Enlightenment: Critical Concepts In Historical Studies / Edition 1

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More than any earlier period of European intellectual history, the age of Enlightenment infused the republic of letters with social and political significance; this long-awaited new collection from Routledge brings together in five volumes the very best scholarship on the period and its legacy. It also incorporates historical and critical essays addressed to the Enlightenment’s alleged responsibility for institutions or policies prevalent in the twentieth century, including economic globalization and the Holocaust.

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Table of Contents


1. Ernst Cassirer, ‘The Mind of the Enlightenment’, The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, trans. Fritz C. A. Koelln and James P. Pettegrove (Beacon Press, 1955), pp. 3–36.

2. Carl Becker, ‘The Laws of Nature and Nature’s God’, The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers (Yale University Press, 2003), pp. 33–70.

3. Paul Hazard, The European Mind: The Critical Years, 1680–1715, trans. J. Lewis May (World Publishing, 1963), pp. 435–47.

4. Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno, ‘The Concept of Enlightenment’, Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans. John Cumming (Herder and Herder, 1972), pp. 3–42.

5. Michel Foucault, ‘What is Enlightenment?’, in Paul Rabinow (ed.), The Foucault Reader, trans. by Catherine Porter (Pantheon Books, 1984), pp. 32–50.

6. Peter Gay, ‘The Little Flock of Philosophes’, The Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Paganism (Norton, 1966), pp. 3–20.

7. Margaret Jacob, ‘Was the Early Enlightenment Inherently Radical: What do We Mean by Radical?’.

8. Franco Venturi, ‘The European Enlightenment’, Italy and the Enlightenment, trans. Stuart Woolf (Longman, 1972), pp. 1–32.

9. H. B. Nisbet, ‘Was ist Aufklärung? The Concept of Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Germany’, Journal of European Studies, 1982, 12, 77–95.

10. Wijnand Mijnhardt, ‘The Dutch Enlightenment: Humanism, Nationalism and Decline’, in Margaret Jacob and Mijnhardt (eds.), The Dutch Republic in the Eighteenth Century (Cornell University Press, 1992), pp. 197–223.

11. Nicholas Phillipson, ‘The Scottish Enlightenment’, in Roy Porter and Mikulas Teich (eds.), The Enlightenment in National Context (Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 19–40.

12. John Robertson, ‘The Enlightenment Above National Context: Political Economy in Eighteenth-Century Scotland and Naples’, The Historical Journal, 1997, 40, 667–97.

13. Reinhart Koselleck, Critique and Crisis: Enlightenment and the Pathogenesis of Modern Society (MIT Press, 1988), pp. 5–15.

14. Robert Wokler, ‘Projecting the Enlightenment’, in John Horton and Susan Mendus (eds.), After MacIntyre (Polity Press, 1994), pp. 108–26.

15. James Schmidt, ‘Inventing the Enlightenment: British Hegelians, Anti-Jacobins, and the Oxford English Dictionary’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 2003, 64, 421–43.

16. Jonathan Israel, ‘Enlightenment! Which Enlightenment?’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 2006, 67, 523–45.

17. J. G. A. Pocock, ‘The Re-Description of Enlightenment’, Proceedings of the British Academy, 2006, 125, 101–17.


18. Richard Popkin, ‘Scepticism in the Enlightenment’, Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 1963, 27, 1321–45.

19. Hugh Trevor-Roper, ‘The Historical Philosophy of the Enlightenment’, Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 1963, 27, 1667–87.

20. Johnson Kent Wright, ‘Historical Thought in the Era of Enlightenment’, in L. Kramer and Sara Maza (eds.), A Companion to Western Historical Thought (Blackwell, 2002), pp. 123–42.

21. David Carrithers, ‘The Enlightenment Science of Society’, in C. Fox, R. Porter, and R. Wokler (eds.), Inventing Human Science (University of California Press, 1995), pp. 232–70.

22. Margaret Jacob, ‘Newtonianism and the Origins of the Enlightenment: A Reassessment’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 1978, 11, 1–25.

23. Larry Stewart, ‘The Selling of Newton: Science and Technology in Early Eighteenth-Century England’, Journal of British Studies, 1986, 25, 178–92.

24. Simon Schaffer, ‘Natural Philosophy and Public Spectacle in the Eighteenth Century’, History of Science, 1983, 21, 1–43.

25. Londa Schiebinger, ‘Skeletons in the Closet: The First Illustrations of the Female Skeleton in Eighteenth-Century Anatomy’, Representations, 1986, 14, 42–82.

26. Roy Porter, ‘Medical Science and Human Science in the Enlightenment’, in C. Fox, R. Porter, and R. Wokler (eds.), Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth-Century Domains (University of California Press, 1995), pp. 53–87.

27. Jacques Roger, The Life Sciences in Eighteenth-Century French Thought, trans. R. Ellrich (Stanford University Press, 1997), pp. 530–42.

