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2. Insect Structures and Life Processes.
3. Insect Classification.
4. The Insect Life Cycle.
5. Insect Ecology.
6. Surveillance and Sampling.
7. Economic Decision Levels for Pest Populations.
8. Pest Management Theory.
9. Management with Natural Enemies and Other Biological Agents.
10. Ecological Management of the Crop Environment.
11. Conventional Insecticides for Management.
12. Biopesticides for Management
13. Managing Insects with Resistant Plants.
14. Management by Modifying Insect Development and Behavior.
15. Sterile-Insect Technique and Other Pest Genetic Tactics.
16. The Practice of Insect Pest Management.
17. Managing Ecological Backlash.
18. Insect Pest Management Case Histories.
Appendix 1: Key to the Orders of Hexapoda.
Appendix 2: List of Some Insects and Related Species Alphabetized by Common Name.
Appendix 3: World Wide Web Sites of Entomological Resources.
Although it has been only three years since writing the third edition of Entomology and Pest Management, much has occurred. Events have changed the face of pest technology and policy, causing us to take pause and reflect on our achievements and ponder our future. These recent events make the updating of this book a useful endeavor.
The most striking event since the third edition is our ubiquitous use of computers for gathering information. The Internet and World Wide Web have virtually taken over our activities, with nearly all students and specialists using them as a base of operations for information exchange. We now have rapid and mostly low-cost access to almost everything we want to know, right from our desk or laptop computer. Just do a search, and literally dozens of sites pop up on the screen, displaying everything from how-tos to why-nots. Moreover, students can enroll in and take courses through the Internet not only at their home university but at other universities as well. Arguably, many educators believe so-called distance education through computer delivery is the sine qua non of effective learning and the wave of the future.
To make use of this valuable information-gathering tool, the fourth edition of Entomology and Pest Management has "Favorite Web Sites" listed at the end of each chapter. The Web sites relate to the subject matter of the chapter and are presented as URLs, which are annotated. The reader may use these and their links to other sites to update basic information found in a particular book chapter. Additionally, Appendix 4 was developed, which presents one of the most comprehensive compilations of Web sitesfor entomology resources found anywhere. This list can be used for customized searches of entomological information on nearly any topic.
Other events that called for an updating of the third edition include impacts on pesticide use mandated by the EPA and the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. This agency and law have resulted in the disappearance of some of our most widely used insecticides and their substitution by new, sometimes safer and environmentally friendly chemicals and tactics. To reflect these events, Chapter 11 on conventional insecticides has been reorganized and completely updated, as has Appendix 3, which presents lists of commonly used insecticides. Moreover, current developments of low-risk tactics, such as microbial pesticides, insect growth regulators, and pheromones, are presented in Chapters 9 and 13.
Profound changes have also occurred in the past three years because of biotechnology. Transgenic plants that offer high degrees of resistance to insect pests have been engineered and become widely adopted in several cropping systems. Along with this development, concerns continue about insects overcoming the resistance and about the environmental and personal safety of these crops. Chapter 12 updates the reader on the status of transgenic plants developed for pest management and presents a new discussion on benefits and risks of cropping these.
There has also been substantial progress in the areawide approach to pest technology. This approach has been spotlighted nationally as a means of dealing with key insect pests, such as the boll weevil in southeastern cotton. The status of such areawide programs has been updated in Chapter 15, as has that of other pest management programs mentioned throughout the book.
Entomology and Pest Management can be used as an introduction to applied entomology for undergraduates or beginning graduate students. For undergraduates with only an elementary biology background, early chapters need emphasis to provide a basis for understanding the remaining content on insect ecology, surveillance, and management. Students with at least one course in entomology may wish to omit early chapters and emphasize the strategy and tactics of management found in later chapters. Omitting Chapters 1 through 4 for graduate courses or Chapter 14 for undergraduate courses will not result in a loss of continuity.
The book consists of seventeen chapters, four appendices, and a glossary. Concepts and principles are emphasized and supported by factual detail and specific examples. Beginning chapters (1 through 3) concentrate on general entomology for the novice. Chapters 4 and 5 synthesize the elements of insect biology and ecology required for understanding insect pest management. Chapter 6 covers techniques and principles of sampling for problem assessment, and Chapter 7 builds on this knowledge by outlining types of reactions of crops to insect densities. Chapter 7 also features the concept of adding environmental costs in the decision-making process for management. The ideas and history of insect pest technology are reviewed, and the concept and philosophy of modern pest management is introduced in Chapter 8.
