Enterprise SOA: Service Oriented Architecture Best Practices (The Coad Series)

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Overview

"By delivering SAP's next-generation applications based on a Services-Oriented Architecture, SAP is at the forefront of making Web services work for the enterprise. The Enterprise Services Architecture enables unprecedented flexibility in business process deployment, allowing companies to execute and innovate end-to-end processes across departments and companies, with minimum disruption to other systems and existing IT investments. This strategy comes to life with SAP NetWeaver, which is the technological foundation of the Enterprise Services Architecture. It provides easy integration of people, information, and systems in heterogeneous IT environments and provides a future proof application platform. Enterprise SOA provides readers with the architectural blueprints and SOA-driven project management strategies that are required to successfully adopt SOA on an enterprise level."

—Dr. Peter Graf, SVP Product Marketing, SAP

The SOA principles outlined in this book enable enterprises to leverage robust and proven middleware platforms, including CORBA, to build flexible and business-oriented service architectures. The authors also clearly describe the right strategies for using Model Driven Architecture (MDA) to manage SOA Service Repositories in a platform-independent way, enabling enterprises to better address the problem of heterogeneity at many levels. The Object Management Group was created just to address this central problem of integration in the face of constantly changing heterogeneity and platform churn, so I strongly recommend this book for the bookshelf of every enterprise architect and developer.

—Richard Mark Soley, Ph.D. chairman and chief executive officer, Object Management Group, Inc.

Enterprise SOA provides strategies that help large enterprises to increase the agility of their IT systems—one of the most pressing issues of contemporary IT. Covering both a business and architectural view, these strategies aim to promote the implementation of an IT infrastructure that can serve as a base for the development of truly flexible business processes. This book covers its subject with great profoundness based on real world evidence. It is in the interest of everybody involved with software architecture—particularly for anybody who intends to establish a Service-Oriented Architecture—to read this book.

—Dr. Helge Heß, director Business Process Management, IDS Scheer AG

"...The SOA principles described in this book are the foundation on which enterprises can build an IT architecture that will satisfy today's most important IT requirements—agility and flexibility—at affordable costs..."

—Martin Frick, Head of IT, Winterthur Group

Providing the roadmap for delivering on the promise of Service-Oriented Architecture

Enterprise SOA presents a complete roadmap for leveraging the principles of Service-Oriented Architectures to reduce cost and risk, improve efficiency and agility, and liberate your organization from the vagaries of changing technology.

  • Benefit from the lessons of four enterprise-level SOA case studies from Credit Suisse, Halifax Bank of Scotland, and other world-class enterprises
  • Make your business technology independent and manage infrastructure heterogeneity by focusing on architecture, not specific implementation techniques
  • Recognize the technical and nontechnical success factors for SOA in the enterprise
  • Define and communicate the economic value proposition of an SOA
  • Apply pragmatic design principles to solve the problems of data and process integrity in an SOA environment

Whether you're a manager, architect, analyst, or developer, if you must drive greater value from IT services, Enterprise SOA will show you how—from start to finish.

About the Authors

DIRK KRAFZIG, KARL BANKE, and DIRK SLAMA have many years of experience in enterprise IT, including project management and distributed system design for large-scale projects. This book subsumes the knowledge of Service-Oriented Architectures that they have acquired since 1998, when they made their first steps toward this new architecture paradigm.

About the Web Site

Web site www.enterprise-soa.com, provides a variety of supplemental material, including: articles, examples, and additional case studies.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131465756
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 11/9/2004
  • Series: Coad Series
  • Pages: 382
  • Product dimensions: 6.96 (w) x 9.24 (h) x 0.97 (d)

Meet the Author

About the Authors Dirk Krafzig

Dirk has been dealing with the challenges of enterprise IT and distributed software architectures throughout his entire working life. He devoted himself to SOA in 2001 when he joined Shinka Technologies, a start-up company and platform vendor in the early days of XML-based Web services. Since then, Dirk has acquired a rich set of real world experience with this upcoming new paradigm both from the view point of a platform vendor and from the perspective of software projects in different industry verticals.

Writing this book was an issue of personal concern to him as it provided the opportunity to share his experiences and many insights into the nature of enterprise IT with his readers.

