Engineering Materials 1: An Introduction to Properties, Applications and Design / Edition 4

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Overview

Widely adopted around the world, Engineering Materials 1 is a core materials science and engineering text for third- and fourth-year undergraduate students; it provides a broad introduction to the mechanical and environmental properties of materials used in a wide range of engineering applications. The text is deliberately concise, with each chapter designed to cover the content of one lecture. As in previous editions, chapters are arranged in groups dealing with particular classes of properties, each group covering property definitions, measurement, underlying principles, and materials selection techniques. Every group concludes with a chapter of case studies that demonstrate practical engineering problems involving materials.

Engineering Materials 1, Fourth Edition is perfect as a stand-alone text for a one-semester course in engineering materials or a first text with its companion Engineering Materials 2: An Introduction to Microstructures and Processing, in a two-semester course or sequence.

New and Key Features Include:

  • Many new design case studies and design-based examples
  • Revised and expanded treatments of stress-strain, fatigue, creep, and corrosion
  • Additional worked examples-to consolidate, develop, and challenge
  • Compendia of results for elastic beams, plastic moments, and stress intensity factors
  • Many new photographs and links to Google Earth, websites, and video clips
  • Accompanying companion site with access to instructors’ resources, including a suite of interactive materials science tutorials, a solutions manual, and an image bank of figures from the book

Widely adopted around the world, this is a core materials science and mechanical engineering text. Engineering Materials 1 gives a broad introduction to the properties of materials used in engineering applications. With each chapter corresponding to one lecture, it provides a complete introductory course in engineering materials for students with no previous background in the subject. Ashby & Jones have an established, successful track record in developing understanding of the properties of materials and how they perform in reality.One of the best-selling materials properties texts; well known, well established and well liked

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Ashby (emeritus) and Jones (both Cambridge U.) have made considerable changes to the 2005 third edition (the first edition was published in 1980), among them new illustrative photographs, references to reliable websites, and worked examples to many of the chapters. The textbook is for a first course on materials for undergraduate engineering students, holding up one corner of a curriculum that includes design, mechanics, and structures. It covers price and availability; the elastic moduli; yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility; fast fracture, brittle fracture, and toughness; fatigue failure; creep deformation and fracture; oxidation and corrosion; and friction, abrasion, and wear."—Reference and Research News, October 2012
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780080966656
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 10/10/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 496
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Jones is co-author of Engineering Materials 1 and 2 and lead author for the 3rd and 4th editions. He was the founder editor of Elsevier's journal Engineering Failure Analysis, and founder chair of Elsevier's International Conference on Engineering Failure Analysis series. His research interests are in materials engineering, and along with serving as President of Christ's College at the University of Cambridge he now works internationally advising major companies and legal firms on failures of large steel structures.

Royal Society Research Professor Emeritus at Cambridge University and Former Visiting Professor of Design at the Royal College of Art, London, UK

Mike Ashby is sole or lead author of several of Elsevier’s top selling engineering textbooks, including Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, Materials and the Environment, and Materials: Engineering, Science, Processing and Design. He is also coauthor of the books Engineering Materials 1&2, and Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design.

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Read an Excerpt

Engineering Materials 1

An Introduction to Properties, Applications, and Design
By Michael F. Ashby David R. H. Jones

Butterworth-Heinemann

Copyright © 2012 Michael F. Ashby and David R. H. Jones
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-08-096666-3


Chapter One

Engineering Materials and Their Properties

CONTENTS

1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Examples of materials selection 3

1.1 INTRODUCTION

There are maybe more than 50,000 materials available to the engineer. In designing a structure or device, how is the engineer to choose from this vast menu the material that best suits the purpose? Mistakes can cause disasters. During the Second World War, one class of welded merchant ship suffered heavy losses, not by enemy attack, but by breaking in half at sea: the fracture toughness of the steel—and, particularly, of the welds—was too low.

More recently, three Comet aircraft were lost before it was realized that the design called for a fatigue strength that—given the design of the window frames—was greater than that possessed by the material. You yourself will be familiar with poorly designed appliances made of plastic: their excessive "give" is because the designer did not allow for the low modulus of the polymer. These bulk properties are listed in Table 1.1, along with other common classes of property that the designer must consider when choosing a material. Many of these properties will be unfamiliar to you—we will introduce them through examples in this chapter. They form the basis of this course on materials.

