Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence / Edition 3

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This anthology, edited by a professor of wild-life science and a professor of philosophy, offers the most current and comprehensive collection on the topic of environmental ethics available today. It surveys diverse approaches to environmental ethics by leading writers from a variety of disciplines, and provides an historical survey of thought on our responsibility to the environment. The perspectives are represented by their most articulate spokespersons and are accompanied by appraisals of their respective strengths and weaknesses. Chapter introductions, headnotes, discussion questions, and annotated bibliographies are provided. Twenty eight of the 64 articles are new. The new edition deletes those articles with which students had difficulty because they were hard to read and substitutes newer or better-written articles. All chapter introductions were revised to reflect changes in the field. New topics include biodiversity, ecological restoration, environmental justice, and genetic engineering. A new section in the appendix on conflict resolution was requested by students.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780072838459
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 8/28/2003
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 624
  • Sales rank: 1,348,202
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.94 (d)

Meet the Author

Susan J. Armstrong is Professor of Philosophy at Humboldt State University in Arcata, California. She has taught environmental ethics with Prof. Richard G. Botzler since l983. Her dissertation "The Rights of Nonhuman Beings: A Whiteheadian Study" (1976) is considered to be the first

dissertation written on environmental ethics. (Available online at www.humboldt.edu/~phil/susan.html). Susan is a member of the Editorial Board of Environmental Ethics. She has written a number of articles and book chapters on process philosophy and recently co-edited The Animal

Ethics Reader (Routledge 2003) with Richard G. Botzler. She was nominated for Outstanding Professor in l989 and 2002.

Richard Botzler is a Professor of Wildlife at Humboldt State University. He has served as a Fulbright Fellow to the Federal Republic of Germany and as editor for the Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Rick has authored over 40 journal articles, book chapters, encyclopedia entries, and

book reviews in wildlife health and diseases, science ethics, and environmental ethics. He was selected as Humboldt State University's outstanding professor for 1991 and as 1992 outstanding professor for the 20-campus California State University. He also received the Distinguished Service Award from the Wildlife Disease Association. Rick enjoys hiking the backcountry of Humboldt County and cycling.

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Table of Contents


"Unchopping a Tree," W.S. Merwin

For Further Reading



"Conduct, Misconduct, and the Structure of Science," James Woodward and David Goodstein

"Putting Science in its Place," Eric T. Freyfogle and Julianne L. Newton

"Facing the Problem of Uncertainty," Ragner Fjelland

"Feminism and the Study of Behavior," Marlene Zuk

"The Little Things that Run the World," E.O. Wilson

Discussion Topics

Class Exercises

For Further Reading


"A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy," James Rachels

"Some Basic Points about Arguments," James Rachels

"Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World," Holmes Rolston, III

"Environmental Ethics and the Social Construction of Nature," Anna Peterson

"Environmental Ethics as Environmental Etiquette," Jim Cheney and Anthony Weston

"Just Garbage: Environmental Injustice," Peter S. Wenz

Discussion Topics

Class Exercises

For Further Reading


"Walking," Henry David Thoreau

"A Near View of the High Sierras," John Muir

"A More-Than-Human World," David Abram

"The Land Aesthetic," J. Baird Callicott

"The Far Outside," Gary Nabhan

Discussion Topics

Class Exercises

For Further Reading


"The Ancient Roots of our Ecological Crisis," J. Donald Hughes

"Anglo-American Land Use Attitudes," Eugene C. Hargrove

"Whither Conservation Ethics?" J. Baird Callicott

"Wasty Ways: Stories of American Settlement," Alan Taylor

"Nature in Industrial Society," Neil Evernden

"Rachel Carson's Environmental Ethics," Philip Cafaro

Discussion Topics

Class Exercises

For Further Reading



"The Historical Roots of our Ecologic Crisis," Lynn White, Jr.

"Created in the Image of God: Humanity and Divinity in an Age of Environmentalism," Lawrence Troster

"Environmental Ethics: Some Challenges for Christians," Holmes Rolston, III

"Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law and Society," Mawil Y. Izzi Deen (Samarrai)

"Voices from White Earth," Winona LaDuke

"The Sun my Heart," Thich Nhat Hanh

"Ideologies of Environmentalism," Madhav Gadgil and Ramachandra Guha

Discussion Topics

Class Exercises

For Further Reading


"Animals are Machines," Rene Descartes

"Duties to Animals: The Failure of Kant's Moral Theory." J. Skidmore

"Anthropocentrism: A Modern Version," W.H. Murdy

"The Golden Rule: A Proper Scale for our Environmental Crisis," Stephen Jay Gould

"The Invented Landscape," Frederick Turner

Discussion Topics

Class Exercises

For Further Reading


from The Case for Animal Rights, Tom Regan

"Equality for Animals?" Peter Singer

"Environmental Values," Peter Singer

"Animal Liberation is an Environmental Ethic," Dale Jamieson

from Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics, Paul Taylor

"Biocentric Individualism," Gary Varner

Discussion Topics

Class Exercises

For Further Reading


"The Land Ethic," Aldo Leopold

"Whither Conservation Ethics?" J. Baird Callicott

"Aldo Leopold's Concept of Ecosystem Health," J. Baird Callicott

"The Land Ethic at the Turn of the Millennium," Holmes Rolston, III

"The Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: 1960-2000--A Review," Bill Devall

Discussion Topics

Class Exercises

For Further Reading


"Quilting Ecofeminism," Karen Warren

"Ecofeminism," Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies

from States of Grace, Charlene Spretnak

from The Legacy of Luna, Julia Butterfly Hill

"Is Ecofeminism Feminist?" Victoria Davion

Discussion Topics

Class Exercises

For Further Reading


"Biocentrism and Genetic Engineering," Andrew Dobson

"Ecological Risks and Benefits of Transgenic Plants," G. L. Lovei

"The Ecological Critique of Agricultural Biotechnology," Mark Sagoff

"Rights to Life? On Nature, Property and Biotechnology," John Meyer


"The Tragedy of the Commons," Garrett Hardin

"Visitors to the Commons: Approaching Thailand's Environmental Struggles from a Western Starting Point," Larry Lohmann

"Taking the Land Rights Movement Seriously," Kirk Emerson


from Free Market Environmentalism, Terry Anderson and Donald Leal

"At the Monument to General Meade, or On the Difference Between Beliefs and Benefits, " Mark Sagoff

"Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) Accounting: Relating Ecological Integrity to Human Health and Well-Being," Mark Anielski and Colin L. Soskolne

"Can We Afford to Conserve Biodiversity?" Alexander James, Kevin J. Gaston, and Andrew Balmford


from Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects, Christopher Stone


"Fragile Freedoms," Bryan G. Norton

"The Relevance of Environmental Ethical Theories for Policy Making," Mikael Stenmark


"Environmental Ethical Issues in Water Operations and Land Management," Cheryl Davis


"Ecological Democracy," John Dryzek

"Leopold as Advocate," Sara Vickerman


A. Endangered Species: The Nene

B. The Klamath River: Farmers, Fishers, Native Americans and Salmon

C. The Makah Indian Tribe and Whale Hunting

D. Scientists as Advocates

E. Are We on a Lifeboat?

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