28. Lorraine Daston, ‘Attention and the Values of Nature in the Enlightenment’, in L. Daston and F. Vidal (eds.), The Moral Authority of Nature (University of Chicago Press, 2004), pp. 100–26.

29. Hans Aarsleff, ‘The Berlin Academy under Frederick the Great’, History of the Human Sciences, 1989, 2, 193–206.

30. Derek Beales, ‘Mozart and the Hapsburgs’, Enlightenment and Reform in Eighteenth-Century Europe (I. B. Tauris, 2005), pp. 90–116.

31. Jean Seznec, ‘Diderot and Historical Painting’, in Earl Wasserman (ed.), Aspects of the Eighteenth Century (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1965), pp. 129–42.

32. Daniel Roche, ‘Encyclopedias and the Diffusion of Knowledge’, in Mark Goldie and Robert Wokler (eds.), The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 172–94.


33. Jean Starobinski, Blessings in Disguise, Or, The Morality of Evil, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Harvard University Press, 1993), pp. 1–35.

34. E. J. Hundert, ‘Bernard Mandeville and the Enlightenment’s Maxims of Modernity’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 1994, 56, 577–93.

35. John Hope Mason, ‘Individuals in Society: Rousseau’s Republican Vision’, History of Political Thought, 1989, 10, 89–112.

36. Patrick Riley, ‘Social Contract Theory and its Critics’, in Mark Goldie and Robert Wokler (eds.), The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 347–75.

37. Duncan Forbes, ‘Natural Law and the Scottish Enlightenment’, in R. H. Campbell and Andrew S. Skinner (eds.), The Origins and Nature of the Scottish Enlightenment (Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp. 186–204.

38. Knud Haakonssen, ‘The Structure of Hume’s Political Theory’, in D. F. Norton (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Hume (Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 182–221.

39. Andrew Skinner, ‘The Shaping of Political Economy in the Enlightenment’, Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 1990, 37, 145–65.

40. Donald Winch, ‘Adam Smith: Scottish Moral Philosopher as Political Economist’, Historical Journal, 1992, 35, 91–113.

41. Antoine Lilti, ‘Sociabilité et mondanité: les hommes des lettres dans les salons parisiens au XVIII siècle’, French Historical Studies, 2005, 28, 415–45.

42. Dena Goodman, ‘Enlightenment Salons: The Convergence of Female and Philosophic Ambitions’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 1989, 22, 329–50.

43. Dorinda Outram, ‘Enlightenment Thinking About Gender’, The Enlightenment (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 80–95.

44. Sylvana Tomaselli, ‘The Enlightenment Debate on Women’, History Workshop Journal, 1985, 20, 101–24.

45. Robert Darnton, ‘The High Enlightenment and the Low Life of Literature in Pre-Revolutionary France’, Past and Present, 1971, 51, 81–115.

46. Darrin McMahon, ‘The Counter-Enlightenment and the Low Life of Literature in Pre-Revolutionary France’, Past and Present, 1998, 159, 77–112.

47. Rick Sher, ‘Introduction’, The Enlightenment and the Book (University of Chicago Press, 2007), pp. 1–24.


48. Judith Shklar, ‘Montesquieu and the New Republicanism’, in Gisela Bock, Quentin Skinner, and Maurizio Viroli (eds.), Machiavelli and Republicanism (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 265–79.

49. Johnson Kent Wright, ‘Conversations with Phocion: The Political Thought of Mably’, History of Political Thought, 1992, 13, 391–415.

50. Dale Van Kley, The Religious Origins of the French Revolution (Yale University Press, 1999), pp. 1–14.

51. Jonathan Israel, ‘Spinoza, Locke, and the Enlightenment Battle for Toleration’, in Ole Grell and Roy Porter (eds.), Toleration in Enlightenment Europe (Cambridge University Press), pp. 102–13.

52. Mark Philp, ‘Enlightenment, Toleration and Liberty’, Enlightenment and Dissent, 1990, 9, 47–62.

53. Emma Rothschild, ‘Condorcet and the Conflict of Values’, Historical Journal, 1996, 39, 677–701.

54. Sankar Muthu, ‘Enlightenment Anti-Imperialism’, Social Research, 1999, 66, 959–1007.

55. Jürgen Habermas, ‘Kant’s Idea of Perpetual Peace, with the Benefit of Two Hundred Years’ Hindsight’, in James Bohman and Matthias Lutz-Bachmann (eds.), Perpetual Peace: Essays on Kant’s Cosmopolitan Ideal (MIT Press), pp. 113–53.

56. Istvan Hont, ‘The Permanent Crisis of a Divided Mankind: "Contemporary Crisis of the Nation State" in Historical Perspective’, Political Studies, 1994, 42, 166–231.

