insight into microscopic behavior of materials and the representation of this behavior in terms of macroscopic parameters. Difficult threedimensional vector differential and integral concepts are discussed when they are encounteredagain, with the emphasis being on physical insight.
Detailed Examples and Abundant Illustrations
We present the material in a clear and simple yet precise and accurate manner, with interesting examples illustrating each new concept. Many examples emphasize selected applications of electromagnetics. A total of 180 illustrative examples are detailed over eight chapters, with four of the chapters having more than 30 examples each. Each example is presented with an abbreviated topical title, a clear problem statement, and a detailed solution. In recognition of the importance of visualization in the reader's understanding, especially in view of the threedimensional nature of electromagnetic fields, over 400 diagrams, graphs, and illustrations appear throughout the book.
Numerous EndofChapter Problems
Each chapter is concluded with a variety of homework problems to allow the students to test their understanding of the material covered in the chapter, with a total of over 300 exercise problems spread over seven chapters. The topical content of each problem is clearly identified in an abbreviated title (e.g., "Digital IC interconnects" or "Inductance of a toroid"). Many problems explore interesting applications, and most chapters include several practical "reallife" problems to motivate students.
Historical Notes and Abbreviated Biographies
The history of the development of electromagnetics is laden with outstanding examples of pioneering scientists and development of scientific thought. Throughout our text, we maintain a constant link with the pioneering giants and their work, to bring about a better appreciation of the complex physical concepts as well as to keep the reader interested. We provide abbreviated biographies of the pioneers, emphasizing their scientific work in electromagnetics as well as in other fields such as optics, heat, chemistry, and astronomy. We illustrate the apparatus used by discoverers such as Coulomb and Faraday so that the reader can have a feel for how one would carry out such an experiment.
Emphasis on Clarity without Sacrificing Rigor and Completeness
This textbook presents the material at a simple enough level to be readable by undergraduate students, but it is also rigorous in providing references and footnotes for indepth analyses of selected concepts and applications. We provide the students with a taste of rigor and completeness at the level of classical reference textsâ€”combined with a level of physical insight that was so well exemplified in some very old textsâ€”while still maintaining the necessary level of organization and presentation clarity required for a modem textbook. We also provide not just a superficial but a rigorous and indepth exposure to a diverse range of applications of electromagnetics, in the body of the text, in examples, and in endofchapter problems.
Hundreds of Footnotes
In view of its fundamental physical nature and its broad generality, electromagnetics lends itself particularly well to alternative ways of thinking about physical and engineering problems and also is particularly rich in terms of available scientific literature and many outstanding textbooks. Almost every new concept encountered can be thought of in different ways, and the interested reader can explore its implications further. We encourage such scholarly pursuit of enhanced knowledge and understanding by providing many footnotes in each chapter that provide further comments, qualifications of statements made in the text, and references for indepth analyses of selected concepts and applications. A total of 450 footnotes are spread over eight chapters. These footnotes do not interrupt the flow of ideas and the development of the main topics, but they provide an unusual degree of completeness for a textbook at this level, with interesting and sometimes thoughtprovoking content to make the subject more appealing.
ELECTROMAGNETICS IN ENGINEERING
The particular organization of this textbook, as well as its experimentally and physically based philosophy, are motivated by our view of the current status of electromagnetics in engineering curricula. Understanding electromagnetics and appreciating its applications require a generally higher level of abstraction than most other topics encountered by electrical engineering students. Beginning electrical engineers learn to deal with voltages and currents, which appear across or flow through circuit elements or paths. The relationships between these voltages and currents are determined by the characteristics of the circuit elements and by Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws. Voltages and currents in lumped electrical circuits are scalar quantities that vary only as a function of time, and are readily measurable, and the students can relate to them via their previous experiences. The relationships between the quantities (i.e., Kirchhoff's laws) are relatively simple algebraic or ordinary differential equations. On the contrary, electric and magnetic fields are threedimensional and vector quantities that in general vary in both space and time and are related to one another through relatively complicated vector partial differential or vector integral equations. Even if the physical nature of electric and magnetic fields were understood, visualization of the fields and their effects on one another and on matter requires a generally high level of abstract thinking.
