Enterprise Network Testing: Testing Throughout the Network Lifecycle to Maximize Availability and Performance

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Overview

Enterprise Network Testing

Testing Throughout the Network Lifecycle to Maximize Availability and Performance

Andy Sholomon, CCIE® No. 15179

Tom Kunath, CCIE No. 1679

The complete guide to using testing to reduce risk and downtime in advanced enterprise networks

Testing has become crucial to meeting enterprise expectations of near-zero network downtime. Enterprise Network Testing is the first comprehensive guide to all facets of enterprise network testing. Cisco enterprise consultants Andy Sholomon and Tom Kunath offer a complete blueprint and best-practice methodologies for testing any new network system, product, solution, or advanced technology.

Sholomon and Kunath begin by explaining why it is important to test and how network professionals can leverage structured system testing to meet specific business goals. Then, drawing on their extensive experience with enterprise clients, they present several detailed case studies. Through real-world examples, you learn how to test architectural “proofs of concept,” specific network features, network readiness for use, migration processes, security, and more.

Enterprise Network Testing contains easy-to-adapt reference test plans for branches, WANs/MANs, data centers, and campuses. The authors also offer specific guidance on testing many key network technologies, including MPLS/VPN, QoS, VoIP, video, IPsec VPNs, advanced routing (OSPF, EIGRP, BGP), and Data Center Fabrics.

§ Understand why, when, and how you should test your network

§ Use testing to discover critical network design flaws

§ Incorporate structured systems testing into enterprise architecture strategy

§ Utilize testing to improve decision-making throughout the network lifecycle

§ Develop an effective testing organization and lab facility

§ Choose and use test services providers

§ Scope, plan, and manage network test assignments

§ nLeverage the best commercial, free, and IOS test tools

§ Successfully execute test plans, including crucial low-level details

§ Minimize the equipment required to test large-scale networks

§ Identify gaps in network readiness

§ Validate and refine device configurations

§ Certify new hardware, operating systems, and software features

§ Test data center performance and scalability

§ Leverage test labs for hands-on technology training

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587141270
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 4/28/2011
  • Series: Networking Technology Series
  • Pages: 504
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Andy Sholomon, CCIE No. 15179, works as a Network Consulting Engineer (NCE) in Cisco’s Central Engineering Performance and Validation Testing team. He routinely plans and performs network testing for some of Cisco’s largest Enterprise customers. In his six years at Cisco, Andy has been involved in both planning and deploying some of the largest enterprise data centers in the United States. He has also worked with some of Cisco’s large service provider customers. Before joining Cisco, Andy worked as a Network Engineer in the global financial industry, spending 5 years at UBS in multiple roles, including security engineering, and worked as a Systems Engineer at Spear, Leeds & Kellogg (now a part of Goldman Sachs Group). Andy has been a speaker at the Cisco Live Networkers Conference. Besides the CCIE, Andy holds multiple industry certifications, including the CISSP and MCSE. Andy lives with his wife, daughter, and Great Dane in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Tom Kunath, CCIE No. 1679, is a Solutions Architect in Cisco’s Advanced Services Central Engineering team, where he works as a design and test consulting engineer. With nearly 20 years in the networking industry, Tom has helped design, deploy, and operate many of Cisco’s largest Enterprise and Financial customer networks. Before joining Cisco, Tom worked at Juniper Networks’ Professional Services Group as a Resident Engineer supporting several service provider IP and MPLS backbones, and prior to that as a Principal Consultant at International Network Services (INS). In addition to his CCIE, Tom holds several industry certifications, including a Juniper JNCIS and Nortel Networks Router Expert. Tom lives in Raleigh, North Carolina, with his wife and two children.

