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Overview

Leave piecemeal strategic change approaches behind and learn how to plan, facilitate, and integrate your change efforts for lasting success. Enterprise-Wide Change takes you through the 'Rollercoaster of Change,' showing you how to deal with resistance, regard skeptics as your best friends, and build a buy-in and stay-in strategy among your employees. The authors use the science of

Systems Thinking? — a comprehensive, yet simple and integrated way to analyze and build synergy from key organizational elements. You'll find proven and practical questions, summaries, case studies, examples, and worksheets as well as systems tools, tips, and techniques to foster organization change and development.?

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher
“Steve Haines and his fellow authors’ practical handbook for leading change in an organization is a godsend to any executive and consultant. Their years of experience, research, and observation are distilled into logical steps for the executive and consultant alike to follow. The examples they give throughout the book bring each step alive. The environment for all enterprises is continually changing, and Steve Haines’ book will aid leaders in keeping their enterprises ahead of change and growing profitably.”
—Admiral Dennis Blair, USN (Retired), former Four-Star Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Command, and president of the  Institute for Defense Analysis

“Makes an invaluable contribution to the fields of organization development, change management, and strategic planning, as well as to the individuals who lead and consult in organizations including executives and senior manager, internal and external consultants who assist organizations in their efforts to survive and thrive in the current fast-paced, highly competitive, global, complex, and ever-changing marketplace.”
—Jeanne Cherbeneau, president, Cherbeneau & Associates

“The message in the book is not only why enterprise wide change (EWC) is critical to organizations who want to survive and be successful, but also how to implement this change. The examples of what not to do versus how to do it right were very helpful. The comprehensive details and examples given about other companies made the message and information even clearer. It’s one thing to write about a topic, but to actually get your point across is another. The authors also put together a beginning to end process on EWC in one book that is easy to read and implement.”
—Lori L. While, senior vice president, Valley Credit Union

“This book provides valuable context and content to enable the reader to understand and apply the systems-thinking concepts. It provides the tools that needed to actually start and sustain and enterprise change effort in a planned and systematic method. Provides and excellent introduction to and framework for the complex process of enterprise-wide change. It’s a great roadmap!”
—Mary Jefferies, director, human resource services, Alberta Environment

“This is not some esoteric ‘fad of the decade’ book, it addresses in a very pragmatic way, the various elements that need to be considered when developing a change management process in a systems thinking context.”
—Dennis A. Looney, vice president of operations, Apex-Carex Healthcare Products

“Haines’ book gives practitioners and project managers a comprehensive map with principles and guides to navigate the change process.”
—Aaron S.L. Pun, former chairperson, Hong Kong Society for Training and Development

Enterprise Wide Change is filled with examples and real-life applications, as well as checklists and tools.”
—Denise Bryson, vice president, client services, New Client Marketing Institute

“The great value of this book is the way it manages to weave together the various elements of the strategic process in a simple and practical model. ”
—Miguel Guilarte, professor, Fielding Graduate Institute, founder and CEO, Transforma Management Consulting

“Easy and quick to read—pulls together lots of diverse ideas into one source. This book offers steps in the model that are very specific, as well as many case examples, clearly marked tools, questions, and charts.”
—John Clarke, director of training, development, and quality

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780787971465
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/28/2004
  • Series: J-B O-D (Organizational Development) Series , #23
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 352
  • Product dimensions: 7.05 (w) x 9.29 (h) x 0.96 (d)

Meet the Author

Stephen G. Haines is founder and CEO of The Centre for Strategic Management and Systems Thinking Press. A well-known consultant and trainer and experienced CEO at University Associates and large corporations, he is also a distinguished author with 13 books in print, including The Systems Thinking Approach to Reinventing Strategic Planning and Management.

Gail Aller-Stead is the Change Management Practice Leader and a partner in the Centre for Strategic Management, a global strategic alliance of consultants and trainers in Canada and the United States, with 38 offices in 20 other countries.