Most students are exposed to electromagnetics first at the freshman physics level, where electricity and magnetism are discussed in terms of their experimental bases by citing physical laws (e.g., Coulomb's law) and applying them to relatively simple and symmetrical configurations where the field quantities behave as scalars, and the governing equations are reduced to either algebraic equations of firstorder integral or differential relationships. Freshman physics provides the students with their first experiences with fields and waves as well as and some of their measurable manifestations, such as electric and magnetic forces, electromagnetic induction (Faraday's law), and refraction of light by prisms.
The first course in electromagnetics, which most students take after having had vector calculus, aims at the development and understanding of Maxwell's equations, requiring the utilization of the full threedimensional vector form of the fields and their relationships. It is this very step that makes the subject of electromagnetics appear insurmountable to many students and turns off their interest, especially when coupled with a lack of presentation and discussion of important applications and the physical (and experimental) bases of the fundamental laws of physics. Many authors and teachers have attempted to overcome this difficulty by a variety of topical organizations, ranging from those that start with Maxwell's equations as axioms to those that first develop them from their experimental basis.
Since electromagnetics is a mature basic science, and the topics covered in introductory texts are well established, the various texts primarily differ in their organization as well as range and depth of coverage. Teaching electromagnetics was the subject of a special issue of IEEE Transactions on Education vol. 33, February, 1990. Many of the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead in this connection were summarized well in an invited article by J. R. Whinnery.
^{1} Challenges include (1) the need to return to fundamentals (rather than relying on derived concepts), especially in view of the many emerging new applications that exploit unusual properties of materials and that rely on unconventional device concepts
^{2}, submillimeter transmission lines,
^{3} and optoelectronic waveguides,
^{4} and (2) the need to maintain student interest in spite of the decreasing popularity of the subject of electromagnetics and its reputation as a difficult and abstract subject.
^{5} Opportunities are abundant, especially as engineers working in electronics and computer science discover that as devices get smaller and faster, circuit theory is insufficient in describing system performance or facilitating design. It is now clear, for example, that transmission line concepts are not only important in microwave and millimeterwave applications but also necessary in highspeed digital electronics, nmicroelectronics, integrated circuits, interconnects,
^{6} and packaging applications.
^{7} The need for a basic understanding of electromagnetic waves and their guided propagation is underscored by the explosive expansion of the use of optical fibers, the use of extremely high data rates, ranging to 10 Gbits/s,
^{8} and the emerging use of highperformance, highdensity cables for communication within systems that will soon be required to carry digital signals at Gb/s rates over distances of a few meters.
^{9} In addition, issues of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are beginning to limit the performance of system, board, and chiplevel designs, and electrostatic discharge phenomena have significant impacts on the design and performance of integrated circuits.
^{10} Other important applications that require better understanding of electromagnetic fields are emerging in biology
^{11} and medicine.
^{12}
In organizing the material for our text, we benefited greatly from a review of the electromagnetic curriculum at Stanford University that one of us conducted during the spring quarter of 1990. A detailed analysis was made of both undergraduate and graduate offerings, both at Stanford and selected other schools. Inquiries were also made with selected industry, especially in the Aerospace sector. Based on the responses we received from many of our colleagues, and based on our experience with the teaching of the twoquarter sequence at Stanford, it was decided that an emphasis on fundamentals and physical insight and a traditional order of topics would be most appropriate. It was also determined that transmission line theory and applications can naturally be studied before fields and waves, so as to provide a smooth transition from the previous circuits and systems experiences of the typical electrical engineering students and also to emphasize the newly emerging importance of these concepts in highspeed electronics and computer applications.