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Table of Contents

Part I Introduction to Enterprise Network Testing

Chapter 1 A Business Case for Enterprise Network Testing 3

Why Testing Is Important 3

The Network as a Business Platform 4

The Cost of Network Downtime 5

Network Changes and Downtime 7

Testing in Support of Change Control 7

Testing and the Pursuit of “Five Nines” 9

A Structured Approach to Systems Testing 13

Step 1: Assessment 13

Step 2: Test Planning 13

Step 3: Setup 14

Step 4: Execution 14

Step 5: Results 14

Summary 15

Chapter 2 Testing Throughout the Network Lifecycle 17

Enterprise and Network Architecture Primer 17

How the Enterprise Architecture Comes Together 18

Following a Convergence Vision 19

The Cisco Lifecycle Services Approach (PPDIOO) 21

PPDIOO Phase 1: Prepare 21

PPDIOO Phase 2: Plan 21

PPDIOO Phase 3: Design 22

PPDIOO Phase 4: Implement 22

PPDIOO Phase 5: Operate 22

PPDIOO Phase 6: Optimize 22

Testing and the Network Lifecycle 24

Prepare Phase: Design and Test Activities 24

Customer Requirements Document 24

Network Architectural Strategy Development 25

Business Case Document 25

Network Testing and Lab Strategy Development 25

Facilities Readiness Assessments 26

Plan Phase: Design and Test Activities 27

Architecture Design Workshops 27

Current Architectural Assessment 27

High-Level Design 28

Proof of Concept Testing 28

Network Readiness Testing 28

Network Capacity Planning and Testing 29

Design Phase: Design and Test Activities 29

Low-Level Design 29

Migration Plan 30

Design Verification Testing 30

Migration Plan Testing 31

Implement Phase: Deliverables and Test Activities 31

Network Implementation Plan 31

Network Ready for Use Test 32

Operate Phase: Deliverables and Test Activities 32

Hands-On Lab Training 32

Re-creation of Network Problems 32

Optimize Phase: Deliverables and Test Activities 33

Predeployment Testing for Minor Design Changes 33

Software Acceptance Testing 33

Summary 34

Chapter 3 Testing and Lab Strategy Development 35

Cost Analysis and Resource Planning 36

Estimating CAPEX Necessary to Create a New Test Lab 36

Environmental Considerations 36

Estimated OPEX to Operate a Test Lab 44

Staffing 44

Power 44

Physical Facility 45

Maintenance Obligations 45

Other OPEX 46

Test Organization Financing Models 46

Cost of Business 46

Project-Based Funding 47

Departmental Chargeback 47

Testing as a Business Function 47

Return on Investment 47

Outsourced Testing 48

Test Lab Facilities Design 49

Functional Lab Design: Selecting the Hardware and Software 49

Physical Design 50

Equipment Cabinet Floor Plan Layout 53

Test Lab Operations 56

Test Organization Charter 56

Team Roles and Responsibilities 57

Management Systems 58

Equipment Inventory System 58

Equipment Scheduling/Lab Checkout Tool 58

Team Website 58

Other Operational Considerations 59

Summary 59

Chapter 4 Crafting the Test Approach 61

Motivations for Different Types of Testing 62

Proof of Concept Testing 62

Network Readiness Testing 63

Design Verification Testing 63

Hardware Certification Testing 63

Network Operating System Testing 64

Migration Plan Testing 64

Network Ready for Use Testing 65

Test Scoping 66

Step 1: Categorize the Type of Test to Be Completed 67

Step 2: Identify Project Stakeholders 67

Step 3: Identify Indicators of Test Success 68

Network Design Verification Test 68

Network Ready for Use Test 68

Step 4: Estimate the Resources Required to Complete the Test 69

Step 5: Identify Risks 70

Step 6: Identify the Timeline for Completion 70

Test Planning 71

Design the Functional Prototype Network System 71

Constructing a High-Level Lab Topology Diagram 72

Identifying the Test Suites and Test Cases 74

Choosing the Right Test Tools 75

