England on Edge: Crisis and Revolution 1640-1642

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England on Edge deals with the collapse of the government of Charles I, the disintegration of the Church of England, and the accompanying cultural panic that led to civil war. Focused on the years 1640 to 1642, it examines stresses and fractures in social, political, and religious culture, and the emergence of an unrestrained popular press. Hundreds of people not normally seen in historical surveys make appearances here, in a drama much larger than the struggle of king and parliament. Historians commonly assert that royalists and parliamentarians parted company over issues of principle, constitutional scruples, and religious belief, but a more complex picture emerges from the environment of anxiety, mistrust, and fear.

Rather than seeing England's revolutionary transformation as a product of the civil war, as has been common among historians, David Cressy finds the world turned upside down in the two years preceding the outbreak of hostilities. The humbling of Charles I, the erosion of the royal prerogative, and the rise of an executive parliament were central features of the revolutionary drama of 1640-1642. The collapse of the Laudian ascendancy, the splintering of the established church, the rise of radical sectarianism, and the emergence of an Anglican resistance all took place in these two years before the beginnings of bloodshed. The world of public discourse became rapidly energized and expanded, in counterpoint with an exuberantly unfettered press and a deeply traumatized state.

These linked processes, and the disruptive contradictions within them, made this a time of shaking and of prayer. England's elite encountered multiple transgressions, some more imagined than real, involving lay encroachments on the domain of the clergy, lowly intrusions into matters of state, the city clashing with the court, the street with institutions of government, and women undermining the territories of men. The simultaneity, concatenation, and cumulative, compounding effect of these disturbances added to their ferocious intensity, and helped to bring down England's ancien regime. This was the revolution before the Revolution, the revolution that led to civil war.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780199237630
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Publication date: 12/7/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 462
  • Product dimensions: 9.10 (w) x 6.10 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Born and educated in England, David Cressy has built his career in the United States. He taught British history in the Claremont Colleges in California, then at California State University, Long Beach, before moving to Ohio State University in 1998. He has earned major fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Huntington Library. He has made frequent visits to England as an Associate of Clare Hall, Cambridge, Visiting Fellow at Magdalen and St Catherine's Colleges, Oxford, and as an Overseas Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge.

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Table of Contents

Introduction : problems regarding method 1
1 The earliest readers of Machiavelli : miscellaneous and military 17
2 Creative plagiarism : Agostino Nifo's De regnandi peritia 42
3 Early readers of Machiavelli : comment and discourse 85
4 A hostile cardinal : Reginald Pole and his Apologia 115
5 Osorio and Machiavelli : from open hostility to covert approbation 143
6 Machiavelli and the index of prohibited books 164
7 Machiavelli's keenest readers : the early translators 183
8 In praise of the Saint Bartholomew's day massacre 229
9 Innocent Gentillet and Machiavelli's 'maximes tyranniques' 271
10 In the wake of Gentillet : evolution of the 'Machiavel' stereotype in France and England 325
11 More Machiavellian than Machiavel : the Jesuits and the context of Donne's Conclave 374
12 Gentillet's final assault : the 'contre-Machiavel' of 1585 417
13 From sublime to ridiculous : some serious readers of Machiavelli 434
14 Writers on the art of war 477
15 Paradoxes on the reception of Machiavelli's military thinking 517
16 Systematic immorality : the courtier's art 573
17 Systematic fragmentation : the vogue of the political aphorism 630
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