RECOMMENDED COURSE CONTENT
This book is specifically designed for a oneterm first course in electromagnetics, nowadays typically the only required fields and waves course in most electrical engineering curricula. The recommended course content for a regular threeunit one semester course (42 contact hours) is provided in Table 1. The sections marked under "Cover" are recommended for complete coverage, including illustrative examples, whereas those marked "Skim" are recommended to be covered lightly, although the material provided is complete in case individual students want to go into more detail. The sections marked with a superscript asterisk are intended to provide flexibility to the individual instructor. For example, one may want to cover magnetic materials (Sec. 6.8) and skim magnetic forces and torques (Sec 6. 10), or vice versa. Similarly, one may want to cover guided waves (Sec. 8.3) but skim reflection from multiple or lossy interfaces (Sec. 8.2.3 and 8.2.4), instead of the other way around.
Table I also shows a recommended course content for a 4unit onequarter course (32 contact hours) identical to the course titled "Engineering Electromagnetics" (required for BSEE) that one of us has been teaching at Stanford for the past seven years. This topical coverage provides the students with (1) a working knowledge of transmission lines, (2) a solid, physically based background and a firm understanding of Maxwell's equations and their experimental bases, and (3) a first exposure to the most important manifestations of Maxwell's equations: electromagnetic waves. At Stanford, this required course is followed by a course titled "Electromagnetic Waves," which serves as the entry course for students opting for the fields and waves specialization.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We gratefully acknowledge those who have made significant contributions to the successful completion of this text. We thank Professor J. W. Goodman of Stanford, for his generous support of textbook writing by faculty throughout his term as department chair; Professor G. Kino and Dr. T. Bell of Stanford, for coursetesting a preliminary version of the manuscript, and Professor R. N. Bracewell, who inspired our use of the abbreviated biographies of great scientists. We thank many students at both Stanford and the University of Portland who have identified errors and suggested clarifications, and Mrs. JunHua Wang for typing parts of the manuscript and drawing some of the illustrations. We owe special thanks to our reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions, including J. Bredow of University of TexasArlington; S. Castillo of New Mexico State University; R. I Coleman of University of North CarolinaCharlotte; A. Dienes of University of CaliforniaDavis; J. Dunn of University of Colorado; D. S. Elliott of Purdue University; R. A. Kinney of Louisiana State University; L. Rosenthal of Fairleigh Dickinson University; E. Schamiloglu of University of New Mexico; T. Shumpert of Auburn University; D. Stephenson of Iowa State University; E. Thomson of University of Florida; J. Volakis of University of Michigan; and A. Weisshaar of Oregon State University. We greatly appreciate the efforts of our developmental editor Judy Ziajka and the Addison Wesley Longman staff including Anna Eberhard Friedlander, Pattie Myers, Kevin Berry, and especially our editor Paul Becker, whose dedication and support was crucially important in completing this project.
As teachers with a good deal of experience, we firmly believe that practice is the key to learning, and that homeworks and exams are all instruments of teaching, although they may often not be regarded as such by the students at the time. In our own courses, we take pride in providing the students with detailed solutions of homework and exam problems, rather than cryptic and abbreviated answers. To aid the instructors who choose to use this text, we have thus taken it upon ourselves to prepare a thorough and welllaidout solutions manual, describing the solution of every endofchapter problem, in the same stepbystep detailed manner as our illustrative examples within the chapters. The solution for each endofchapter problem has been typeset by the authors themselves, with special attention to pedagogical detail. This solutions manual is available to instructors upon request from Addison Wesley Longman.
As authors of this book, we are looking forward to interacting with its users, both students and instructors, to collect and respond to their comments, questions, and corrections. We can most easily be reached by email at inan@nova.stanford.edu (url: http://nova.stanford.edu/~vlf) and at ainan@up.edu. Supplemental information about the book and errata will be available at http://www.awl.com/cseng/titles/0805344233.
We dedicate this book to our parents, Mustafa and Hayriye Inan, for their dedication to our education; to our wives, Elif and Belgin, for their persistent support and understanding as this project expanded well beyond our initial expectations and consumed most of our available time for too many years; and to our children, Ayse, Ali, Baris, and Cem, for the joy they bring to our lives.