Today, Dirk is designing enterprise applications and managing projects, applying the guiding principles outlined in this book. Dirk has a Ph.D. in Natural Science and an MSc in Computer Science. He lives in Düsseldorf, Germany, and is 39 years old, married, and the father of two children.

Karl Banke

Software architecture has been with Karl since he programmed his first TRON-like game on the then state-of-the art ZX81 in the early 1980s. After graduating as a Master of Physics, he gained his commercial experience in various consulting assignments, mostly in the financial and telecommunications sector.

He moved through stages of consultant, technical lead, software architect, and project manager using a variety of object-oriented technologies, programming languages, and distributed computing environments. Soon realizing that he was too constrained as an employee in doing what he thought necessary in software development, he co-founded the company iternum in 2000, where he currently acts as a principal consultant and general manager.

Karl permanently lives in Mainz, Germany when not temporarily relocated by a current project.

Dirk Slama

Having spent the last ten years at the forefront of distributed computing technology, Dirk has developed an in-depth understanding of enterprise software architectures and their application in a variety of industry verticals. Dirk was a senior consultant with IONA Technologies, working with Fortune 500 customers in Europe, America, and Asia on large-scale software integration projects. After this, Dirk set up his own company, Shinka Technologies, which successfully developed one of the first XML-based Web services middleware products, starting as early as 1999.

Dirk holds an MSc in computer sciences from TU-Berlin and an MBA from IMD in Lausanne. He is a co-author of Enterprise CORBA (Prentice Hall, 1999), the leading book on CORBA-based system architectures. Dirk is currently working as a solution architect for Computer Sciences Corporation in Zurich, Switzerland.

Contact: authors@enterprise-soa.com

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Table of Contents

Foreword.

Reader’s Guide.

Chapter 1 - An Enterprise IT Renovation Roadmap.

1.1 - Agony Versus Agility.

1.2 - Enterprise Software Is a Different Animal.

1.3 - The Importance of Enterprise Software Architectures.

1.4 - The Requirements for an Enterprise Software Architecture.

1.5 - The Relation of Enterprise Architecture and Enterprise Standards.

1.6 - Organizational Aspects.

1.7 - Lifelong Learning.

1.8 - The Enterprise IT Renovation Roadmap.

Chapter 2 - Evolution of the Service Concept.

2.1 - Milestones of Enterprise Computing.

2.2 - Programming Paradigms

2.3 - Distributed Computing

2.4 - Business Computing

2.5 - Conclusion

References

URLs

Chapter 3 - Inventory of Distributed Computing Concepts.

3.1 - Heterogeneity of Communication Mechanisms

3.2 - Communication Middleware

3.3 - Synchrony

3.4 - Interface Versus Payload Semantics

3.5 - Tight Versus Loose Coupling

3.6 - Conclusion

References

URLs

PART I - ARCHITECTURAL ROADMAP.

Chapter 4 - Service-Oriented Architectures.

4.1 - What Is a Software Architecture?

4.2 - What Is a Service-Oriented Architecture?

4.3 - Elements of a Service-Oriented Architecture

4.4 - Conclusion

References

URLs

Chapter 5 - Services as Building Blocks.

5.1 - Service Types

5.2 - Layers on the Enterprise Level

5.3 - Conclusion

References

Chapter 6 - The Architectural Roadmap.

6.1 - The Architectural Roadmap

6.2 - Fundamental SOA

6.3 - Networked SOA

6.4 - Process-Enabled SOA

6.5 - Conclusion

Chapter 7 - SOA and Business Process Management.

7.1 - Introduction to BPM

7.2 - BPM and the Process-Enabled SOA

7.3 - Conclusion

References

URLs

Chapter 8 - Managing Process Integrity.

8.1 - Data Versus Process Integrity

8.2 - Technical Concepts and Solutions

8.3 - Recommendations for SOA Architects

8.4 - Conclusion

References

Chapter 9 - Infrastructure of the Service Bus.

9.1 - Software Buses and the Service Bus

9.2 - Logging and Auditing

9.3 - Availability and Scalability

9.4 - Securing SOAs

9.5 - Conclusion

References

URLs

Chapter 10 - SOA in Action.

