Enough Is Enough: A Student Affairs Perspective on Preparedness and Response to a Campus Shooting


Are your violence prevention and mental health efforts on campus coordinated?

Are all your campus professionals aware of the system for reporting information about students who may be in distress or at-risk for harming themselves or others?

Is the information reviewed and acted on?

Recent campus crises have highlighted that campus administrators will be judged by three ...

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Enough Is Enough: A Student Affairs Perspective on Preparedness and Response to a Campus Shooting

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Are your violence prevention and mental health efforts on campus coordinated?

Are all your campus professionals aware of the system for reporting information about students who may be in distress or at-risk for harming themselves or others?

Is the information reviewed and acted on?

Recent campus crises have highlighted that campus administrators will be judged by three things: What the campus was doing before the crisis, its immediate response during the crisis, and the follow-up after the crisis.

Born out of the call by Virginia Tech’s Zenobia Hikes for urgent action to stem the tide of societal violence, and the NASPA “Enough is Enough” campaign (www.EnoughisEnoughcampaign.org) that she inspired, this book provides guidance on how to be proactive in preventing violence, and be prepared to provide a comprehensive response to a crisis.

Enough is Enough presents first-hand accounts and experienced counsel from professionals who have lived through a violent incident, and continue to deal with its aftermath. They cover violence, suicide prevention, and mental health promotion in an integrated way, and offer a comprehensive plan to create a campus-wide system for collecting information about students at-risk for self-harm or violence toward others.

The authors describe how to develop university-wide emergency plans, using the National Incident Management System template and involving a wide spectrum of campus services; how to create crisis response teams and victim liaison programs; offer recommendations about communication and the management of information; and address institutionally-appropriate and sensitive ways to achieve healing and recovery.

The book is addressed to administrators, student affairs, services and mental health professionals, and counselors, on all the nation’s campuses, elementary through post-secondary.

A Joint ACPA & NASPA Publication

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The blend of concrete data and analysis; detailed descriptions of policies and processes from prevention through crisis management to long-term healing; and the genuine stories of personal impact make this book unique in the postcrisis literature. The fact that it is also an easy read makes it a must read for us all."

"I consider this book a must read for college administrators. To-do lists and checklists for building or improving campuses’ readiness and resilience in dealing with crises can be easily constructed with the substantial information and suggestions provided through the book....In sum, Enough is Enough is a practical guide for campus administrator to prepare their campus for the worse case scenarios of campus violence."

Enough is Enough is an important work for college and university leaders struggling with the complex issues of violence prevention, emergency preparedness, critical incident response and community recovery and healing. Although written from a student affairs perspective, it contains powerful lessons for all campus administrators. Enough is Enough should be mandatory reading for everyone at the academy involved in keeping the campus community safe!”

“Excellent addition to the higher education crisis management literature with its specific focus on campus violence. The combination of research data to inform the reader on the issues of campus violence as well as the practical tips and suggestions for preparing and responding to acts of campus violence makes this an extremely valuable tool for the profession.”

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781579224431
  • Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC
  • Publication date: 3/28/2010
  • Series: ACPA Publication Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 216
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Brian O. Hemphill is Vice President for Student Affairs and Enrollment Management, and Associate Professor at Northern Illinois University in DeKalb. He served with the late Zenobia Hikes as co-chair of NASPA's Enough is Enough campaign to address and stem the tide of violence on college and university campuses. Dr. Hemphill was a leader for his campus' response to and recovery from a campus shooter in February 2008.

Brandi Hephner LaBanc is the national coordinator for the Enough is Enough Campaign, and Associate Vice President for Student Affairs at Northern Illinois University. As a member of the Crisis Response Team during the 2008 shooting she is motivated by her personal experience to raise awareness related to societal violence and the influence it may have on college campuses.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xi

Foreword xiii

1 Violence in the Shadow of the Ivory Tower: Murder at the University Richard J. Ferraro Blanche McHugh 1

The University as a Safe Haven 1

Single and Double Murders: Clery and Beyond Clery 2

Gender Factors 9

One- and Two-Person Killings on Campus That Had the Potential to Turn Into Mass-Casualty Situations 10

Multiple Murders 11

Some Comparative Aspects of the Three Mass-Murder-Status Killers 21

The Nexus Between Suicide and Homicide 22

Heterogeneity in Murder Cases Involving University Students 26

Rara Avis or Frequent Bird of Prey 29

Expressed and Actual Violence 29

The Scale of Violence 32

References 34

2 The Emotional Health and Violence Connection: Prevention, Intervention, and Resiliency Courtney Knowles Gwendolyn Jordan Dungy 39

College Mental Health: A Growing Concern 41

Mental Health and Violence 42

Lessons From Virginia Tech: The Importance of Connection and Support 43

Emotional Health Safety Net: The Prescription for Prevention and Resiliency 44

The Emotional Health and Violence Connection: Taking Action on Your Campus 48

Conclusion 49

References 50

3 Managing The Whirlwind: Planning for and Responding to a Campus in Crisis Brandi Hephner LaBanc Thomas L. Krepel Barbara J. Johnson Linda V. Herrmann 53

Planning for and Responding to Crisis 54

Coordination of Resources 65

Additional Considerations 67

Threat Assessment Teams 69

Communication During Crises 71

Information Management During Crises 77

Conclusion 79

References 80

4 Counseling During a Campus-Wide Crisis Micky M. Sharma Carolyn Bershad David LaBanc 83

Immediate Response 84

Population Exposure Model 85

Immediate Psychological Responses to Trauma 87

Ongoing Response 89

Preparing Faculty and Staff to Return to Class 91

Classroom Outreach Program 93

Long-Term Implications and Other Considerations 99

Ethical and Legal Considerations 100

Conclusion 103

References 104

5 Essential Student Affairs Services in a Campus Crisis James E. Brunson III Michael Stang Angela Dreessen 107

Defining and Developing Policy for Essential Services 108

Housing and Dining 109

Student Activities 111

International Student Services 113

Conclusion 113

References 114

6 Healing Your Community Kelly S. Wesener Scott Peska Monica Treviño 115

A University Provides Opportunities to Heal 116

A Community Expresses Itself 118

Local Community Support 119

Issues of Sensitivity 120

Fund-Raising as a Support Mechanism 121

From Grieving to Healing 122

Religion Debate 124

The Message 125

Long-Term Community Healing Initiative 127

Offices for Ongoing Support 129

Conclusion 131

References 132

7 The Provost's Perspective: Campus-Wide Needs and Responses Raymond W. Alden III Harold Kafer 135

President and External Relations 136

Students and Their Families 136

Other Academic Leaders, Faculty, and Staff 137

Unique Organizational Qualities in Higher Education That Shape and Influence Emergency Planning and Response 137

Decision Making in Real Time During Crises 139

Academic Impact and Accommodations 139

Facilities Issues 142

The Provost and Student Affairs in the Event of a Shooting 143

Formative Feedback, Reflections, and Unexpected Experiences 143

Conclusion 147

8 Too Close To Home: The Reality of Campus Shootings Brent G. Paterson 149

Reaction to the Virginia Tech Shootings 151

Shootings at NIU 155

Graffiti Incidents Follow NIU Shootings 156

Conclusion 160

References 161

9 Incorporating Words of Wisdom into The Crisis Management Process John R. Jones III Karen J. Haley Brian O. Hemphill 163

Prevention and Mitigation 164

Crisis Planning and Preparation 165

Immediate Response (First 24 Hours) 167

Response (First Seven Days) 169

Campus Healing 170

References 172

About The Contributors 175

Index 185

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