Umran S. Inan Aziz S. Inan
_________
^{1} J. R. Whinnery, The teaching of electromagnetics, IEEE Trans. on Education, 33(1), pp. 37, February 1990.
^{2} D. GoldhaberGordon, M. S. Montemerlo, J. C. Love, G. J. Opiteck, and J. C. Ellenbogen, Overview of nanoelectronic devices, Proc. IEEE, 85(4), pp. 521540, April 1997.
^{3} L. P. B. Katehi, Novel transmission lines for the submillimeter region, Proc. IEEE, 80(11), pp. 1771 1787, November 1992.
^{4} R. A. Soref, Siliconbased optoelectronics, Proc. IEEE, 81(12), December, 1993.
^{5} M. N. O. Sadiku, Problems faced by undergraduates studying electromagnetics, IEEE Trans. Education, 29(1), pp. 3132, February, 1986.
^{6}A. Deutsch, Electrical characteristics of interconnections for highperformance systems, Proc. IEEE, 86(2), pp. 315355, February 1998.
^{7} H. B. Bakoglu, Circuits, Interconnections, and Packaging for VLSI, Addison Wesley, 1990.
^{8} R. Heidelmann, B. Wedding, and G. Veith, 10Gb/s transmission and beyond, Proc. IEEE, 81(11), pp. 15581567, November 1993.
^{9} H. Falk, Prolog to electrical characteristics of interconnections for highperformance systems, Proc. IEEE, 86(2), pp. 313314, February 1998.
^{10} J. E. Vinson and J. J. Liou, Electrostatic discharge in semiconductor devices: an overview, Proc. IEEE, 86(2), pp. 399418, February 1998.
^{11} J. Raloff, Electromagnetic fields exert effects on and through hormones, Science News, 153, pp. 2931, January 10, 1998; J. Raloff, Electromagnetic fields may trigger enzymes, Science News, 153, pp. 293 1, February 21, 1998.
^{12}R. L. Magin, A. G. Webb, and T. L. Peck, Miniature magnetic resonance machines, IEEE Spectrum, pp. 5161, October 1997.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction.
Lumped versus Distributed Electrical Circuits. Electromagnetic Components. Maxwell's Equations and Electromagnetic Waves. Summary.
2. Transient Response of Transmission Lines.
Heuristic Discussion of Transmission Line Behavior and Circuit Models. Transmission Line Equations and Wave Solutions. Reflection at Discontinuities. Transient Response of Transmission Lines with Resistive Terminations. Transient Response of Transmission Lines with Reactive or Nonlinear Terminations. Selected Practical Topics. Transmission Line Parameters. Summary. Problems.
3. SteadyState Waves on Transmission Lines
Wave Solutions Using Phasors. Voltage and Current on Lines with Short or OpenCircuit. Terminations. Lines Terminated with Arbitrary Impedance. Power Flow on a Transmission Line. Impedance Matching. The Smith Chart. Selected Application Examples. Sinusoidal SteadyState Behavior of Lossy Lines. Transmission Lines as Resonant Circuits Elements. Summary. Problems.
4. The Static Electric Field.
Electric Charge. Coulomb's Law. The Electric Field. The Electric Potential. Electric Flux and Gauss's Law. Divergence: Differential Form of Gauss's Law. Metallic Conductors. Poisson's and Laplace's Equations. Capacitance. Dielectric Materials. Electrostatic Boundary Conditions. Electrostatic Energy. Electrostatic Forces. Summary. Problems.
5. Steady Electric Currents.
Current Density and the Microscopic View of Conduction. Current Flow, ohm's Law, and Resistance. Electromotive Force and Kirchoff's Voltage Law. The Continuity Equation and Kirchoff's Current Law. Redistribution of Free Charge. Boundary Conditions for Steady Current Flow. Duality of J and D: The ResistanceCapacitance Analogy. Joule's Law. Summary. Problems.
