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Overview

A comprehensive resource for information about different technologies and methods to measure and analyze contamination of air, water, and soil.
* Serves as a technical reference in the field of environmental science and engineering
* Includes information on instrumentation used for measurement and control of effluents and emissions from industrial facilities that can directly influence the environment
* Focuses on applications, making it a practical reference tool

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This handbook has many valuable features and provides a wealth of information for the professional...should have wide appeal." (Environmental Practice, June 2006)

"...a comprehensive catalog of the benefits and drawbacks of virtually every available tool and technique." (Journal of the American Water Resources Association, April 2005)

"...should greatly simply the decision making process when selecting the proper monitoring method or instrument." (E-STREAMS, April 2005)

"Each chapter gives a detailed description of the instrument and methodology at hand, which is supported by valuable case studies and enriched by discussions of common pitfalls and how to avoid them." (Journal of the American Chemical Society, March 31, 2005)

“…an excellent guide to the variety of the techniques used for environmental monitoring and analysis.” (Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, February 2007)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471463542
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/28/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1080
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.41 (h) x 2.14 (d)

Meet the Author

RANDY D. DOWN, PE, is a recognized expert in environmental instrumentation and controls with Forensic Analysis and Engineering Corp. His more than thirty years of instrumentation and controls experience covers a wide range of industries and applications.

JAY H. LEHR, PHD, is the Science Director of The Heartland Institute and Senior Scientist at Bennett & Williams, Inc. He is the author of fourteen books and over 500 articles on environmental science.

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Read an Excerpt

Environmental Instrumentation and Analysis Handbook


By Randy D. Down Jay H. Lehr

John Wile & Sons

Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-471-46354-X


Chapter One

INFLUENCE OF REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS ON INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN

Randy D. Down, P.E. Forensic Analysis & Engineering Corp. Raleigh, North Carolina

1.1 Introduction 1.2 Environmental Regulatory Requirements 1.3 Key Factors Influencing Development 1.4 Emerging Sensor Technology 1.5 Other Advancing Technologies 1.6 Regulatory Trends 1.7 MACT/BACT Analysis 1.8 Product Development 1.9 Networked Systems 1.10 Future Considerations 1.11 International Organization for Standardization 1.12 Conclusion 1.13 Additional Sources of Information

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Federal, state, and local regulatory requirements have long played an important role in driving the advancement of new technologies for the measurement and control of environmental pollution. They will continue to do so. The same can be said for competitive advancements in measurement and control technology-that they drive the regulatory requirements. As this chapter will illustrate, regulations and competitive, technological development ultimately work hand in hand to influence the future of environmental instrumentation-thus the rapidly changing nature of environmental instrumentation and controls.

This handbook will serve as a valuable guide in theapplication of new and emerging environmental instrumentation and control technologies needed to meet current and future regulatory requirements.

1.2 ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

It was not intended that this handbook serve as a reference for environmental regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements vary from state to state throughout the United States and abroad and are periodically updated and revised. Any information regarding regulatory requirements that pertains to your geographical location should be obtained directly from the appropriate local governing agencies. It is advisable to work with a local or regional environmental consultant or directly with the regulatory agency to determine which regulations apply to your specific application. Doing so will greatly reduce your risk of misapplying expensive instruments and potential incurring fines that may be imposed for failing to meet all regulatory requirements. Such fines can be very costly and embarrassing.

When involved in the development, specification, or selection and application of instrumentation, as it relates to environmental applications, this book will serve as a very useful technical resource. It will aid you in asking the right questions and avoiding some of the many potential pitfalls that can occur when trying to select and specify appropriate instrumentation for a measurement or control application.

1.3 KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT

Two key factors drive the development of new technology as it applies to environmental measurement and control:

Steps required to cost effectively meet compliance requirements dictated by federal and state regulatory agencies

An opportunity to be highly profitable by being the first firm to develop and market a new, more cost-effective and reliable technology (sensor, transmitter, analyzer, telemetry device, and/or controller). Statistically, those companies that are first to market with a new technology tend to capture and retain 70% or more of the total market share. Therefore, great emphasis is placed on being the first firm to market an innovative or more cost-effective, new product or technology.

