Environmental Chemistry of Aerosols / Edition 1

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Overview

Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion and air quality. In urban environments, aerosol particles can affect human health through their inhalation.

Atmospheric aerosols originate from naturally occurring processes, such as volcanic emissions, sea spray and mineral dust emissions, or from anthropogenic activity such as industry and combustion processes. Aerosols present pathways for reactions, transport and deposition that would not occur in the gas phase alone. Understanding the ways in which aerosols behave, evolve and exert these effects requires knowledge of their formation and removal mechanism, transport processes, as well as their physical and chemical characteristics.

Motivated by climate change and adverse health effects of traffic-related air pollution, aerosol research has intensified over the past couple of decades, and recent scientific advances offer an improved understanding of the mechanisms and factors controlling the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. Environmental Chemistry of Aerosols brings together the current state of knowledge of aerosol chemistry, with chapters written by international leaders in the field. It will serve as an authoritative and practical reference for scientists studying the Earth's atmosphere and as an educational and training resource for both postgraduate students and professional atmospheric scientists.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781405139199
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 11/1/2007
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 268
  • Product dimensions: 7.10 (w) x 9.95 (h) x 0.77 (d)

Meet the Author

Professor Ian Colbeck leads the Aerosol Science Group in the Department of Biological Sciences, and is Director of the Centre for Environment and Society at the University of Essex.

Contributors to the book:

Professor Jay Turner
Professor Ari Laaksonen
Dr Charles Clement
Dr Mihalis Lazardis
Dr Irena Grgic
Dr David Topping
Dr A. R. Mackenzie
Dr Urs Baltensperger
Dr Markus Furger
Dr Kari Lehtinen

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors     ix
Preface     xi
Physical and Chemical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols   Jay Turner   Ian Colbeck     1
Introduction     1
Ambient aerosol size distributions     3
Idealised size distributions of aerosol number and mass     3
Size distribution measurements     6
Dynamics of atmospheric aerosol size distributions     8
Features of selected ambient aerosol size distributions     11
Major chemical components of ambient fine particulate matter     15
Aerosol composition as a function of size     21
Summary and conclusions     22
References     25
Nucleation   Ari Laaksonen   Kari E.J. Lehtinen     31
Introduction     31
Nucleation kinetics     31
One-component systems     31
Binary systems     34
Nucleation thermodynamics     36
One-component systems     36
The classical theory     39
Multicomponent systems     40
The nucleation theorem     41
Scaling properties of critical clusters     42
An application to atmospheric nucleation     45
References     46
Mass Transfer to Aerosols   Charles F. Clement     49
Introduction     49
Equilibration between aerosol and gas     51
Transfer to a particle     52
Molecular motion     52
Motion in gases: kinetic theory     53
Diffusion     55
Diffusion to an aerosol particle     56
Combined diffusive and kinetic model     56
Fuchs mass transfer model     57
Heat and mass transfer     58
Multicomponent droplets and binary growth     64
Chemical model framework     65
Kinetic coefficients     67
Transfer to an aerosol     68
Aerosol description     68
Mean field approximation     70
Growth equations     73
Empirical atmospheric timescales     75
Redistributive processes     77
Nucleation mode mass transfer     79
Source terms     83
water data     83
Nomenclature     83
References     85
Organic Aerosols   Mihalis Lazaridis     91
Introduction     91
Carbon-containing aerosols and their sources     93
Elemental carbon - primary organic carbon     93
Secondary organic matter formation (secondary organic carbon)     95
Biological aerosols     96
Biogenic aerosols     98
Modelling biogenic aerosol formation     99
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons     100
Emission inventories of primary organic aerosols and gaseous precursors     102
Atmospheric chemistry of organic aerosols - field studies     102
Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols     102
Organic compounds - source apportionment     104
Carbonaceous aerosols at urban/rural environments     105
Summary     109
References     110
Metals in Aerosols   Irena Grigic     117
Introduction     117
Physico-chemical characteristics of metals in aerosols     118
Size distribution     118
Chemical speciation     122
Reactivity of transition metals     128
Photochemical/chemical cycling     128
Interactions of transition metals with S(IV) species     129
References     133
Thermodynamics of Aqueous Systems   David Topping     141
Introduction      141
Equilibrium     141
The chemical potential     143
Activity     145
Mixed solvent systems - a brief outline     147
Aqueous systems     148
Water content in the regime subsaturated with respect to water vapour     148
General aqueous thermodynamic equilibrium models for atmospheric aerosols     152
Inorganic systems     153
Activity coefficients     153
Bulk inorganic contributions to particulate water content in the regime subsaturated with respect to water vapour     155
Organic systems     157
Activity coefficients     157
Bulk organic contributions to particulate water content in the regime subsaturated with respect to water vapour     161
Mixed inorganic/organic systems     164
Activity coefficients - coupled thermodynamics     164
Activity coefficients - uncoupled thermodynamics     166
Bulk mixed inorganic/organic contributions to particulate water content in the regime substurated with respect to water vapour     166
Deliquescence     169
Temperature-dependent equilibrium     171
Deliquescence     171
Gas-to-particle partitioning     173
Activity      174
The influence of curvature     175
The Kelvin effect     175
The Kohler equation - describing the equilibrium between a curved particle and its humid environment: basic equilibrium considerations     177
References     181
Stratospheric Chemistry: Aerosols and the Ozone Layer   Rob MacKenzie     193
Introduction     193
General properties of the stratospheric aerosol layer     195
General stratospheric chemistry     197
Catalysed ozone loss     197
Initiation, null cycles, and termination of stratospheric chain reactions     199
Heterogeneous stratospheric chemistry     200
Polar stratospheric clouds and the 'ozone hole'     201
Volcanic aerosol     203
Meteoritic aerosol     207
Interactions between stratospheric chemistry and climate     208
References     210
Aerosol Chemistry in Remote Locations   Urs Baltensperger   Markus Furger     217
Introduction     217
Definition of 'remote locations'     217
Aerosol measurement and monitoring     219
Processes and mechanisms     220
Observations     224
Oceans and marine locations      225
Antarctica     228
Arctic     232
Tropical forests     235
Boreal forests     238
High elevation and free troposphere     239
Summary     242
References     244
Index     253
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