6. The Static Magnetic Field.
Ampere's Law of Force. The BiotSavart Law and Its Applications. Ampere's Circuital Law. Curl of the Magnetic Field: Differential Form of Ampere's Law. Vector Magnetic Potential. The Magnetic Dipole. Divergence of B, Magnetic Flux, and Inductance. Magnetic Fields in Material Media. Boundary Conditions for Magnetostatic Fields. Magnetic Forces and Torques. Summary. Problems.
7. TimeVarying Fields and Maxwell's Equations.
Faraday's Law. Induction Due to Motion. Energy in a Magnetic Field. Maxwell's Equations. Review of Maxwell's Equations. Summary. Problems.
8. Electromagnetic Waves.
Plane Electromagnetic Waves in an Unbounded Medium. Reflection and Transmission of Waves at Planar Interfaces. Guided Waves. Summary. Problems.
Appendix A: Vector Analysis.
Appendix B: Derivation of Ampere's Circuital Law from the BiotSavart Law.
Appendix C: Frequently Used Symbols and Units for Basic Quantities.
Appendix D: Fundamental Physical Constants.
General Bibliography.
Answers to Odd Numbered Problems.
Index.
Preface
This book provides engineering students with a solid grasp of electromagnetic fundamentals by emphasizing physical understanding and practical applications. The topical organization of the text starts with an initial exposure to transmission lines and transients on highspeed distributed circuits, naturally bridging electrical circuits and electromagnetics.
Engineering Electromagnetics is designed for upperdivision (3rd and 4th year) college and university engineering students, for those who wish to learn the subject through selfstudy, and for practicing engineers who need an uptodate reference text. The student using this text is assumed to have completed typical lowerdivision courses in physics and mathematics as well as a first course on electrical engineering circuits.
KEY FEATURES
The key features of this textbook are:
Modern Chapter Organization
We use a physical and intuitive approach so that this engineering textbook can be read by students with enthusiasm and with interest. We provide continuity with circuit theory by first covering transmission linesan appropriate step, in view of the newly emerging importance of transmission line concepts,not only in microwave and millimeterwave applications but also in highspeed digital electronics, microelectronics, integrated circuits, packaging, and interconnect applications. We then cover the fundamental subject material in a logical order, following the historical development of human understanding of electromagnetic phenomena. We base the fundamental laws on experimental observations and on physical grounds, including brief discussions of the precision of the fundamental experiments, so that the physical laws are easily understood and accepted. Once the complete set of fundamental laws is established, we then discuss their most important manifestation: the propagation, reflection, transmission, and guiding of electromagnetic waves.
Emphasis on Physical Understanding
Future engineers and scientists need a clear understanding and a firm grasp of the basic principles so that they can understand, formulate, and interpret the results of complex practical problems. Engineers and scientists nowadays do not and should not spend time working out formulas and obtaining numerical results by substitution. Most of the number crunching and formula manipulations are left to computers and packaged application and design programs, so a solid grasp of fundamentals is now more essential than ever before. In this text we maintain a constant link with established as well as new and emerging applications (so that the reader's interest remains perked up), while at the same time emphasizing fundamental physical insight and solid understanding of basic principles. We strive to empower the reader with more than just a working knowledge of a dry set of vector relations and formulas stated axiomatically. We supplement rigorous analyses with extensive discussions of the experimental bases of the laws, of the microscopic versus macroscopic concepts of electromagnetic fields and their behavior in material media, and of the physical nature of the electromagnetic fields and waves, often from alternative points of view. Description of the electrical and magnetic properties of material media at a sufficiently simple, yet accurate manner at the introductory electromagnetics level has always been a challenge, yet a solid understanding of this subject is now more essential than ever, especially in view of many applications that exploit these properties of materials. To this end we attempt to distill the essentials of physicallybased treatments available in physics texts, providing quantitative physical insight into microscopic behavior of materials and the representation of this behavior in terms of macroscopic parameters. Difficult threedimensional vector differential and integral concepts are discussed when they are encounteredagain, with the emphasis being on physical insight.
