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Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity
     

Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity

by Maria E. Ariza, Gautam N. Bijur, Marshall V. Williams
 

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Humans are exposed daily to low concentrations of metals that are released into the environment by both natural and industrial processes. Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity examines concerns about the acute and/or chronic exposure of humans to concentrations of these

Overview

Humans are exposed daily to low concentrations of metals that are released into the environment by both natural and industrial processes. Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity examines concerns about the acute and/or chronic exposure of humans to concentrations of these metals that are below the threshold levels established by various federal regulatory agencies. Some of these metals are accumulated in various tissues and over time this may result in the accumulation of a significant body burden. This could increase the risk of developing a variety of diseases later in life, at a time when thresholds for such effects may already be reduced by the processes of aging. Such possibilities could only further compromise the quality of life in the elderly population and could contribute to the rising cost of health care in this country.

Studies that have been conducted to determine the possible risks associated with exposure to relatively non-toxic concentrations of environmental metals have been hampered by a lack of appropriate models and a lack of funding. It has also been difficult for researchers to demonstrate a correlation between the exposure of humans or animals to low concentrations of environmental pollutants and disease. This book examines recent technological advances in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, and computer-enhanced image analyses that provide researchers with the tools to begin elucidating the genotoxic effects of environmental metal pollutants and the mechanisms by which these metals cause DNA damage.

Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive OxygenIntermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity presents data that demonstrate that certain environmental metal pollutants are genotoxic. The authors describe the role of reactive oxygen intermediates in causing the DNA damage induced by environmental metal pollutants and discuss their possible role in human disease.

Editorial Reviews

2 Stars from Doody
David Chandler
This is a review of the potential for sub-lethal metal exposure that contributes to several adverse health effects. There are four objectives of this book. The first is to demonstrate that the acute and chronic exposure of humans to environmental metal pollutants at concentrations below the threshold values recommended by federal protection agencies may pose a potential health hazard through the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates. The second is to describe the mechanism by which environmental metal pollutants induce reactive oxygen intermediates. The third is to describe the process by which these reactive oxygen intermediates are genotoxic. The fourth objective is to discuss the potential role of reactive oxygen intermediates in aging, carcinogenesis, and certain neurovascular and cardiovascular diseases. These objectives are interesting and have potential merit. However, there is a predominate lack of evidence to support a majority of the proposed correlations to adverse health effects. In the section that includes a description of the toxicity and the classification of metals, toxic capabilities are very cursory and lack full description. The one strong point of the text is the review of the apoptosis mechanism. The audience is most likely entry level toxicologists who have interests in trace metal toxicity. The authors' background in the area cannot be fully assessed from this text. Several areas where metal ions may have significant roles in adverse biological systems are reviewed. The authors explore the various mechanisms associated with apoptosis and oxidative stress fairly well. They then propose to correlate the mechanisms involved in these processes and thepresence of low-level, non-lethal concentrations of metals. The conclusions that the authors present are very speculative and have a dramatic lack of evidence to support them. This text raises some interesting points, but lacks support through research documentation. The data provided in texts such as Klaassen's Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 5th Edition (McGraw Hill, 1996) and Derelanko's CRC Handbook of Toxicology (CRC Press, 1995) cover the toxicity of metals very effectively. The identification of non-lethal levels of metals and their adverse effects is very controversial. This text, as presented, does not add anything of significance to support or refute these arguments.
Booknews
Examines concerns about acute and chronic exposure of humans to concentrations of metal pollutants that are below the threshold levels established by various federal regulatory agencies. Looks at recent technological advances in areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, and computer enhanced image analysis that provide tools to understand the genotoxic effects of environmental metal pollutants and the mechanisms by which these metals cause DNA damage. The authors are researchers and professors in cancer, behavioral neurobiology, and medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Arizona, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and The Ohio State University. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: David Chandler, PhD, DABT, CIA (3M)
Description: This is a review of the potential for sub-lethal metal exposure that contributes to several adverse health effects.
Purpose: There are four objectives of this book. The first is to demonstrate that the acute and chronic exposure of humans to environmental metal pollutants at concentrations below the threshold values recommended by federal protection agencies may pose a potential health hazard through the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates. The second is to describe the mechanism by which environmental metal pollutants induce reactive oxygen intermediates. The third is to describe the process by which these reactive oxygen intermediates are genotoxic. The fourth objective is to discuss the potential role of reactive oxygen intermediates in aging, carcinogenesis, and certain neurovascular and cardiovascular diseases. These objectives are interesting and have potential merit. However, there is a predominate lack of evidence to support a majority of the proposed correlations to adverse health effects. In the section that includes a description of the toxicity and the classification of metals, toxic capabilities are very cursory and lack full description. The one strong point of the text is the review of the apoptosis mechanism.
Audience: The audience is most likely entry level toxicologists who have interests in trace metal toxicity. The authors' background in the area cannot be fully assessed from this text.
Features: Several areas where metal ions may have significant roles in adverse biological systems are reviewed. The authors explore the various mechanisms associated with apoptosis and oxidative stress fairly well. They then propose to correlate the mechanisms involved in these processes and the presence of low-level, non-lethal concentrations of metals. The conclusions that the authors present are very speculative and have a dramatic lack of evidence to support them.
Assessment: This text raises some interesting points, but lacks support through research documentation. The data provided in texts such as Klaassen's Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 5th Edition (McGraw Hill, 1996) and Derelanko's CRC Handbook of Toxicology (CRC Press, 1995) cover the toxicity of metals very effectively. The identification of non-lethal levels of metals and their adverse effects is very controversial. This text, as presented, does not add anything of significance to support or refute these arguments.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781461373469
Publisher:
Springer US
Publication date:
12/31/2012
Edition description:
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999
Pages:
189
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

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