In this course, we also encounter the classes of materials shown in Table 1.2 and Figure 1.1. More engineering components are made of metals and alloys than of any other class of solid. But increasingly, polymers are replacing metals because they offer a combination of properties that are more attractive to the designer. And if you've been reading the newspaper, you will know that the new ceramics, at present under development worldwide, are an emerging class of engineering material that may permit more efficient heat engines, sharper knives and bearings with lower friction. The engineer can combine the best properties of these materials to make composites (the most familiar is fiberglass) which offer especially attractive packages of properties. And—finally—one should not ignore natural materials, such as wood and leather, which have properties that are—even with the innovations of today's materials scientists—difficult to beat.

In this chapter we illustrate, using a variety of examples, how the designer selects materials to provide the properties needed.

1.2 EXAMPLES OF MATERIALS SELECTION

A typical screwdriver (Figure 1.2) has a shaft and blade made of carbon steel, a metal. Steel is chosen because its modulus is high. The modulus measures the resistance of the material to elastic deflection. If you made the shaft out of a polymer like polyethylene instead, it would twist far too much. A high modulus is one criterion but not the only one. The shaft must have a high yield strength. If it does not, it will bend or twist permanently if you turn it hard (bad screwdrivers do). And the blade must have a high hardness, otherwise it will be burred-over by the head of the screw.

Finally, the material of the shaft and blade must not only do all these things, it must also resist fracture—glass, for instance, has a high modulus, yield strength, and hardness, but it would not be a good choice for this application because it is so brittle—it has a very low fracture toughness. That of steel is high, meaning that it gives before it breaks.

The handle of the screwdriver is made of a polymer or plastic, in this instance polymethylmethacrylate, otherwise known as PMMA, plexiglass or perspex. The handle has a much larger section than the shaft, so its twisting, and thus its modulus, is less important. You could not make it satisfactorily out of a soft rubber (another polymer) because its modulus is much too low, although a thin skin of rubber might be useful because its friction coefficient is high, making it easy to grip. Traditionally, of course, tool handles were made of a natural composite—wood—and, if you measure importance by the volume consumed per year, wood is still by far the most important composite available to the engineer.

Wood has been replaced by PMMA because PMMA becomes soft when hot and can be molded quickly and easily to its final shape. Its ease of fabrication for this application is high. It is also chosen for aesthetic reasons: its appearance, and feel or texture, are right; and its density is low, so that the screwdriver is not unnecessarily heavy. Finally, PMMA is cheap, and this allows the product to be made at a reasonable price.

A second example (Figure 1.3) takes us from low technology to the advanced materials design involved in the turbofan aeroengines that power most planes. Air is propelled past the engine by the turbofan, providing aerodynamic thrust. The air is further compressed by the compressor blades, and is then mixed with fuel and burnt in the combustion chamber. The expanding gases drive the turbine blades, which provide power to the turbofan and the compressor blades, and finally pass out of the rear of the engine, adding to the thrust.

The turbofan blades are made from a titanium alloy, a metal. This has a sufficiently good modulus, yield strength and fracture toughness. But the metal must also resist fatigue (due to rapidly fluctuating loads), surface wear (from striking everything from water droplets to large birds) and corrosion (important when taking off over the sea because salt spray enters the engine). Finally, density is extremely important for obvious reasons: the heavier the engine, the less the payload the plane can carry. In an effort to reduce weight even further, composite blades made of carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) with density less than one-half of that of titanium, have been tried. But CFRP, by itself, is not tough enough for turbofan blades. Some tests have shown that they can be shattered by "bird strikes."

Turning to the turbine blades (those in the hottest part of the engine) even more material requirements must be satisfied. For economy the fuel must be burnt at the highest possible temperature. The first row of engine blades (the "HP1" blades) runs at metal temperatures of about 1000°C, requiring resistance to creep and oxidation. Nickel-based alloys of complicated chemistry and structure are used for this exceedingly stringent application; they are a pinnacle of advanced materials technology.

An example that brings in somewhat different requirements is the spark plug of an internal combustion engine (Figure 1.4). The spark electrodes must resist thermal fatigue (from rapidly fluctuating temperatures), wear (caused by spark erosion) and oxidation and corrosion from hot upper-cylinder gases containing nasty compounds of sulphur. Tungsten alloys are used for the electrodes because they have the desired properties.

