Environmental Applications of Geochemical Modeling / Edition 1

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This book discusses the application of geochemical models to environmental practice and studies, through the use of numerous case studies of real-world environmental problems, such as acid mine drainage, pit lake chemistry, nuclear waste disposal, and landfill leachates. In each example the authors clearly define the environmental threat in question; explain how geochemical modeling may help solve the problem posed; and advise the reader how to prepare input files for geochemical modeling codes and interpret the results in terms of meeting regulatory requirements.
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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
The application of geochemical modeling to environmental practice and studies is examined in this text through the use of numerous case studies of real-world environmental problems. Background chapters cover thermodynamics, kinetics, and geochemical modeling in general. Case studies illustrate the application of various types of geochemical models to problems such as acid mine drainage and nuclear waste disposal, and give advice on preparing input files for geochemical codes and interpreting results. Models and software covered include surface complexation, inverse mass balance, PHREEQC, and Geochemist's Workbench. Zhu teaches geochemical modeling at the University of Pittsburgh. Anderson teaches geochemistry at the University of Toronto. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
From the Publisher
"...an excellent text for an introduction to fundamental principles and practical techniques of geochemical modeling as applied to problems in environmental contamination." Ground Water

"...well written, easy to read, and well illustrated. The authors are to be commended for their honest evaluation of modeling and their challenge to increase their use and enhance the realism of modeling in natural settings." Journal of the American Water Resources Association

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780521005777
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Publication date: 8/28/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 300
  • Product dimensions: 6.85 (w) x 9.72 (h) x 0.63 (d)

Meet the Author

Chen Zhu is a Professor of Geological Sciences and Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University and an adjunct professor at the University of Oslo, Norway. He received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University and completed his postdoctoral fellowship at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. His research interests are groundwater geochemistry and geochemical modeling of water-rock interactions. Zhu's recent work involves the kinetics of feldspar dissolution, geological carbon sequestration, and arsenic and antimony in the environment. He was the 2006 recipient of the John Hem Award from the National Ground Water Association and a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Oslo in 2009. He serves as an associate editor for Geochimica et Cosmochmica Acta and the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology.
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Environmental Problems and the Need for Geochemical Modeling 1
1.2 The Regulatory Framework 11
1.3 The Role of Geochemical Modeling 12
1.4 Current Practice 14
1.5 Overview 16
2 Model Concepts 18
2.1 Model Definitions 18
2.2 A Holistic View of Geochemical Models 19
2.3 Types of Geochemical Models 23
2.4 Model Verification and Validation 28
2.5 Model Usefulness and Limitations 30
3 Thermodynamic Background 32
3.1 Systems and Equilibrium 32
3.2 Chemical Reactions 34
3.3 Gibbs Energy 35
3.4 Activity, Fugacity, and Chemical Potential 37
3.5 The Equilibrium Constant 42
3.6 Components and Species 46
3.7 The Phase Rule 51
3.8 Redox 54
3.9 Alkalinity 58
3.10 Acidity 65
3.11 The Local Equilibrium Assumption 67
3.12 Summary 73
4 Computer Programs for Geochemical Modeling 74
4.1 Codes, Databases, and Models 74
4.2 Review of Popular Computer Programs 76
4.3 Databases 79
4.4 Chemical Concentration Units 83
4.5 Examples of Input/Output 83
5 Preparation and Construction of a Geochemical Model 92
5.1 Introduction 92
5.2 Establish the Goals 92
5.3 Learn the Groundwater Flow System 92
5.4 Collection of Field and Laboratory Data 93
5.5 Decide What Types of Model to Construct 97
5.6 Gather Chemical Properties 101
5.7 Select a Computer Code 101
5.8 Set Up a Model 102
5.9 Interpretation of Modeling Results 103
5.10 Reporting and Presentation of Modeling Results 105
6 Speciation and Solubility Modeling 106
6.1 Introduction 106
6.2 A Uranium Mill Tailings Impoundment 107
6.3 Applications to Bioavailability and Risk Assessment Studies 126
6.4 Interpretations of Column Experiments 128
7 Modeling Surface Adsorption 133
7.1 Introduction 133
7.2 Ion-exchange 134
7.3 Surface Complexation 138
7.4 Sorption Implementation in Computer Programs 142
7.5 Retardation of Radionuclides at Oak Ridge 148
7.6 Mobility of Radionuclides at a Uranium Mill Tailings Impoundment 151
7.7 Adsorption of Arsenic in Smelter Flue Dust 155
8 Reaction Path Modeling 157
8.1 Introduction 157
8.2 Alkalinity Titration 159
8.3 Acidity of Acid Mine Water 161
8.4 pH Buffering 164
8.5 Deep Well Injection of Hazardous Wastes 167
8.6 Pit Lake Chemistry 174
8.7 Artificial Recharge 177
8.8 Applications to Natural Background Studies 178
9 Inverse Mass Balance Modeling 180
9.1 Introduction 180
9.2 Model Assumptions 181
9.3 Groundwater Genesis, Black Mesa, Arizona 183
9.4 Acid Mine Drainage, Pinal Creek, Arizona 187
9.5 [superscript 14]C dating, Black Mesa, Arizona 192
9.6 Estimate of Microbial Metabolism Rates in Deep Aquifers 195
10 Coupled Reactive Transport Models 199
10.1 Introduction 199
10.2 Multi-component Reactive Transport Models 200
10.3 Isotherm-based Reactive Transport Models 201
10.4 A Simple Example 205
10.5 Buffering in Reactive Transport 211
10.6 Migration of an Acid Plume at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site 215
10.7 Remedial Design of a Uranium Tailings Repository 225
10.8 Summary and Comments 229
11 Kinetics Modeling 230
11.1 Introduction 230
11.2 Some Basic Theory 230
11.3 Kinetics of Precipitation and Dissolution Reactions 237
11.4 Kinetics of Acetate Decomposition 241
11.5 Coupled Aqueous Speciation and Biological Processes 247
11.6 Application to Landfill Leachate into Aquifers 249
11.7 Conclusions 251
Appendix 253
A Modifying a Database 253
References 261
Index 281
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