James McKinlay is the cofounder of the Centre for Strategic Management and its managing partner for Canada.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures, Tables, and Worksheets.

Preface.

Acknowledgments.

Introduction.

Purpose of this Book.

Organization of the Book.

Special Features.

Part A: Introduction to Systems Thinking and Superior Results.

1. The Fundamentals of Enterprise-Wide Change.

Chapter Purposes.

Welcome to the Future.

The Systems Thinking Approach.

Achieving Superior Results.

The Uniqueness of Enterprise-Wide Change.

21st Century: Revolutionary Worldwide Change and Its Implications.

The Secret of Constant Growth.

75 Percent of All Major Changes Do Not Succeed.

The “Big Three” Enterprise-Wide Failure Issues.

Preview: The Enterprise-Wide Change Journey.

Chapter One Recap.

2. Seeking a Unity of Science for Living Systems.

Chapter Purposes.

Complexity Versus Simplicity: Our Different Views of the World.

The Helicopter View of Life.

Analytic Thinking: A Mindset Left Over from the Industrial Age.

General Systems Theory: The Unity of Science.

Chapter Two Recap.

3. Foundations of the Systems Thinking Approach.

Chapter Purposes.

Systems Concept #1: Seven Levels of Living Systems.

Systems Concept #2: Natural and Predictable Cycles of Change.

Systems Concept #3: The Simplicity of Systems Thinking Is Backwards Thinking.

Systems Concept #4: Twelve Characteristics of Living Systems.

The Whole System: Living Systems Characteristics #1–#6.

The Inner Workings of Systems: Living Systems Characteristics #7–#12.

Some Guiding Principles of Systems Thinking.

Chapter Three Recap.

Part B: Practical Application to Enterprise-Wide Change.

Framework for Part B.

4. Smart Start: Engineering Success Up-Front.

Chapter Purposes.

Chapter Context.

Smart Start: Engineer Success Up-Front.

The Iceberg Theory of Change—Three Realities of Life: Content—Process—Structure.

The Structures of Change Expanded: Tailored to Your Needs.

Structure and Player #1: Change Leaders.

Structure and Player #2: Change Consultants.

Structure and Player #3: Change Implementers.

Structure and Player #4: Program Management Office.

A Menu of Additional Change Infrastructures.

Further Elaboration on Key Structures.

The Game Plan for Enterprise-Wide Change.

Chapter Four Recap.

5. Clarity of Purpose: Working On the Enterprise.

Chapter Purposes.

Chapter Context: Working On the Enterprise.

Missing Element #1: Phase E.

Missing Element #2: Phase A.

Missing Element #3: Phase A.

Missing Element #4: Phase B.

Summary: Clarity of Purpose.

Chapter Five Recap.

6. Assessing the Enterprise as a Living System.

Chapter Purposes.

Chapter Context.

Some Mental Maps for Assessing Enterprises as Living Systems.

Multiple Conflicting Mindsets or Mental Maps (Versus a Totally Integrated Enterprise-Wide Assessment).

One Mental Map of an Organization as a Living System.

A New Enterprise-Wide Assessment Mental Map: A Business Excellence Architecture.

Summary: Enterprise-Wide Assessment and Vital Signs.

Chapter Six Recap.

7. Simplicity of Execution: Working In the Enterprise.

Chapter Purposes.

Chapter Context.

On the Path to Clarity and Simplicity.

Cascading the Changes: Strategies—Initiatives—Tasks—Accountability—Rewards.

Chapter Seven Recap.

8. Wave After Wave of Changes.

Chapter Purposes.

Chapter Context.

Individual Change: The Rollercoaster of Change.

Enterprise-Wide Change and the Rollercoaster of Change.

The Cascade of Change: Wave After Wave.

Seven Natural Rings of Reality: Classifying Mainstream OD Change Interventions.

The Seven Natural Rings of Reality Matrix and the Impact of the Rollercoaster of Change.

Implications for the Enterprise-Wide Change Journey.

