Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry / Edition 1

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Overview

A comprehensive set of real-world environmental laboratory experiments

This complete summary of laboratory work presents a richly detailed set of classroom-tested experiments along with background information, safety and hazard notes, a list of chemicals and solutions needed, data collection sheets, and blank pages for compiling results and findings. This useful resource also:

  • Focuses on environmental, i.e., "dirty" samples
  • Stresses critical concepts like analysis techniques and documentation
  • Includes water, air, and sediment experiments
  • Includes an interactive software package for pollutant fate and transport modeling exercises
  • Functions as a student portfolio of documentation abilities
  • Offers instructors actual samples of student work for troubleshooting, notes on each procedure, and procedures for solutions preparation.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“ … a most useful book to base the experimental aspects of an undergraduate environmental course on.”  (Applied Organometallic Chemistry, May 2005)

"...a good reference for educators involved in the design of an introductory environmental or instrumental chemistry laboratory." (Journal of Chemical Education, March 2005)

"Dunnivant offers some very good experiments in this book...the student CD-ROM was easy to enter and use." (CHOICE, February 2005)

"…this volume is an excellent set of environmental/analytical chemistry experiment." (Microchemical Journal, December 17, 2004)

"This textbook lays out standards for lab notebooks that might one day become evidence in a pollution case." (Environmental Science & Technology, December 2004)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471488569
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/19/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 7.01 (w) x 9.88 (h) x 0.93 (d)

Meet the Author

FRANK DUNNIVANT teaches at Whitman College after having worked for several labs such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and the Swiss Federal Institute for Water and Waste Water Pollution. He has also taught at Clemson University and Hartwick College. He has extensive experience with practical applications, research, and writing on environmental engineering and analytical science.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

TO THE INSTRUCTOR.

PART 1: PRELIMINARY EXERCISES.

1. How to Keep a Legally Defensible Laboratory Notebook.

2. Statistical Analysis.

3. Field Sampling Equipment for Environmental Samples.

PART 2: EXPERIMENTS FOR AIR SAMPLES.

4. Determination of Henry’s Law Constants.

5. Global Warming: Determining If a Gas Is Infrared Active.

6. Monitoring the Presence of Hydrocarbons in Air around Gasoline Stations.

PART 3: EXPERIMENTS FOR WATER SAMPLES.

7. Determination of an Ion Balance for a Water Sample.

8. Measuring the Concentration of Chlorinated Pesticides in Water Samples.

9. Determination of Chloride, Bromide, and Fluoride in Water Samples.

10. Analysis of Nickel Solutions by Ultraviolet–Visible Spectrometry.

PART 4: EXPERIMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE.

11. Determination of the Composition of Unleaded Gasoline Using Gas Chromatography.

12. Precipitation of Metals from Hazardous Waste.

13. Determination of the Nitroaromatics in Synthetic Wastewater from a Munitions Plant.

14. Determination of a Surrogate Toxic Metal in a Simulated Hazardous Waste Sample.

15. Reduction of Substituted Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Humic Acid Solutions.

PART 5: EXPERIMENTS FOR SEDIMENT AND SOIL SAMPLES.

16. Soxhlet Extraction and Analysis of a Soil or Sediment Sample Contaminated with n-Pentadecane.

17. Determination of a Clay–Water Distribution Coefficient for Copper.

PART 6: WET EXPERIMENTS.

18. Determination of Dissolved Oxygen in Water Using the Winkler Method.

19. Determination of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Sewage Influent.

20. Determination of Inorganic and Organic Solids in Water Samples: Mass Balance Exercise.

21. Determination of Alkalinity of Natural Waters.

22. Determination of Hardness in a Water Sample.

PART 7: FATE AND TRANSPORT CALCULATIONS.

23. pC–pH Diagrams: Equilibrium Diagrams for Weak Acid and Base Systems.

24. Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Rivers and Streams.

25. Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Lake Systems.

26. Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Groundwater Systems.

27. Transport of Pollutants in the Atmosphere.

28. Biochemical Oxygen Demand and the Dissolved Oxygen Sag Curve in a Stream: Streeter–Phelps Equation.

APPENDIX A: Periodic Table.

INDEX.