10.1 - Building Web Applications

10.2 - Enterprise Application Integration

10.3 - Business-to-Business

10.4 - Fat Clients

10.5 - Designing for Small Devices

10.6 - Multi-Channel Applications

10.7 - Conclusion

References

URLs

PART II - ORGANIZATIONAL ROADMAP.

Chapter 11 - Motivation and Benefits.

11.1 - The Enterprise Perspective

11.2 - The Personal Perspective

11.3 - Conclusion

References

URLs

Chapter 12 - The Organizational SOA Roadmap.

12.1 - Stakeholders and Potential Conflicts of Interest

12.2 - The Organizational SOA Roadmap

12.3 - Four Pillars for Success

12.4 - An Ideal World

12.5 - The Real World–Organization-Wide Standards

12.6 - Recommendations for the SOA Protagonist

12.7 - Conclusion

URLs

Chapter 13 - SOA-Driven Project Management.

13.1 - Established Project Management Methodologies

13.2 - SOA-Driven Project Management

13.3 - Configuration Management

13.4 - Testing

13.5 - Conclusion

References

URLs

PART III - REAL-WORLD EXPERIENCE.

Chapter 14 - Deutsche Post AG Case Study.

14.1 - Project Scope

14.2 - Implementation

14.3 - Technology

14.4 - Lessons Learned, Benefits, and Perspectives

References

Links

Chapter 15 - Winterthur Case Study.

15.1 - Project Scope

15.2 - Implementation

15.3 - Technology

15.4 - Lessons Learned, Benefits, and Perspectives

Chapter 16 - Credit Suisse Case Study.

16.1 - Project Scope

16.2 - Implementation

16.3 - Technology

16.4 - Lessons Learned, Benefits, and Perspectives

References

Chapter 17 - Halifax Bank Of Scotland: IF.com.

17.1 - Project Scope

17.2 - Implementation

17.3 - Technology

17.4 - Lessons Learned, Benefits, and Perspectives

URLs

Index.

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Preface

Foreword

At the turn of the nineteenth century, a wave of new technologies such as the steam engine, electricity, the loom, the railway, and the telephone emerged. Urbanization and the mass production of goods in large factories fundamentally changed how mankind lived and worked together.

One hundred years later, the industrial revolution had not slowed down: At the turn of the twentieth century, automation, specialization, and a never-ending spiral of efficiency improvement have resulted in modern economies with unheard-of industrial productivity.

After a phase of consolidation during the transition from the twentieth to the twenty-first century, globalization and virtualization have now become the key drivers of our economic lives. Without a doubt, they will yet again change how we live and work together.

If we take a closer look at the past 20 years, we can observe that established business rules have been constantly redefined. New business models emerged; small companies quickly grew into billion-dollar multinationals, aggressively attacking other established companies. A wave of mergers, acquisitions, and buyouts changed the overall industrial landscape.

IT has played a major role in all of this, be it through controlling production processes and supply chains or by creating real-time links between financial markets, thus virtually eliminating arbitrage opportunities by closing the time gaps of trading around the globe. The Internet boom and the "virtual enterprise" are cornerstones of this ongoing development. Entirely new products and services have been created, which would have been unthinkable without the support of modern IT.

Without a doubt, today's modern enterprises are completely dependent on their IT. Consequently, today's IT is driven by the same dynamics as the enterprise itself. Today, we expect an extremely high level of flexibility and agility from our enterprise IT. During the post Internet-boom years, cost efficiency quickly became another key requirement, if not the most important one.

Enterprise IT has changed as a result of the constantly increasing pressure. In the early days of enterprise computing, IT was merely responsible for providing storage and processing capacity, with more and more business logic being added throughout the decades. During the different boom phases in the 1980s and 1990s, a plethora of new applications emerged, often side by side with the information silos that had been developed in the previous 20 years.

Today, the increasing cost pressure is forcing us to efficiently reuse existing systems while also developing new functionality and constantly adapting to changing business requirements. The term "legacy system" is now often replaced with "heritage system" in order to emphasize the value that lies in the existing systems.

The increases in reuse and harmonization requirements have been fueled by the urgency of integrating the historically grown IT landscapes in order to improve IT efficiency and agility. As a result, we could observe at a technical level the emergence of middleware tools and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) platforms in what can be seen as a post-RDBMS phase.