Chapter Eight Recap.

9. Sustain Business Excellence.

Chapter Purposes.

The Mid-Course Enterprise-Wide Change Review: Fighting Entropy in Enterprise-Wide Change.

Annual Review of Organizational Capacity.

Chapter Nine Recap.

Enterprise-Wide People Edge Best Practices.

Part C: How to Begin Enterprise-Wide Change.

10. Working on the Enterprise: The Bite-Sized Approach.

Chapter Purpose.

How to Begin: Tailored to Your Needs.

The Results.

Websites.

Bibliography.

About the Series.

Statement of the Board.

Afterword to the Series.

About the Series Editors.

About the Authors.

Index.

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First Chapter

Enterprise-Wide Change

Superior Results Through Systems Thinking
By Stephen Haines Gail Aller-Stead Jim McKinlay

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7879-7146-4


Chapter One

The Fundamentals of Enterprise-Wide Change

Change your thoughts and change your world. Norman Vincent Peale

Chapter Purposes

To understand how Enterprise-Wide Change (EWC) is fundamentally different from other forms of organizational change

To learn three main reasons why an estimated 75 percent of major change efforts fail

To gain a high-level overview of the Enterprise-Wide Change sequence

Welcome to the Future

Enterprise-Wide Change is becoming an increasingly large part of the landscape in today's dynamic 21st-Century environment. What do we mean by this?

Enterprise

An Enterprise (business, company, establishment, firm, organization, corporation, and so forth) is

A business organization

A systemic and industrious activity

An undertaking-especially one of great scope, complication, or risk

Synonyms include business, company, establishment, firm, organization, and corporation.

Enterprises are systemic, complex, industrious entities and include all public, private, and not-for-profit organizations. They are not just for-profit undertakings.

Change

Change is a word with which we are all familiar, meaning to alter something.

Enterprise-Wide Change

Enterprise-Wide Change (EWC) has a major impact on the entire organization and is usually strategic, large-scale, chaotic, complex, and/or radical in nature.

Examples of Enterprise-Wide Change initiatives and activities include

Installing an Enterprise Resource Planning system (ERP)

Creating a new high-performance culture

Focusing on business and operational excellence

Conducting mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, and alliances

Installing major new technologies

Executing strategic and business plans

Becoming more customer-focused

Becoming a global company

Improving customer service

Desiring major growth and expansion

Downsizing, outsourcing, and major cutbacks

Restructuring and redesigning the organization

Improving Six Sigma and quality

Changing supply-chain management

Developing and deploying major new products

Transforming an entire enterprise

Significantly increasing creativity and innovation

Creating new businesses

Enterprise-Wide Change includes many of the organization-wide changes in which OD consultants (also called "change consultants" throughout this book) are typically involved, such as team building, visioning, leadership and executive succession planning, talent development, HR planning, process improvement, and change execution.

Enterprise-Wide Change concepts also apply to community and societal changes such as fundamental changes in

Health care

Education

Child care

Crime

Security

The Systems Thinking Approach

Systems Thinking is

A way of seeing the whole as primary, the parts as secondary

A higher-level way to view, filter, and mentally frame what we see in the world

A worldview that considers the whole entity or enterprise, along with its fit and relationships to and with the environment

A tool for finding patterns and relationships among subsystems and learning to reinforce or change these patterns to achieve specific outcomes

A shift from seeing elements, functions, and events to seeing processes, structures, relationships, and outcomes

The phrase "Systems Thinking" became a popular buzzword in organizational change theory after the 1990 publication of Peter Senge's best-selling The Fifth Discipline. While Senge's fifth discipline is, in fact, Systems Thinking, many people misuse the term today. They use it to refer broadly to anything that links together and fits with something else-a list of related topics, for instance, that are somehow important to training and development or some other specific goal. That would be, at best, an integrated list, not a complete Systems Thinking view.

Systems Thinking is a science-the Science of Living Systems on Earth.