Stateless Packet Generators (Bit Blasters) 76

Interfaces 76

Tool Power/Capacity 76

Packet/Traffic Manipulation 77

Results 78

Automation 78

When to Use Stateless Packet Generators 78

Packet Generator Vendors 79

Stateful Packet Generators (Application Simulators) 79

Stateful Generation Tool Vendors 80

Results Reporting 80

When to Use Stateful Packet Generators 80

Network Delay and Impairment Tools 81

Delay 81

Impairment 81

Network Modeling and Emulation Tools 82

Network Modeling Tools 82

Network Modeling Tool Vendors 82

Application Simulation Tools 83

Security Testing Tools 84

Network Protocol Analysis Tools 86

Writing the Test Plan 86

Overall Project Scope and Objectives 86

Test Objectives and Success Criteria 87

Test Resources Required 88

Test Schedule 90

Developing the Detailed Test Cases 91

Understanding System Test Execution Methodologies 92

Conformance Testing 92

Functional and Interoperability Testing 93

Performance and Scalability Testing 94

Format for Written Test Case 94

Summary 95

Chapter 5 Executing the Test Plan 97

Building and Operating the Functional Network Prototype System 98

Equipment Allocation and Connectivity 98

Test Lab Telemetry 100

The Test Engineer’s Toolkit 103

Understanding Your Test Tools: Quirks and Limitations 104

Understanding the Different Types of Test Traffic 105

RFCs Pertaining to Test Execution 108

Tools to Execute Complex Testing 110

Scale Testing: Simulating Large Networks with Limited Devices 110

High-Availability Testing: How to Measure Convergence Times 121

Convergence Testing: How to Trigger a Failover 123

Testing Using Delay, Jitter, and Errors 123

Using Cisco IOS Test Tools 124

Chargen Service 124

Cisco IOS IP Service-Level Agreements 125

Embedded Event Manager Scripting 129

EEM Monitored Events 130

EEM Actions 131

Using Customized Scripts 132

Test Execution 136

Before You Begin 136

Order of Testing: Getting Organized 137

Running the Test Cases 139

Capturing and Saving Results 142

Organizing the Capture Files 143

Router Configuration Files 144

Data Archival 144

Summary 145

Part II Case Studies

Chapter 6 Proof of Concept Testing Case Study 149

Background for the Proof of Concept Testing Case Study 149

Proposed Data Center Architecture 150

Compute Infrastructure 151

Storage Infrastructure 152

LAN Infrastructure 152

WAN Infrastructure 153

Virtualization Software 153

Risks of Deploying the Proposed Solution 153

Proof of Concept Test Strategy 154

POC Test Objectives 154

POC Test Topology 154

Proof of Concept Test Scope 156

Network Baseline Test 156

Application Baseline Test 156

Network and Application Integrity Test 157

Failure/Recovery Test 157

Feature Validation Tests 157

Automation Validation Test 157

Performance/Scalability/Capacity Test 157

Summary of POC Test Cases 158

Summary 162

Chapter 7 Network Readiness Testing Case Study 163

Background for the Network Readiness Testing Case Study 163

Legacy Network Infrastructure Overview 164

Cisco Unified Communications Proposed Solution 164

Risks Associated with Implementing the Proposed Solution 165

Network Readiness Assessment Approach and Findings 166

Network Readiness Assessment 166

Hierarchy and Modularity 166

Utilization and Redundancy 167

Access Layer Links 168

IP Routing 169

QoS 169

Network Path Analysis 170

Details of Network Path Analysis Testing 171

Summary of Recommendations 173

Summary 174

Chapter 8 Design Verification Testing Case Study 175

Background for the Design Verification Testing Case Study 176

High-Level Design for Blue Ridge University MPLS Backbone 177

Low-Level Design for Blue Ridge University MPLS Backbone 178

Risks of Deploying the Proposed Solution 182

Low-Level Design Verification Test Strategy 182

Test Objectives 182

Test Topology 183