While a lot of trial-and-error projects were executed in the 1990s, with more or less high levels of success, the development of EAI and middleware concepts has now been culminated in the principles of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), which can be seen as an important evolutionary point in the development of integration technologies.

What is important about SOA is that it has taken away the focus from fine-grained, technology-oriented entities such as database rows or Java objects, focusing instead on business-centric services with business-level transaction granularity. Furthermore, SOA is not an enterprise technology standard, meaning it is not dependent on a single technical protocol such as IIOP or SOAP. Instead, it represents an architectural blueprint, which can incorporate many different technologies and does not require specific protocols or bridging technologies. The focus is on defining cleanly cut service contracts with a clear business orientation.

At the Winterthur, as in any other large company, we have been facing all of the preceding issues of historically grown systems and information silos. We had to find a solution to increase our IT efficiency and agility. The Winterthur, with approximately 20,000 employees worldwide and over 130 billion Swiss franks of assets being managed (as of December 31, 2003), is a leading Swiss insurance company. As is the case with any well-organized company, we rely on our IT infrastructure to manage assets, products, processes, customers, partners, employees, and any other aspect of business life.

Our core business systems are based on highly reliable mainframe computers that we invested in over the past decades. However, like most other enterprises relying on mainframes for their back-end systems, we saw the increasing need over the years to open up these back-end systems. The main reason for this was to enable reuse of the core business logic and data on these systems for new Internet and intranet front-end systems on nonmainframe platforms such as UNIX and Windows.

To facilitate this development, we built up an application and integration platform, which laid the technical basis for Winterthur's SOA. While the initial development started off at our core Swiss market unit, the platform is nowadays reused abroad, because of its success and the prevailing analogous technical requirements of other market units. Thus, we create the basis to realize synergies and enhance our international initiatives.

Building on our technical platform, combined with our in-house experience in the area of SOA and with the experience that our holding company Credit Suisse Group has gathered in similar re-architectural efforts, we have been extremely successful. The Winterthur SOA has achieved the goal of opening up our back-end systems in new application development areas on other platforms. A solid SOA-based architectural approach is at the heart of our IT strategy.

This book is important because it provides enterprise architects with a roadmap for the successful establishment of SOA at the enterprise level. While a lot of the underlying principles of the original Winterthur SOA have had to be derived from past experience and intuition due to lack of SOA literature at the time, this book provides a concrete guide, blueprints, and best practices for SOA architects. In addition to the Winterthur case study in chapter 15, you will find many more concrete examples of how large corporations have started to adopt the principles of SOA in their IT architectures.

It is also very important that this book not only focuses on the technical aspects of SOA, but also places strong emphasis on the delicate issues of establishing SOA at the enterprise level, truly deserving the title Enterprise SOA.

The SOA principles described in this book are the foundation on which enterprises can build an IT architecture that will satisfy today's most important IT requirements—agility and flexibility—at affordable costs.

Martin Frick, Head of IT at the Winterthur Group

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Foreword

At the turn of the nineteenth century, a wave of new technologies such as the steam engine, electricity, the loom, the railway, and the telephone emerged. Urbanization and the mass production of goods in large factories fundamentally changed how mankind lived and worked together.

One hundred years later, the industrial revolution had not slowed down: At the turn of the twentieth century, automation, specialization, and a never-ending spiral of efficiency improvement have resulted in modern economies with unheard-of industrial productivity.

After a phase of consolidation during the transition from the twentieth to the twenty-first century, globalization and virtualization have now become the key drivers of our economic lives. Without a doubt, they will yet again change how we live and work together.

If we take a closer look at the past 20 years, we can observe that established business rules have been constantly redefined. New business models emerged; small companies quickly grew into billion-dollar multinationals, aggressively attacking other established companies. A wave of mergers, acquisitions, and buyouts changed the overall industrial landscape.

IT has played a major role in all of this, be it through controlling production processes and supply chains or by creating real-time links between financial markets, thus virtually eliminating arbitrage opportunities by closing the time gaps of trading around the globe. The Internet boom and the "virtual enterprise" are cornerstones of this ongoing development. Entirely new products and services have been created, which would have beenunthinkable without the support of modern IT.