Detailed Examples and Abundant Illustrations
We present the material in a clear and simple yet precise and accurate manner, with interesting examples illustrating each new concept. Many examples emphasize selected applications of electromagnetics. A total of 180 illustrative examples are detailed over eight chapters, with four of the chapters having more than 30 examples each. Each example is presented with an abbreviated topical title, a clear problem statement, and a detailed solution. In recognition of the importance of visualization in the reader's understanding, especially in view of the threedimensional nature of electromagnetic fields, over 400 diagrams, graphs, and illustrations appear throughout the book.
Numerous EndofChapter Problems
Each chapter is concluded with a variety of homework problems to allow the students to test their understanding of the material covered in the chapter, with a total of over 300 exercise problems spread over seven chapters. The topical content of each problem is clearly identified in an abbreviated title (e.g., "Digital IC interconnects" or "Inductance of a toroid"). Many problems explore interesting applications, and most chapters include several practical "reallife" problems to motivate students.
Historical Notes and Abbreviated Biographies
The history of the development of electromagnetics is laden with outstanding examples of pioneering scientists and development of scientific thought. Throughout our text, we maintain a constant link with the pioneering giants and their work, to bring about a better appreciation of the complex physical concepts as well as to keep the reader interested. We provide abbreviated biographies of the pioneers, emphasizing their scientific work in electromagnetics as well as in other fields such as optics, heat, chemistry, and astronomy. We illustrate the apparatus used by discoverers such as Coulomb and Faraday so that the reader can have a feel for how one would carry out such an experiment.
Emphasis on Clarity without Sacrificing Rigor and Completeness
This textbook presents the material at a simple enough level to be readable by undergraduate students, but it is also rigorous in providing references and footnotes for indepth analyses of selected concepts and applications. We provide the students with a taste of rigor and completeness at the level of classical reference textscombined with a level of physical insight that was so well exemplified in some very old textswhile still maintaining the necessary level of organization and presentation clarity required for a modem textbook. We also provide not just a superficial but a rigorous and indepth exposure to a diverse range of applications of electromagnetics, in the body of the text, in examples, and in endofchapter problems.
Hundreds of Footnotes
In view of its fundamental physical nature and its broad generality, electromagnetics lends itself particularly well to alternative ways of thinking about physical and engineering problems and also is particularly rich in terms of available scientific literature and many outstanding textbooks. Almost every new concept encountered can be thought of in different ways, and the interested reader can explore its implications further. We encourage such scholarly pursuit of enhanced knowledge and understanding by providing many footnotes in each chapter that provide further comments, qualifications of statements made in the text, and references for indepth analyses of selected concepts and applications. A total of 450 footnotes are spread over eight chapters. These footnotes do not interrupt the flow of ideas and the development of the main topics, but they provide an unusual degree of completeness for a textbook at this level, with interesting and sometimes thoughtprovoking content to make the subject more appealing.
ELECTROMAGNETICS IN ENGINEERING
The particular organization of this textbook, as well as its experimentally and physically based philosophy, are motivated by our view of the current status of electromagnetics in engineering curricula. Understanding electromagnetics and appreciating its applications require a generally higher level of abstraction than most other topics encountered by electrical engineering students. Beginning electrical engineers learn to deal with voltages and currents, which appear across or flow through circuit elements or paths. The relationships between these voltages and currents are determined by the characteristics of the circuit elements and by Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws. Voltages and currents in lumped electrical circuits are scalar quantities that vary only as a function of time, and are readily measurable, and the students can relate to them via their previous experiences. The relationships between the quantities (i.e., Kirchhoff's laws) are relatively simple algebraic or ordinary differential equations. On the contrary, electric and magnetic fields are threedimensional and vector quantities that in general vary in both space and time and are related to one another through relatively complicated vector partial differential or vector integral equations. Even if the physical nature of electric and magnetic fields were understood, visualization of the fields and their effects on one another and on matter requires a generally high level of abstract thinking.