With this basic information presented in the first eight chapters, the student is introduced, chapter by chapter, to the individual tactics used as elements in pest management programs. The order of tactics presented is based on their relative importance in existing pest management programs. Consequently, natural enemies and ecological management of the environment, primarily preventive tactics, are mentioned first, followed by conventional insecticides, the premier element in curative tactics. The remaining tactics discussed in Chapters 12 through 14 are more specialized but, nevertheless, convey some of the newest and most innovative ideas in the science. These chapters have been updated and expanded in the fourth edition.
Chapter 15 discusses the ways pest management and pest technology are practiced. This chapter draws the analogy between human medicine and pest management, and it emphasizes the idea of prevention and therapy in combining several management tactics. Additionally, the chapter discusses areawide pest technology and recent successes with the cotton boll weevil in the United States.
Chapter 16 is unique among entomology texts because it integrates the problems of resistance, resurgence, and replacement and recent phenomena, such as enhanced microbial degradation of insecticides, into a single concept—ecological backlash. The chapter suggests to students that applying the tactics discussed does not always result in sustainable pest management, and it recommends ways of reducing or avoiding such problems.
The book ends by presenting examples of successful insect pest management programs in the context of diverse commodities.
Basic and applied entomology. The primary purpose of the book is to promote an understanding of major elements of general entomology and relate them to modern principles of. insect pest management. Both theory and practice are emphasized in a conceptual approach to the topics, and numerous examples are presented to facilitate learning.
Ecological approach. Pest management topics are discussed as aspects of applied ecology, and solutions to pest problems are presented with regard to environmental quality, profitability, and durability.
Insect diagnostic boxes. About 60 insect diagnostic boxes are presented throughout the text. Each box contains detailed information on distribution, importance, appearance, and life cycle of a species or species group. Insects chosen are from examples mentioned in the text. Grouping specific data in boxes keeps the text from being overburdened with background information about a species when examples and case histories are given. Students not familiar with the species being discussed can consult the boxes to better understand and appreciate the examples in the text. Information in the boxes is referenced in the index. Additional information about major pests is given in Chapter 3 as insect families of major economic importance were included in presenting information on insect classification.
Boldface type. This feature allows the student to recognize new terms and important comments quickly and serves as a basis for topic review.
Appendices. Four appendices facilitate learning and serve as reference material. Appendix 1 presents a key to the orders of insects, allowing identification of both adult and immature insects. Appendix 2 contains a list of insect common names, scientific names, and classifications. Appendix 3 presents lists of common insecticides by common and trade names and gives manufacturer and toxicity information; this appendix was extensively revised and updated in the fourth edition. Appendix 4 is a comprehensive list of World Wide Web sites of Entomological Resources that can be used for customized computer searches of information.
Glossary. A glossary for quick reference appears at the end of the book and was expanded in the fourth edition. Words in the text that appear in bold type and others are included.
Favorite Web sites. The Web sites accessible through the Internet are presented as URL addresses along with a short description of the site's content. Readers can receive updates on the topic of a chapter by consulting these sites and navigating links to other, related sites for additional information.
First and foremost, I owe many thanks to my current graduate students, Rayda Krell and Wilmar Morjan, in completing this revision. These students made important suggestions and contributions, which I have attempted to add to this edition. In addition to the demands of their own class work and dissertation research, they helped immeasurably with the daily operation of our research project, freeing my time for this task. Also, I thank my colleagues at Iowa State University for helping update my knowledge on various topics. They include Joel Coats, Ken Holscher, Donald Lewis, John Obrycki, Marlin Rice, and Jon Tollefson. I also owe very special thanks to John VanDyk, computer specialist in our department, for preparing and allowing me to publish his list of World Wide Web addresses in this edition. Additionally, I thank Steve Lefko, entomologist with Monsanto Corporation, for newsletters and other information on the latest developments in biotechnology. Thanks are also due to Mark Whalon of Michigan State University for updates on insecticide resistance. I owe gratitude to my colleagues who reviewed the text and provided helpful feedback and suggestions for improvement. Among these colleagues are the following: Charles Tarrants, SUNY @ Delhi, Donn T. Johnson, University of Arkansas; and Jeffrey Granett, University of California, Davis. Lastly, I thank Prentice Hall and editors Charles E. Stewart, Jr., and Debbie Yarnell for providing me the opportunity to update this work.
L. P. P.