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Environmental Issues in Chemical Perspectives

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780873954273
  • Publisher: State University of New York Press
  • Publication date: 6/28/1980
  • Pages: 374

Table of Contents



1. Introduction

2. Natural Energy Flows

3. Carbon Cycle
Origins of Fossil Fuels
Petroleum and natural gas

4. Human Energy Consumption
Exponential Growth and Decay; Resource Exhaustion

5. Petroleum
Oil Refining
Estimation of Petroleum Reserves

6. Survey of Alternative Energy Sources

7. Coal
Coal Conversion

8. Nuclear Fission
Naturally Occuring Radioisotopes

9. Nuclear Power
Pressurized light water reactor
Breeder reactor

10. Weapons Proliferation
Fission Chain Reaction
Isotope Separation
Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

11. Radioactivity
Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
Radioactive Waste Disposal

12. Fusion Power
Fusion Reactors; Unresolved Problems

13. Solar Energy
Emission and Absorption of Radiation
The Photovoltaic Cell
Photoassisted Electrolysis

14. Energy Storage

15. Thermal Storage
Power Plants; Thermal Efficiencies

16. Energy Consumptions and Conservation
Heat Pumps; Heat Quality

17. Summary
Problem Set
Suggestions for Further Reading


1. Earth's Radiation Balance
Atmospheric Particles
Sources and Sinks
Cloud formation
Light scattering and absorption

2. Greenhouse Effect
Infrared Absorption and the Greenhouse Effect

3. Atmospheric Structure
Ultraviolet Absorption by Ozone

4. Ozone Chemistry
Steady-State Calculation of Ozone Distribution

5. Nitrogen Oxides
Nitrogen Oxide Effect on the Ozone Steady-State
Stratospheric Nitrogen Cycle

6. Chlorofluoromethanes

7. Oxide Chemistry
Oxygen Reactivity
Electronic structure
Free radicals; combustion
Transition metals; respiration
Thermodynamics and Equilibrium
Free energy
Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide
The effect of temperature; enthalpy

8. Air Pollution
Carbon monoxide
Nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons
Tropospheric Chemistry

9. Automotive Emissions

10. Sulfur Dioxide

11. Primary Particles

12. Summary
Problem Set
Suggestions for Further Reading


1. Water Resources
Properties of Water and Aqueous Solutions
Hydrogen bonding
Nonpolar solutes; clathrates
Polar and ionic solutes

2. Acidity
Acids and Bases
The pH scale
Conjugate acids and bases
Acid-base mixtures

3. Hardness
Two-Phase Interactions
Solubility; calcium carbonate
Ion exchange; clays
Ocean chemistry and the size of the carbon dioxide sink
Amphiphilic solutes; surfactants, lipids, and proteins

4. Eutrophication
Bioactivity of Lakes

5. The Oceans

6. Sewage Treatment
Domestic sewage treatment
Industrial wastewater treatment

7. Drinking Water Supplies

8. Agricultural Pollution

9. Summary
Problem Set
Suggestions for Further Reading


1. Nitrogen and Food Production
ATP, the energy currency
Nitrogen Cycle Enzymes

2. Nutrition
Diet Components; Vitamins

3. Insecticides
Membranes and Receptors
Membrane function
Na+-K+ pump
Ion conductance
Other neurotransmitters; opiates

4. Inadvertent Contamination by Toxic Organic Chemicals
Hormone Function
Environmental Decomposition of Toxic Organic Chemicals

5. Contamination by Toxic Metals

6. Cancer
Genetic Mechanisms and Chemical Carcinogenesis
DNA replication and protein synthesis
Repair mechanisms
Chemical carcinogenesis
Carcinogen testing

7. Conclusion
Problem Set
Suggestions for Further Reading


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