New environmental measurement and control technology comes from many areas of science and industry. Government and private investments made in the development of new alloys and synthetic materials as well as smaller and lighter electromechanical components are one example. Sensor technology for the aerospace and auto industries is a good example of a major source of new technology and products. Spin-off applications, if applicable to industrial and commercial applications (and relatively cost effective), can have dramatic results in advancing control technology. Major aerospace and automobile manufacturers as well as government agencies often have greater resources with which to fund in-depth research and development.

1.4 EMERGING SENSOR TECHNOLOGY

Advancement of new sensor technology is by far the most influential factor in the evolution of regulatory requirements as well as instrumentation and control technologies. Keeping up with this technology is a major challenge for regulatory experts, scientists, and engineers who are tasked with providing clients and the general public with the optimal means of pollution measurement and abatement.

When establishing the minimum human exposure limit for known and suspected carcinogens, the regulatory minimum exposure level is often established by the minimum measurable concentration. The minimum measurement level established by the government must be achievable in terms of measurement accuracy and repeatability. Unattainable regulatory limits would be meaningless.

The ability of a measurement system to accurately monitor an environmental variable (such as humidity, temperature, pressure, flow and level) or to detect and analyze a specific chemical substance and its concentration over time is crucial if we are to successfully measure and control pollutants and preserve the health and safety of our environment.

Measurement, as discussed in greater depth later in this book, is a function of accuracy, precision, reliability, repeatability, sensitivity, and response time. As new sensor technology evolves, its value to the industry will be judged by its ability to meet these criteria and by its relative cost in relation to currently used technology.

1.5 OTHER ADVANCING TECHNOLOGIES

Closely following the rapidly advancing sensor technology and further influencing sensor development is the continuing development of solid-state electronics and large-scale integration of electronic circuitry into microcircuitry. Development of microminiature electronic components (such as resistors, diodes, capacitors, transistors, and integrated circuits) and "nanotechnology" (the development of microminiature mechanical/electrical devices) has positively influenced the measurement and controls industry in multiple ways:

Electronic and mechanical components are now physically much smaller.

Being smaller, these devices require less electrical energy to function.

Using less energy, they also produce less heat, allowing them to be housed in more compact, better sealed, and in some cases nonventilated enclosures.

Allowing them to be tightly enclosed makes them better suited for use in harsh environments and means they are less likely to be influenced by variations in temperature, vibration, and humidity.

manufacturing and assembly costs are significantly reduced.

consumer prices are reduced.

If we look deeper, we find that other technological advances have allowed and supported the continued development of these microcircuits and components. A prime example is the advancement of clean-room technology. A dust particle, spore, strand of human hair, or chafe (particles of dry skin) will appear quite large under a microscope when examined alongside some modern-day miniaturized components and circuitry. Such environmental "contamination" can damage or impair the reliability and performance of these microminiature components.

Advancements in clean-room design and packaging technology have significantly reduced the risk of such contamination. This has largely been accomplished through the development of high-efficiency air filtration systems and better guidelines for proper "housekeeping," such as

wearing low-particulate-producing disposable suits, booties, and hair nets;

providing pressurized gown-up areas, airlocks, and positively pressurized clean-room spaces (to prevent contaminated air from migrating into the cleaner space); and

providing "sticky" mats at entering doorways to pick up any particulate that might otherwise be "tracked in" on the bottom of footwear.

Conversely, advancements in clean-room technology have largely occurred through improved accuracy in measuring and quantifying the presence of airborne contaminants.

Improved accuracy of particulate monitoring instrumentation is a good example of advancing sensor technology that is aiding the advancement in measuring and certifying clean-room quality, which in turn has aided advancements in sensor technology. This is a good example of different technologies that are ultimately working hand in hand to accelerate the advancement of environmental instrumentation technology.