Achieving Superior Results

The approach to this level of change needs to be different. This book is about thinking differently regarding EWC. To be successful in such a complex set of tasks is management's ultimate challenge.

Superior results include

Employee satisfaction

Customer satisfaction

Economic benefits for shareholders, and for owners

Contribution to society

THINK DIFFERENTLY

We often think about what we think, but we seldom think about how we think.

The Uniqueness of Enterprise-Wide Change

Unlike traditional change efforts, Enterprise-Wide Change (EWC) is a complex, systemic, laborious undertaking. It is not to be taken lightly.

A doctor would be guilty of malpractice if she or he operated on a patient without appropriate knowledge, skills, and a deep understanding of anatomy, genetics, and the patient's current health and medical history. In the same way, leaders and change consultants cannot responsibly impose change initiatives on their own "patients" (the organization as a whole, fellow managers, employees, customers, suppliers, owners, the community) without a full understanding of EWC's unique elements and demands.

Six distinct characteristics of EWC separate it from less comprehensive change initiatives (see Figure 1.1):

1. Major structural and fundamental impact-EWC has a major structural and fundamental impact on the entire organization or business unit in which change is to occur. Energetic leadership is required at multiple levels to succeed.

2. Strategic in scope-The change to be effected is strategic. It links to the business's unique positioning in a dynamic and highly competitive marketplace (including the public sector marketplace).

3. Complex, chaotic, and/or radical-The change is complex and chaotic in nature, or may constitute a radical departure from the current state-even to the point that desired outcomes and approaches to achieve them may be unclear.

4. Large-scale and transformational-The scale of desired change is large and will result in a significantly different enterprise. It will be transformed.

5. Longer timeframe-The desired change will require years of focused attention with multiple phases and stages.

6. Cultural change-The rules of the game change: the norms, guideposts, policies, values, and guides to behavior.

Any large-scale Enterprise-Wide Change will entail at least some of the following characteristics:

Multiple transitions

Incomplete transitions

Uncertain future state(s)

Multiple changes over long periods of time

Changing priorities

Conflicting demands

Changing players

Resistance to change

Loss of focus

Inadequate resources

False starts

Derailments

Delayed payoffs

Ambiguity/awkwardness

When starting over from zero, these characteristics are normal and to be expected. Persistence and perseverance are essential.

THINK DIFFERENTLY

Boeing is trying to "think differently" to reinvent itself to become a defense contractor, not just an airplane manufacturer. They are undergoing EWC to reposition themselves into an additional business and marketplace through acquisitions in the defense industry.

Its headquarters is now in Chicago, not Seattle, and it has acquired numerous other defense contractors, including much of Rockwell International. However, in looking beyond their aircraft roots, many analysts feel Boeing is losing significant ground to the European Airbus competitor.

A dual focus on Enterprise-Wide Change and their current business is required for their future success. This is a very public Enterprise-Wide Change process we can all observe.

Questions to Ponder

Do you agree with these definitions of Enterprise-Wide Change? The Systems Thinking approach to superior results? Why or why not?

Can you think of other examples of Enterprise-Wide Change?

Do you agree with the six unique characteristics of Enterprise-Wide Change? Why or why not?

21st Century: Revolutionary Worldwide Change and Its Implications

In the complex and dynamic 21st Century, CEOs, executives, change consultants, and organization development professionals need new modes of thinking to effectively manage organizations. The approaches to thinking and management that worked in the 20th Century and during the Industrial Revolution are no longer relevant in today's fast-paced Information Age.

Systems Thinking tells us that enterprises are not simply the sum of their components or parts. Instead, they are the end result of all of their processes, systems, and people-a complex web of interdependencies and interrelationships.

As many leaders have discovered, changing just one part of an organization without considering the rest of the system often results in unpredictable, unintended, and undesirable consequences elsewhere in the system.

Thinking differently can lead to acting differently and achieving better results.

Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, a flood of change has enveloped the world. The Iron Curtain collapsed, along with most communist regimes worldwide. The European Union and Euro currency came into being. Eastern Bloc countries joined NATO and the EU, while a global village, working around the clock with interlocking economies, sought freer trade through WTO, GATT, NAFTA, and MERCOSUR. The ascendancy of networked computing brought the Internet, extranets, and intranets into even the smallest businesses across North America, Europe, Asia, and the rest of the world. Satellites and wireless global communications united even the remotest areas of the globe. Genetics research came of age; the human genome was mapped in its entirety; and the biotech revolution is underway.

The 21st Century has fostered a radically changed business climate. A global recession rages. Now worldwide competition grows more intense. Corporate corruption and greed are uncovered almost daily. Industries blur into one another as substitutions and new product lifecycles shorten. Employees feel helpless and overwhelmed with new demands, complexities, and intensity in the workplace. Companies see a shift in the power balance as consumer demands take center stage. Simultaneous pressure for commodity pricing and erosion of marketplace positioning take their toll. Cultures must shift as flexibility, speed, and responsiveness mean survival, even as demands rise for economies of scale and lower costs.

One thing is certain: Business as usual won't cut it anymore-not in government, not in the private sector, not in the not-for-profit world, and certainly not in the military.

The history of mankind is strewn with habits, creeds, and dogmas that were essential to one age and disastrous to another. James Reston, New York Times columnist

THINK DIFFERENTLY

21st Century U.S. warfare such as Operation Iraqi Freedom (which they thought ended in April 2003) has found the silver bullet for military success: coherent joint warfare. Yet systemic nation-building did not follow.

This is defined as the highest level of joint force integration (Army-Navy-Air Force-Marines-Coast Guard-FBI-CIA), progressing from specialized joint operations to synergistic joint operations where joint forces will be thoroughly integrated to fully exploit the synergism of land, sea, and air combat capabilities-a systems view. David Vergun (2003). "Coast Guard Brings Order to Varied Fleet of 1,500 Boats." Sea Power, August 2003, p. 35.

The good news is that society and enterprises have moved beyond looking for the one right, simplistic silver-bullet answer to their chronic and diverse issues and problems. They are starting to apply multiple solutions to patterns of events and issues. However, we believe that they may not fully understand the context, or systems within systems, in which all these complex issues exist.

It is tempting and comforting to look to top executives who have transformed their companies in these dynamic times. The best advice we know of is the widely quoted view from GE's former CEO:

If you are still doing things now the same way you did them five years ago, you are doing something wrong. Jack Welch

This book provides a roadmap for Enterprise-Wide Change using an integrated Total System Thinking Approach that identifies, considers, and leverages the impact of isolated organizational change. Senior management's ability to identify, achieve, and sustain a unique position in the marketplaces is improved significantly when their decisions are based on a more holistic, humanistic, and systems orientation.

The Secret of Constant Growth

Living, growing systems change. This means that no matter what journey an organization is undertaking, every organization is constantly required to change or die. All enterprises must simultaneously service the current business and create the future business. It is the not-so-secret of constant growth (Figure 1.2).

The secret of constant growth means that executives and managers have two full-time jobs:

1. Serving today's business in a stressful, dynamic, consumer-oriented world where more demanding customers are driving products and services toward commodity pricing

2. Creating future business amidst the pressure of the daily business for current results

The secret of constant growth is simple:

Work IN the business and you feed yourself today

Work ON the business and you feed yourself next year

Fritjof Capra, Ph.D., a world-renowned physicist and systems theorist who co-wrote the film Mindwalk, explores the fundamentals of Systems Thinking:

One of the foremost signs of present-day society is the presence of massively complex systems that increasingly permeate almost every aspect of our lives. The amazement we feel in contemplating the wonders of industrial and informational technologies is tinged by a sense of uneasiness, if not outright discomfort.

Continues...


Excerpted from Enterprise-Wide Change by Stephen Haines Gail Aller-Stead Jim McKinlay Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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