Enhanced Recovery Methods for Heavy Oil and Tar Sands

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Recent oil price fluctuations continue to stress the need for more efficient recovery of heavy oil and tar sand bitumen resources. With conventional production steadily declining, advances in enhanced recovery will be required so that oil production can be extended and reservoirs last longer. A practical guide on heavy-oil related recovery methods is essential for all involved in heavy oil production. To feed this demand, James Speight, a well-respected scientist and author, provides a must-read for all scientists, engineers and technologists that are involved in production enhancement. In Enhanced Recovery Methods for Heavy Oil and Tar Sands, Speight provides the current methods of recovery for heavy oil and tar sand bitumen technology, broken down by thermal and non-thermal methods. An engineer, graduate student or professional working with heavy oil, upcoming and current, will greatly benefit from this much-needed text.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781933762258
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 7/15/2009
  • Pages: 354
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

James G. Speight is a senior fuel consultant as well as an Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Fuels Engineering at the University of Utah, USA. He is recognized internationally as an expert in the characterization, properties, and processing of conventional and synthetic fuels and as a chemist with more than 35 years of experience in thermal/process chemistry, thermodynamics, refining of petroleum, heavy oil, and tar sand bitumen, and physics of crude with emphasis on distillation, visbreaking, coking units, and oil-rock or oil catalyst interactions. Speight is currently Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, Energy Sources-Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, and Energy Sources-Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy. He is also the author/editor/compiler of more than 25 books and bibliographies related to fossil fuel processing and environmental issues.
Speight was Chief Scientific Officer and then Chief Executive Officer of the Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY, USA, from 1984 to 2000. During this period he led a staff of more that 150 scientists, engineers, and technicians in developing new technology for gas processing, petroleum, shale oil, tar sand bitumen, and asphalt. Speight has considerable expertise in evaluating new technologies for patentability and commercial application. As a result of his work, he was awarded the Diploma of Honor, National Petroleum Engineering Society, for outstanding contributions to the petroleum industry in 1995 and the Gold Medal of Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) for outstanding work in the area of petroleum science in 1996. He has also received the Specialist Invitation Program Speakers Award from NEDO (New Energy Development Organization, Government of Japan) in 1987 and again in 1996 for his contributions to coal research. In 2001, he was also awarded the Einstein Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) in recognition of outstanding contributions and
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Table of Contents

List of Figures ix

List of Tables xi

Preface xiii

Chapter 1 Definitions 1

1.1 History 3

1.2 Petroleum 5

1.3 Heavy Oil 13

1.4 Tar Sand Bitumen 16

1.5 Validity of the Definitions 19

1.6 Conclusions 24

1.7 References 26

Chapter 2 Origin and Occurrence 29

2.1 Origin of Petroleum and Heavy Oil 33

2.1.1 Abiogenic Origin 33

2.1.2 Biogenic Origin 34

2.1.3 Occurrence and Distribution 35

2.2 Reservoirs 39

2.3 Reserves 42

2.3.1 Definitions 42

2.3.2 The Real Numbers 48

2.4 Production 49

2.5 Oil Pricing 51

2.5.1 Oil Price History 52

2.5.2 Pricing Strategies 53

2.5.3 The Role of Heavy Oil in the Future 55

2.6 References 56

Chapter 3 Reservoirs and Reservoir Fluids 59

3.1 Reservoirs 60

3.1.1 Structural Traps 62

3.1.2 Heterogeneity 64

3.2 Classes of Fluids 66

3.3 Evaluation of Reservoir Fluids 69

3.3.1 Sampling Methods 70

3.3.2 Data Acquisition and QA/QC 73

3.4 Physical (Bulk) Composition and Molecular Weight 75

3.4.1 Sampling 76

3.4.2 Asphaltene Separation 76

3.4.3 Fractionation 79

3.4.4 Molecular Weight 82

3.5 Reservoir Evaluation 89

3.6 References 92

Chapter 4 Properties 95

4.1 Physical Properties 97

4.1.1 Sampling 99

4.1.2 Elemental (Ultimate) Analysis 100

4.1.3 Metals Content 101

4.1.4 Density and Specific Gravity 102

4.1.5 Viscosity 104

4.2 Thermal Properties 106

4.2.1 Carbon Residue 106

4.2.2 Specific Heat 107

4.2.3 Heat of Combustion 107

4.2.4 Volatility 108

4.2.5 Liquefaction and Solidification 117

4.2.6 Solubility 118

4.3 Metals Content 120

4.4 References 125

Chapter 5 Exploration and General Methods for Oil Recovery 133

5.1 Exploration 134

5.2 Primary Recovery (Natural) Methods147

5.3 Secondary Recovery 152

5.4 Enhanced Oil Recovery 162

5.4.1 Thermal Recovery Methods 163

5.4.2 Gas Flood Recovery Methods 168

5.4.3 Chemical Flood Recovery Methods 174

5.5 References 180

Chapter 6 Nonthermal Methods of Recovery 185

6.1 Primary Recovery (Natural) Methods 187

6.2 Secondary Recovery Methods 190

6.2.1 Waterflooding 191

6.2.2 Gas Injection 193

6.2.3 Cold Production 194

6.2.4 Pressure Pulse Technology 198

6.2.5 Solvent Processes 199

6.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods 200

6.3.1 Alkaline Flooding 201

6.3.2 Carbon Dioxide Flooding 203

6.3.3 Cyclic Carbon Dioxide Stimulation 205

6.3.4 Nitrogen Flooding 206

6.3.5 Polymer Flooding 206

6.3.6 Micellar Polymer Flooding 207

6.3.7 Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery 208

6.4 Oil Mining 211

6.5 References 217

Chapter 7 Thermal Methods of Recovery 221

7.1 Hot-Fluid Injection 224

7.2 Steam-Based Methods 227

7.2.1 Steam Drive Injection (Steam Injection) 230

7.2.2 Cyclic Steam Injection 230

7.2.3 Steam Drive 234

7.3 In Situ Combustion Processes 234

7.3.1 Forward Combustion 238

7.3.2 Reverse Combustion 240

7.3.3 The THAI Process 244

7.4 Other Processes 247

7.4.1 Horizontal Well Technology 247

7.4.2 Inert Gas Technology 248

7.4.3 Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) 249

7.4.4 Hybrid Processes 253

7.5 In Situ Upgrading 254

7.6 References 256

Chapter 8 Upgrading Heavy Oil 261

8.1 Surface Upgrading 263

8.1.1 Thermal Cracking Processes 267

8.1.2 Catalytic Cracking Processes 271

8.1.3 Hydrogen Addition Processes 275

8.1.4 Solvent Processes 277

8.2 In Situ Upgrading 285

8.2.1 Solvent-Based Processes 287

8.2.2 Bulk Thermal Processes 288

8.3 References 292

App A Conversion Factors 295

Glossary 297

Index 335

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