Nanotechnology (the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on a length scale of 1-100 nm) may very well have the greatest impact of any technological advancement in measurement and control technology over the next 10-15 years. The manipulation of physical properties (physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical) occurs at a microminiature scale. To put it in perspective, 10 nm is approximately a thousand times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. A scientific and technical revolution is beginning based on the newfound ability to systematically organize and manipulate matter at the nanoscale.

1.6 REGULATORY TRENDS

Regulatory agencies tend to avoid direct specification of a technology to meet a regulatory requirement. They wisely prefer to define performance criteria (accuracy and reliability) that must be achieved in order to be in regulatory compliance. In so doing, regulatory agencies can avoid specifying a level of system performance that exceeds readily available technology. It also reduces the risk of specifying technologies that are available but are so cost prohibitive that they would create undue financial hardship for those companies found to be out of compliance.

Regulatory agencies must weigh the potentially high cost of available technology against the value derived by enforcing a cleaner environment and ultimately determine what is in the public's best interest. These decisions are often controversial and may be challenged in the courts. At risk are thousands of jobs, as companies are required to spend millions of dollars to significantly reduce their air emissions (or pretreat wastewater) and remain competitive with overseas companies. This burden on manufacturers must be weighed against the potential long-term (and perhaps yet-unknown) impact of the exposure of people and the environment to human-generated contaminants.

An effective approach to working with industry to continuously improve our nation's air and water quality while not financially crippling U.S. companies (which in some cases compete with overseas firms facing fewer environmental restrictions) is to employ a MACT (maximum achievable control technology) or BACT (best available control technology) analysis and gradually increase restrictions on certain pollutants over a period of several years.

Graduated environmental restrictions allow several things to occur that aid industry: They allow industrial firms time to determine and budget for the cost of compliance, schedule downtime (if necessary), and investigate methods of changing their internal production processes to lower the level of emitted pollutants requiring control. They also allow system developers and pollution control system manufacturers additional time to develop methods to meet compliance requirements that are more cost effective than current technology may allow.

1.7 MACT/BACT ANALYSIS

Addressing the issue of abatement costs versus the benefits to the environment requires a methodology that will establish the best approach based on present-day technology. Typically, the approach that has been adopted by many state regulatory agencies is either a BACT or MACT study and report.

In a MACT or BACT analysis, the feasible alternatives for pollution control are examined and compared in a matrix, weighing factors such as pollutant removal efficiency, capital costs, operating costs, life expectancy, reliability, and complexity. Ultimately, a cost per unit volume of pollutant removed, ususally expressed in dollars per ton, is established for each viable option. The option having the best projected cost per volume of removed pollutant is usually selected unless there are extenuating reasons not to (such as a lack of available fuel, insufficient space for the equipment, or a lack of trained or skilled support staff needed to operate or maintain the system).

As an example, a BACT or MACT analysis for abatement of pollutant air emissions will often include evaluation of such technologies as carbon recovery systems, thermal oxidizers, scrubbers, dust collectors, and flares.

Evaluating these various technology options requires a detailed determination of their cost of construction, operation, maintenance, waste disposal, and salvage. Typically, an environmental consultant is contracted to perform an independent BACT or MACT analysis. This helps avoid potential public concerns over a perceived conflict of interest if the analysis were performed in-house.

Pollution abatement system costs often range well into the thousands, in some cases millions, of dollars. Cost of abatement systems is largely dependent upon:

Type and controllability of substances to be abated

Supplemental fuel costs

Disposal of the removed pollutant (if any)

Quantity (volumetric flow rate) of the pollutant

Some pollutants, such as mercury, are much more difficult to remove than others, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). They may also need to be handled and disposed of differently (further driving up the total cost of abatement).

As a general rule, the larger the volume of pollutants generated, the physically larger the equipment needed to handle it, and perhaps the more equipment is needed to control it. All of these characteristics serve to drive up the cost of abatement.

Various pollution abatement systems are described in greater depth later in this book.

1.8 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

As mentioned earlier, many factors influence the development of pollution control technology and environmental instrumentation.

Continues...