Design Verification Test Scope 184

Network Baseline Test 184

Feature/Functionality Tests 184

Negative/Destructive Tests 185

Performance/Scalability Tests 185

Operations/Duty Cycle Tests 185

Summary of Design Verification Test Cases 185

Summary 190

Chapter 9 Migration Plan Testing Case Study 191

Background for the Migration Plan Testing Case Study 192

Legacy and New Network Design Overview 192

New Backbone Design 194

End-State Network Design 194

High-Level Network Migration Plan 197

Migration Test Plan 198

Summary of Migration Plan Testing 199

Summary 201

Chapter 10 New Platform and Code Certification Case Study 203

Background for the New Platform and Code Certification Case Study 204

Proposed Top-of-Rack Architecture 205

Hardware for the New Infrastructure 207

Platform and Code Certification Test Plan 210

New Platform Certification Objectives 210

New Software Certification Objectives 210

New Platform and Code Certification Test Topology 211

New Platform and Code Certification Test Scope 212

Network and SAN Baseline Tests 212

Management Functionality Test 212

Failure/Recovery Test 213

Feature Validation Test 213

Performance/Scalability/Capacity Tests 213

Summary of New Platform and Code Certification Test Cases 213

Summary 217

End Notes 217

Chapter 11 Network Ready for Use Testing Case Study 219

Background for the NRFU Case Study 220

Sports and Entertainment Stadium Network Architecture 221

Network Topology 224

Physical Network Topology 225

Core Layer Components 225

Distribution Layer Components 225

Access Layer Components 226

Multicast Architecture 226

Stadium HD Video 227

General IP Multicast Topology 228

Additional Infrastructure Considerations 230

Network Ready for Use Test Strategy 230

Success Criteria 230

Test Prerequisites 231

Test Phases 231

Test Tools 232

Summary of NRFU Test Cases 232

Summary 240

Part III Test Plans

Chapter 12 Inter-Organization Secure Data Center Interconnect: Firewall Test Plan 249

Background 249

Physical and Logical Test Topology 250

Test Objectives 251

Test Case Summary 251

Detailed Test Cases 252

Chapter 13 Site-to-Site IPsec Virtual Private Networking: DMVPN and GET VPN Test Plans 273

Background 274

Physical and Logical Test Topology 274

Test Objectives 279

DMVPN Test Cases Summary 279

Detailed DMVPN Test Cases 280

GET VPN Test Cases Summary 302

Detailed GET VPN Test Cases 302

Chapter 14 Data Center 3.0 Architecture: Nexus Platform Feature and Performance Test Plan 323

Background 324

Physical and Logical Test Topology 325

Test Objectives 328

Traffic Flows for All Tests 328

Test Case Summary 328

Detailed Test Cases 329

End Note 356

Chapter 15 IPv6 Functionality Test Plan 357

The IPv6 Specification 357

Considerations for IPv6 Testing 358

IPv6 Header Format 358

IPv6 Address Scopes 359

IPv6 Extension Headers 361

IPv6 Source Address Selection 362

ICMPv6 363

IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 363

IPv6 Autoconfiguration 364

IPv6 PMTUD 365

IPv6 Security 365

Physical and Logical Test Topology 366

Test Objectives 368

Test Case Summary 368

Detailed Test Cases 368

End Notes 382

Chapter 16 MPLS/VPN: Scalability and Convergence Test Plan 383

Background 384

Physical and Logical Test Topology 386

Technical Details of the Test Topology 387

Emulated Control Plane Scale 388

Control Plane Scale Methodology 389

Test Objectives 389

Test Case Summary 390

Detailed Test Cases 391

Chapter 17 WAN and Application Optimization: Performance Routing and Wide Area Application Services Test Plan 433

Background 434

Physical and Logical Test Topology 434

Test Traffic 438

Test Objectives 440

Test Case Summary 440

Detailed Test Cases 441

Chapter 18 Using the Lab for Hands-on Technology Training: Data Center 3.0 Configuration Lab Guide 487