The insulation around the central electrode is an example of a nonmetallic material—in this case, alumina, a ceramic. This is chosen because of its electrical insulating properties and because it also has good thermal fatigue resistance and resistance to corrosion and oxidation (it is an oxide already).

The use of nonmetallic materials has grown most rapidly in the consumer industry. Our next example, a sailing cruiser (Figure 1.5), shows just how extensively polymers and synthetic composites and fibers have replaced the traditional materials of steel, wood and cotton. A typical cruiser has a hull made from GFRP, manufactured as a single molding; GFRP has good appearance and, unlike steel or wood, does not rust or become eaten away by marine worm. The mast is made from aluminum alloy, which is lighter for a given strength than wood; advanced masts are now made from CFRP. The sails, formerly of the natural material cotton, are now made from the polymers nylon, Terylene or Kevlar, and, in the running rigging, cotton ropes have been replaced by polymers also. Finally, polymers like PVC are extensively used for things like fenders, buoyancy bags and boat covers.

Two synthetic composite materials have appeared in the items we have considered so far: GFRP and the much more expensive CFRP. The range of composites is a large and growing one (refer to Figure 1.1); during the next decade composites will compete even more with steel and aluminum in many traditional uses of these metals.

So far we have introduced the mechanical and physical properties of engineering materials, but we have yet to discuss two considerations that are often of overriding importance: price and availability.

Table 1.3 shows a rough breakdown of material prices. Materials for large-scale structural use—wood, concrete and structural steel—cost between US$200 and $500 per ton. Many materials have all the other properties required of a structural material—but their use in this application is eliminated by their price.

The value that is added during light and medium-engineering work is larger, and this usually means that the economic constraint on the choice of materials is less severe—a far greater proportion of the cost of the structure is that associated with labor or with production and fabrication. Stainless steels, most aluminum alloys and most polymers cost between US$500 and $30,000 per ton. It is in this sector of the market that the competition between materials is most intense, and the greatest scope for imaginative design exists. Here polymers and composites compete directly with metals, and new structural ceramics (e.g., silicon carbide and silicon nitride) may compete with both in certain applications.

Next there are the materials developed for high-performance applications, some of which we have mentioned already: nickel alloys (for turbine blades), tungsten (for spark-plug electrodes), and special composite materials such as CFRP. The price of these materials ranges between US$30,000 and $100,000 per ton. This the régime of high materials technology, actively under research, in which major new advances are continuing to be made. Here, too, there is intense competition from new materials.

Finally, there are the so-called precious metals and gemstones, widely used in engineering: gold for microcircuits, platinum for catalysts, sapphire for bearings, diamond for cutting tools. They range in price from US$100,000 to more than US$60m per ton.

As an example of how price and availability affect the choice of material for a particular job, consider how the materials used for building bridges in Cambridge, England have changed over the centuries. As the photograph of Queens' Bridge (Figure 1.6) suggests, until 150 years or so ago wood was commonly used for bridge building. It was cheap, and high-quality timber was still available in large sections from natural forests. Stone, too, as the picture of Clare Bridge (Figure 1.7) shows, was widely used. During the eighteenth century, the ready availability of cast iron, with its relatively low assembly costs, led to many cast-iron bridges of the type exemplified by Magdalene Bridge (Figure 1.8).

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Engineering Materials 1 by Michael F. Ashby David R. H. Jones Copyright © 2012 by Michael F. Ashby and David R. H. Jones . Excerpted by permission of Butterworth-Heinemann. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Engineering materials and their properties; Price and availability of materials; Elastic moduli; Bonding between atoms; Packing of atoms in solids; Physical basis of Young's modulus; Case studies in modulus-limited design; Yield strength, tensile strength and ductility; Dislocations and yielding in crystals; Strengthening methods and plasticity of polycrystals; Continuum aspects of plastic flow; Case studies in yield-limited design; Fast fracture and toughness; Micromechanisms of fast fracture; Case studies in fast fracture; Probalistic fracture of brittle materials; Fatigue failure; Fatigue design; Case studies in fatigue failure; Creep and creep fracture; Kinetic theory of diffusion; Mechanisms of creep and creep-resistant materials; The turbine blade - case studies in creep-limited design; Oxidation and corrosion; Oxidation of materials; Case studies in dry oxidation; Wet corrosion of materials; Case studies in wet corrosion; Friction and wear; Case studies in friction and wear; Design with materials; Final case study - materials and energy in car design; Appendices - Symbols and Formulae; References; Index; Complete solutions manual

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