Most students are exposed to electromagnetics first at the freshman physics level, where electricity and magnetism are discussed in terms of their experimental bases by citing physical laws (e.g., Coulomb's law) and applying them to relatively simple and symmetrical configurations where the field quantities behave as scalars, and the governing equations are reduced to either algebraic equations of firstorder integral or differential relationships. Freshman physics provides the students with their first experiences with fields and waves as well as and some of their measurable manifestations, such as electric and magnetic forces, electromagnetic induction (Faraday's law), and refraction of light by prisms.
The first course in electromagnetics, which most students take after having had vector calculus, aims at the development and understanding of Maxwell's equations, requiring the utilization of the full threedimensional vector form of the fields and their relationships. It is this very step that makes the subject of electromagnetics appear insurmountable to many students and turns off their interest, especially when coupled with a lack of presentation and discussion of important applications and the physical (and experimental) bases of the fundamental laws of physics. Many authors and teachers have attempted to overcome this difficulty by a variety of topical organizations, ranging from those that start with Maxwell's equations as axioms to those that first develop them from their experimental basis.
Since electromagnetics is a mature basic science, and the topics covered in introductory texts are well established, the various texts primarily differ in their organization as well as range and depth of coverage. Teaching electromagnetics was the subject of a special issue of IEEE Transactions on Education vol. 33, February, 1990. Many of the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead in this connection were summarized well in an invited article by J. R. Whinnery. ^{1} Challenges include (1) the need to return to fundamentals (rather than relying on derived concepts), especially in view of the many emerging new applications that exploit unusual properties of materials and that rely on unconventional device concepts ^{2} , submillimeter transmission lines, ^{3} and optoelectronic waveguides, ^{4} and (2) the need to maintain student interest in spite of the decreasing popularity of the subject of electromagnetics and its reputation as a difficult and abstract subject. ^{5} Opportunities are abundant, especially as engineers working in electronics and computer science discover that as devices get smaller and faster, circuit theory is insufficient in describing system performance or facilitating design. It is now clear, for example, that transmission line concepts are not only important in microwave and millimeterwave applications but also necessary in highspeed digital electronics, nmicroelectronics, integrated circuits, interconnects, ^{6} and packaging applications. ^{7} The need for a basic understanding of electromagnetic waves and their guided propagation is underscored by the explosive expansion of the use of optical fibers, the use of extremely high data rates, ranging to 10 Gbits/s, ^{8} and the emerging use of highperformance, highdensity cables for communication within systems that will soon be required to carry digital signals at Gb/s rates over distances of a few meters. ^{9} In addition, issues of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are beginning to limit the performance of system, board, and chiplevel designs, and electrostatic discharge phenomena have significant impacts on the design and performance of integrated circuits. ^{10} Other important applications that require better understanding of electromagnetic fields are emerging in biology ^{11} and medicine. ^{12}
In organizing the material for our text, we benefited greatly from a review of the electromagnetic curriculum at Stanford University that one of us conducted during the spring quarter of 1990. A detailed analysis was made of both undergraduate and graduate offerings, both at Stanford and selected other schools. Inquiries were also made with selected industry, especially in the Aerospace sector. Based on the responses we received from many of our colleagues, and based on our experience with the teaching of the twoquarter sequence at Stanford, it was decided that an emphasis on fundamentals and physical insight and a traditional order of topics would be most appropriate. It was also determined that transmission line theory and applications can naturally be studied before fields and waves, so as to provide a smooth transition from the previous circuits and systems experiences of the typical electrical engineering students and also to emphasize the newly emerging importance of these concepts in highspeed electronics and computer applications.