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First Chapter

Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry


By Frank M. Dunnivant

John Wiley & Sons

Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-471-48856-9


Chapter One

HOW TO KEEP A LEGALLY DEFENSIBLE LABORATORY NOTEBOOK

Proper recording of your laboratory data and upkeep of your laboratory notebook are essential to conducting good science. As your laboratory instructor will state, you should record sufficient detail in your notebook that another person of your skill level should be able to understand your procedures and comments and be able to reproduce all of your results. In government and industry (the real world), laboratory notebooks are legal documents. They can be used to apply for and defend patents, to show compliance or noncompliance with federal and state laws, and simply as record keeping. In the real world, lab notebooks start off as completely blank pages. You fill in all of your daily laboratory activities, including your conclusions. This laboratory manual is more organized than those used in the real world but will also serve as an example of your laboratory documentation, which will be an essential part of your future job. Except for a few cases, data collection sheets have been omitted intentionally because they are not always present in the real world. You should read the procedures carefully and understand them before you come tolab and have a data collection sheet ready in your laboratory notebook when you arrive in lab.

The laboratory notebook is the basis for your laboratory reports. The language you use in notebooks should be objective, factual, and free of your personal feelings, characterizations, speculation, or other terminology that is inappropriate. The notebook is your record of your or your group's work. Entries made by anyone other than the person to whom the notebook belongs must be dated and signed by the person making the entry. This may seem redundant since you will be dating and signing every page, but this is the standard policy used in government and industry.

Although you will quickly outgrow your laboratory notebook after graduation, you should realize that some laboratory notebooks are permanent records of a research project; that is, they are stored securely for years. The typical life of a laboratory notebook ranges from 10 to 25 years. Notebooks are also categorized by levels of use and include (1) a working laboratory notebook (one that is not yet complete and is currently being used to record information), (2) an active laboratory notebook (one that is complete but is needed as a reference to continue a project: for example, volume two of your notebook), and (3) an inactive laboratory notebook (one that is complete and no longer needed for quick reference).

The guidelines that follow have been collected from standard operating procedures (SOPs) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy as well as from my experience in a number of laboratory settings. These practices (and even more detailed ones) are also commonly used in industry. Your instructor will choose which guidelines are appropriate for your class and advise you to place a checkmark by those selected.

Your laboratory instructor will decide what heading or sections your data recording should be divided into, but these usually consist of a (1) a purpose statement, (2) prelaboratory instructions, (3) any modifications to the procedures assigned, (4) data collection, (5) interpretations, and (6) a brief summary of your conclusions. Although your laboratory reports will contain detailed interpretations and conclusions, you should include these in your laboratory notebook to provide a complete account of the laboratory exercise in your notebook. As you maintain your notebook, be aware that if you add simple notes, labels, or purpose statements throughout your data collection, it will make your account of the laboratory exercise much clearer a week later when you prepare your laboratory report.

Suggested Guidelines. Check those that apply to your class.

1. Use this notebook for all original data, calculations, notes, and sketches.

2. Write all entries in indelible ink (non-water soluble).

3. The data collection sections are divided into separate experiments, and within each experiment all laboratory notebook entries should be in chronological order. Note that in the real world, you will maintain separate notebooks for each project you are working on. In your future employment, all entries will be made in chronological order and you will not be allowed to skip from page to page or leave any blank spaces.

4. Include a date and initials at the bottom of each page.

5. Make minor corrections by placing a single line through the entry and labeling it with your initials and the date.

6. Major alterations or changes to previous entries should appear as new entries, containing the current date and a cross-reference (page number) to the previous entries. In making your corrections, do not obscure or obliterate previous or incorrect entries.

7. Do not remove any pages from the laboratory notebook unless you are specifically advised to do so by your laboratory instructor.

8. If your laboratory manual does not include chart-holder pages, glue or otherwise securely fasten charts, drawings, and graphs in the area provided for each experiment.

9. Designate each blank unused page or portion of a page equal to or greater than one-fourth of a page with a diagonal line through the unused portion to indicate that portion of the page is intentionally being left blank. Along the line write "intentionally left blank," with your initials, and date it.

10. Reference to a name, catalog number, or instrument number should be made when nonstandard items are being used or when the laboratory contains more than one piece of that equipment.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry by Frank M. Dunnivant Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. . Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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