Excerpted from Environmental Instrumentation and Analysis Handbook by Randy D. Down Jay H. Lehr Copyright © 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

PART I: INSTRUMENTATION METHODOLOGIES.

1. Influence of Regulatory Requirements on Instrumentation Design (Randy D. Down).

2. In Situ Versus Extractive Measurement Techniques (Gerald McGowan).

3. Validation of Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM) System Accuracy and Reliability (Todd B. Colin).

4. Integration of CEM into Distributed Control Systems (Joseph A. Ice).

5. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (Tye Ed Barber, Norma L. Ayala, John M.E. Storey, G. Louis Powell, William D. Brosey, and Norman R. Smyrl).

6. Ultraviolet Analyzers (Jeffrey E. Johnston and Marc M. Baum).

7. Total Hydrocarbon Analysis Using Flame Ionization Detector (John Kosch).

8. Gas Chromatography in Environmental Analysis (John N. Driscoll).

9. Online Analysis of Environmental Samples by Mass Spectrometry (Raimo A. Ketola).

10. Photoionization (John N. Driscoll).

11. Portable Versus Stationary Analytical Instruments (Randy D. Down).

12. Application of XRF to the Analysis of Environmental Samples (John N. Driscoll).

13. Laboratory Analysis (Paul J. Giammatteo and John C. Edwards).

14. Solid-Phase Microextraction (Yong Chen and Janusz Pawliszyn).

15. Continuous Particulate Monitoring (William J. Averdieck).

16. Gas Survey Instruments (Randy D. Down).

17. Ion Chromatography for the Analysis of Inorganic Anions in Water (Peter E. Jackson).

18. Ultraviolet–Visible Analysis of Water and Wastewater (Bernard J. Beemster).

PART II: WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS.

19. Thermal Conductivity Detectors (John M. Hiller and Nancy M. Baldwin).

20. Opacity Monitors (Julian Saltz).

21. Temperature Measurement (Randy D. Down).

22. pH Analyzers and Their Application (James R. Gray).

23. Conductivity Analyzers and Their Application (James R. Gray).

24. Turbidity Monitoring (John Downing).

25. Watershed Scale, Water Quality Monitoring–Water Sample Collection (Randy A. Dahlgren, Kenneth W. Tate, and Dylan S. Ahearn).

PART III: GROUND WATER MONITORING.

26. Level Measurements in Groundwater Monitoring Wells (Willis Weight).

27. Laboratory Analysis of Wastewater and Groundwater Samples (Lawrence R. Keefe).

28. Techniques for Groundwater Sampling (Robert M. Powell).

29. Soil Permeability and Dispersion Analysis (Aziz Amoozegar).

30. Passive Sampling (Lee Trotta).

31. Instrumentation in Groundwater Monitoring (David L. Russell).

32. Microbiological Field Sampling and Instrumentation in Assessment of Soil and Groundwater Pollution (Ann Azadpour-Keeley).

PART IV: WASTEWATER MONITORING.

33. Use of Instrumentation for pH Control (Mark Lang).

34. Automatic Wastewater Sampling Systems (Bob Davis and Jim McCrone).

35. Optimum Wastewater Sampling Locations (Bob Davis and James McCrone).

36. Wastewater Level Measurement Techniques (Ernest Higginson).

PART V: AIR MONITORING.

37. Data Acquisition Systems for Ambient Air Monitoring (Matthew Eisentraut and Martin Hansen).

38. Air Pollution Control Systems (Randy D. Down).

39. Measurement of Ambient Air Quality (Gerald McGowan).

PART VI: FLOW MONITORING.

40. Air Flow Measurement (Randy D. Down).

41. Gas Flow Measurement (Ashok Kumar, Jampana Siva Sailaja and Harish G. Rao).

42. Non-Open-Channel Flow Measurement (Randy D. Down).

43. Open-Channel Wastewater Flow Measurement Techniques (Bob Davis and Jim McCrone).

44. Compliance Flow Monitoring in Large Stacks and Ducts (Richard Myers).

Index.

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