Without a doubt, today's modern enterprises are completely dependent on their IT. Consequently, today's IT is driven by the same dynamics as the enterprise itself. Today, we expect an extremely high level of flexibility and agility from our enterprise IT. During the post Internet-boom years, cost efficiency quickly became another key requirement, if not the most important one.

Enterprise IT has changed as a result of the constantly increasing pressure. In the early days of enterprise computing, IT was merely responsible for providing storage and processing capacity, with more and more business logic being added throughout the decades. During the different boom phases in the 1980s and 1990s, a plethora of new applications emerged, often side by side with the information silos that had been developed in the previous 20 years.

Today, the increasing cost pressure is forcing us to efficiently reuse existing systems while also developing new functionality and constantly adapting to changing business requirements. The term "legacy system" is now often replaced with "heritage system" in order to emphasize the value that lies in the existing systems.

The increases in reuse and harmonization requirements have been fueled by the urgency of integrating the historically grown IT landscapes in order to improve IT efficiency and agility. As a result, we could observe at a technical level the emergence of middleware tools and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) platforms in what can be seen as a post-RDBMS phase.

While a lot of trial-and-error projects were executed in the 1990s, with more or less high levels of success, the development of EAI and middleware concepts has now been culminated in the principles of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), which can be seen as an important evolutionary point in the development of integration technologies.

What is important about SOA is that it has taken away the focus from fine-grained, technology-oriented entities such as database rows or Java objects, focusing instead on business-centric services with business-level transaction granularity. Furthermore, SOA is not an enterprise technology standard, meaning it is not dependent on a single technical protocol such as IIOP or SOAP. Instead, it represents an architectural blueprint, which can incorporate many different technologies and does not require specific protocols or bridging technologies. The focus is on defining cleanly cut service contracts with a clear business orientation.

At the Winterthur, as in any other large company, we have been facing all of the preceding issues of historically grown systems and information silos. We had to find a solution to increase our IT efficiency and agility. The Winterthur, with approximately 20,000 employees worldwide and over 130 billion Swiss franks of assets being managed (as of December 31, 2003), is a leading Swiss insurance company. As is the case with any well-organized company, we rely on our IT infrastructure to manage assets, products, processes, customers, partners, employees, and any other aspect of business life.

Our core business systems are based on highly reliable mainframe computers that we invested in over the past decades. However, like most other enterprises relying on mainframes for their back-end systems, we saw the increasing need over the years to open up these back-end systems. The main reason for this was to enable reuse of the core business logic and data on these systems for new Internet and intranet front-end systems on nonmainframe platforms such as UNIX and Windows.

To facilitate this development, we built up an application and integration platform, which laid the technical basis for Winterthur's SOA. While the initial development started off at our core Swiss market unit, the platform is nowadays reused abroad, because of its success and the prevailing analogous technical requirements of other market units. Thus, we create the basis to realize synergies and enhance our international initiatives.

Building on our technical platform, combined with our in-house experience in the area of SOA and with the experience that our holding company Credit Suisse Group has gathered in similar re-architectural efforts, we have been extremely successful. The Winterthur SOA has achieved the goal of opening up our back-end systems in new application development areas on other platforms. A solid SOA-based architectural approach is at the heart of our IT strategy.

This book is important because it provides enterprise architects with a roadmap for the successful establishment of SOA at the enterprise level. While a lot of the underlying principles of the original Winterthur SOA have had to be derived from past experience and intuition due to lack of SOA literature at the time, this book provides a concrete guide, blueprints, and best practices for SOA architects. In addition to the Winterthur case study in chapter 15, you will find many more concrete examples of how large corporations have started to adopt the principles of SOA in their IT architectures.

It is also very important that this book not only focuses on the technical aspects of SOA, but also places strong emphasis on the delicate issues of establishing SOA at the enterprise level, truly deserving the title Enterprise SOA.

The SOA principles described in this book are the foundation on which enterprises can build an IT architecture that will satisfy today's most important IT requirements—agility and flexibility—at affordable costs.

Martin Frick, Head of IT at the Winterthur Group


Read More Show Less

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