RECOMMENDED COURSE CONTENT
This book is specifically designed for a oneterm first course in electromagnetics, nowadays typically the only required fields and waves course in most electrical engineering curricula. The recommended course content for a regular threeunit one semester course (42 contact hours) is provided in Table 1. The sections marked under "Cover" are recommended for complete coverage, including illustrative examples, whereas those marked "Skim" are recommended to be covered lightly, although the material provided is complete in case individual students want to go into more detail. The sections marked with a superscript asterisk are intended to provide flexibility to the individual instructor. For example, one may want to cover magnetic materials (Sec. 6.8) and skim magnetic forces and torques (Sec 6. 10), or vice versa. Similarly, one may want to cover guided waves (Sec. 8.3) but skim reflection from multiple or lossy interfaces (Sec. 8.2.3 and 8.2.4), instead of the other way around.
Table I also shows a recommended course content for a 4unit onequarter course (32 contact hours) identical to the course titled "Engineering Electromagnetics" (required for BSEE) that one of us has been teaching at Stanford for the past seven years. This topical coverage provides the students with (1) a working knowledge of transmission lines, (2) a solid, physically based background and a firm understanding of Maxwell's equations and their experimental bases, and (3) a first exposure to the most important manifestations of Maxwell's equations: electromagnetic waves. At Stanford, this required course is followed by a course titled "Electromagnetic Waves," which serves as the entry course for students opting for the fields and waves specialization.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We gratefully acknowledge those who have made significant contributions to the successful completion of this text. We thank Professor J. W. Goodman of Stanford, for his generous support of textbook writing by faculty throughout his term as department chair; Professor G. Kino and Dr. T. Bell of Stanford, for coursetesting a preliminary version of the manuscript, and Professor R. N. Bracewell, who inspired our use of the abbreviated biographies of great scientists. We thank many students at both Stanford and the University of Portland who have identified errors and suggested clarifications, and Mrs. JunHua Wang for typing parts of the manuscript and drawing some of the illustrations. We owe special thanks to our reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions, including J. Bredow of University of TexasArlington; S. Castillo of New Mexico State University; R. I Coleman of University of North CarolinaCharlotte; A. Dienes of University of CaliforniaDavis; J. Dunn of University of Colorado; D. S. Elliott of Purdue University; R. A. Kinney of Louisiana State University; L. Rosenthal of Fairleigh Dickinson University; E. Schamiloglu of University of New Mexico; T. Shumpert of Auburn University; D. Stephenson of Iowa State University; E. Thomson of University of Florida; J. Volakis of University of Michigan; and A. Weisshaar of Oregon State University. We greatly appreciate the efforts of our developmental editor Judy Ziajka and the Addison Wesley Longman staff including Anna Eberhard Friedlander, Pattie Myers, Kevin Berry, and especially our editor Paul Becker, whose dedication and support was crucially important in completing this project.
As teachers with a good deal of experience, we firmly believe that practice is the key to learning, and that homeworks and exams are all instruments of teaching, although they may often not be regarded as such by the students at the time. In our own courses, we take pride in providing the students with detailed solutions of homework and exam problems, rather than cryptic and abbreviated answers. To aid the instructors who choose to use this text, we have thus taken it upon ourselves to prepare a thorough and welllaidout solutions manual, describing the solution of every endofchapter problem, in the same stepbystep detailed manner as our illustrative examples within the chapters. The solution for each endofchapter problem has been typeset by the authors themselves, with special attention to pedagogical detail. This solutions manual is available to instructors upon request from Addison Wesley Longman.
As authors of this book, we are looking forward to interacting with its users, both students and instructors, to collect and respond to their comments, questions, and corrections. We can most easily be reached by email at inan@nova.stanford.edu (url: http://nova.stanford.edu/~vlf) and at ainan@up.edu. Supplemental information about the book and errata will be available at http://www.awl.com/cseng/titles/0805344233.
We dedicate this book to our parents, Mustafa and Hayriye Inan, for their dedication to our education; to our wives, Elif and Belgin, for their persistent support and understanding as this project expanded well beyond our initial expectations and consumed most of our available time for too many years; and to our children, Ayse, Ali, Baris, and Cem, for the joy they bring to our lives.
Umran S. Inan
Aziz S. Inan
_________
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