57. Robert Wokler, ‘The Enlightenment, the Nation-State, and the Primal Patricide of Modernity’, in Norman Geras and Robert Wokler (eds.), The Enlightenment and Modernity (Macmillan, 2000), pp. 161–83.

58. Alan Kors, ‘Skepticism and the Problem of Atheism in Early-Modern France’, in R. H. Popkin and A. Vanderjagt (eds.), Skepticism and Irreligion in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Brill, 1993), pp. 185–215.

59. Jonathan Sheehan, ‘Enlightenment Details: Theology, Natural History, and the Letter h’, Representations, 1998, 61, 29–56.

60. Helena Rosenblatt, ‘The Christian Enlightenment’, in Stewart J. Brown and Timothy Tackett (eds.), The Cambridge History of Christianity, 1600–1815 (Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 283–301.

61. Charles Ingrao, ‘The Problem of "Enlightened Absolutism" and the German States’, Journal of Modern History, 1986, 58, 161–80.

62. Laurent Dubois, ‘An Enslaved Enlightenment: Rethinking the Intellectual History of the French Atlantic’, Social History, 2006, 31, 1, 1–14.

63. Jorge Cañizares-Esguerra, ‘La Ilustración hispanoamericana: Una caracterización’, in Jaime E. Rodríguez (ed.), Revolución, Independencia, y las nuevas naciones de Naciones de América (Fundación Mapfre-Tavera, 2005) pp. 87–98.


64. Gordon Wood, ‘The American Enlightenment’, in Gary McDowell and Jonathan O’Neill (eds.), America and Enlightenment Constitutionalism (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), pp. 159–75.

65. Joyce Appleby, ‘What is Still American in the Political Philosophy of Thomas Jefferson?’, William and Mary Quarterly, 1982, 39, 287–309.

66. David Armitage, ‘The Declaration of Independence and International Law’, William and Mary Quarterly, 2002, 59, 39–64.

67. Lynn Hunt, ‘Introduction’, Inventing Human Rights (Norton, 2007), pp. 15–34.

68. Jacob L. Talmon, ‘Introduction’, The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy (Praeger, 1960), pp. 1–13.

69. Daniel Mornet, Les Origines Intellectuelles de la révolution français, 1715–1787, 4th edn. (Armand Colin, 1947), pp. 1–5, 105–27.

70. Bronislaw Baczko, ‘Enlightenment’, in Francois Furet and Mona Ozouf (eds.), A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 659–67.

71. Roger Chartier, ‘Enlightenment and Revolution, Revolution and Enlightenment’, Cultural Origins of the French Revolution, trans. Lydia G. Cochrane (Duke University Press, 1991), pp. 3–20.

72. Keith Michael Baker, ‘On the Problem of the Ideological Origins of the French Revolution’, Inventing the French Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 12–27.

73. Lucien Jaume, ‘Citizen and State under the French Revolution’, in Q. Skinner and B. Strath (eds.), States and Citizens (Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 131–44.

74. Conor Cruise O’Brien, ‘Edmund Burke: Prophet Against the Tyranny of the Politics of Theory’, in Frank M. Turner (ed.), Reflections on the Revolution in France (Yale University Press, 2004), pp. 213–32.

75. Gregory Claeys, ‘Republicanism versus Commercial Society: Paine, Burke and the French Revolution Debate’, History of European Ideas, 1989, 11, 313–24.

76. Francois Furet, ‘Tocqueville and the Problem of the French Revolution’, Interpreting the French Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 132–63.

77. Robert Wokler, ‘Contextualizing Hegel’s Phenomenology of the French Revolution and the Terror’, Political Theory, 1998, 26, 33–55.

78. Tzevtan Todorov, ‘The Deflection of Enlightenment’, Partisan Review, 1989, 56, 581–92.

79. Isaiah Berlin, ‘The Counter-Enlightenment’, in Henry Hardy (ed.), Against the Current (Princeton University Press, 1997), pp. 1–24.

80. John Pocock, ‘Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment, Revolution and Counter-Revolution: A Eurosceptical Inquiry’, History of Political Thought, 1999, 20, 125–39.

81. Daniel Gordon, ‘On the Supposed Obsolescence of the French Enlightenment’, in Gordon (ed.), Postmodernism and the Enlightenment (Routledge, 2001), pp. 201–21.

82. Richard Rorty, ‘The Continuity Between the Enlightenment and "Postmodern"’, in Keith Michael Baker and Peter Hanns Reill (eds.), What’s Left of Enlightenment? A Postmodern Question (Stanford University Press, 2001), pp. 19–36.

83. Robert Darnton, ‘The Case for the Enlightenment: George Washington’s False Teeth’, George Washington’s False Teeth (Norton, 2003), pp. 3–24.

84. Carla Hesse, ‘Towards a New Topography of Enlightenment’, European Review of History, 2006, 13, 499–508.

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