Background 488

Physical and Logical Lab Topology 489

Lab Objectives 490

Detailed Hands-on Lab 490

Step 1: Log In to Your Assigned Pod 490

Lab 1: Configuring Unified Computing System Ethernet Ports and Named VLANs Using Unified Computing System Manager 490

Step 1: Launch UCSM from a Web Browser 493

Step 2: Enable the Server Ports Between the UCS 6100 Fabric Interconnect and the UCS Chassis 493

Step 3: Enable the Uplink Ports Between the UCS 6100 Fabric Interconnect and the Nexus 7000 Switches 496

Step 4: Configure Named VLANs on the UCS 498

Lab 2: Configuring UCS Network and Server-Related Pools 500

Step 1: Configure an IP Pool for External Blade Management 501

Step 2: Create a MAC Address Pool for the UCS 503

Lab 3: Creating Virtual PortChannels on the Nexus 7000 Series Switches 505

Virtual Device Context Overview 505

Virtual PortChannel Overview 506

vPC Terminology 507

Step 1: Create VLANs on the Nexus 7000s 507

Step 2: Create a vPC on the Nexus 7000s for Connectivity to Your UCS Chassis 509

Step 3: Create a 40-Gbps PortChannel on the UCS 6100 Fabric Interconnect for Connectivity to the Nexus 7000 Pair 517

Step 4: Verify PortChannel and vPC on the Nexus 7000 519

Lab 4: Creating a VSAN and Enabling Fibre Channel Connectivity Between the UCS 6100 Fabric Interconnect and MDS 9506 521

Terminology 521

Step 1: Enable NPIV Mode, Create a VSAN, and Associate the Fibre Channel Ports of the MDS to the New VSAN 523

Step 2: Create a New VSAN on the UCS 525

Step 3: Associate Fibre Channel Interfaces with the UCS VSAN 526

Lab 5: Configuring UCS Service Profiles 526

Terminology for Service Profiles 528

Step 1: Create a vNIC Template 529

Step 2: Create a SAN Pool and vHBA Template 531

Step 3: Configure Server Boot Policies (SAN and LAN) 534

Step 4: Create an IPMI Profile 538

Step 5: Create a Local Disk Configuration Policy 539

Step 6: Create a Serial over LAN Policy 540

Step 7: Create a UUID Suffix Pool 540

Step 8: Create a Server Pool 542

Step 9: Create a Service Profile Template 543

Step 10: Create Service Profiles from a Service Profile Template 552

Step 11: Clone and Manually Associate a Service Profile 554

Lab 6: Configuring SAN Zoning and Core Switch Connectivity on the MDS 9506 556

Step 1: Record UCS Service Profile WWPN Assignments 557

Step 2: Create a Zone for each Service Profile on the MDS 559

Step 3: Place the Zones in a Zoneset for Your POD/VSAN 901 561

Step 4: Activate the Zoneset on the MDS 562

Step 5: Configure MDS Connectivity to the Core SAN 562

Lab 7: Enabling IP and Routing Features on the Nexus 7000 Series Switches 564

Step 1: Configure Layer 3 VLAN Interfaces with IPv4 Addressing 565

Step 2: Configure Hot Standby Router Protocol 567

Step 3: Configure OSPF Routing on Core and VLAN Interfaces 570

Step 4: Enable OSPF Routing on the VLAN Interfaces 572

Step 5: Add a Redundant Path to the Core—Add OSPF Adjacency Between Nexus 7000s Across the PortChannel Trunk 573

Lab 8: Verifying the Blade Servers Boot VMware ESX 4.0 576

Step 1: Connect to Server KVM Console and Verify Boot Status 576

Step 2: Verify ESX Service Console IP Connectivity 578

Lab 9: Adding the UCS Blade Servers into VMware vCenter 580

9781587141270 TOC 3/16/2011

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