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The fourth edition of our anthology has undergone more revisions than any previous edition. We have added a new section which examines how continental philosophy, including phenomenology and postmodern theory, shed light on the "nature" of nature. Irene Klaver, editor of the new section, has written an excellent introduction, and has included several essays representing the relatively new field of "ecophenomenology," which offers a method for encountering and appreciating natural phenomena in a relatively non-objectifying manner that allows novel aspects of things to manifest themselves. Karen J. Warren's significantly expanded section now bears the title "Ecofeminism and Social Justice." Along with a fine new introduction, her selections help the reader to see that social action without theory is blind, but theory without social action is empty. Authors new to our anthology include Greta Gaard, Lori Gruen, Chris Cuomo, Mary Mellor, and Noel Sturgeon. For his Political Ecology section, John Clark has written an insightful new introduction. He has also added works by three authors, Ernest Partridge, David Watson, and Michael E. Zimmerman, to replace some of the essays from the previous edition. J. Baird Callicott has modified the introduction to his section, but has otherwise allowed the contents to remain the same.
My decision to include the new section required that I omit the Deep Ecology section, which George Sessions edited for the first three editions. This was the most difficult decision that I have had to make as general editor of this anthology. All the present editors of this anthology express their thanks to Sessions, emeritus professor at Sierra College, for his many contributions not only to the first three editions of this anthology, but also to the field of environmental philosophy. For years, we corresponded regularly about a wide range of topics, especially the emerging movement called deep ecology. I hiked and camped with Sessions in Yosemite, where he was well known for his first ascents, and in the Colorado Rockies. His influential newsletter, Ecophilosophy, which he published and distributed independently in the late 1970s and early 1980s, informed academics and activists about issues in and bibliography pertaining to environmental philosophy. Sessions often collaborated with the leading deep ecology theorist, Arne Naess, with whom he composed the "eight point deep ecology platform" in 1984. For his friendship, for his excellent editorial work, and most importantly for his efforts in founding environmental philosophy, I am deeply grateful.
The subtitle of this anthology, "From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology," originally reflected the fact that it included sections on both Ecofeminism and Deep Ecology. The title retains its validity, however, because several essays in the anthology offer radical criticism of mainstream attitudes toward nature and humanity's relation to it.
I thank my associate editors for working so hard, sometimes in the face of difficult circumstances, to prepare their sections for the fourth edition. We would also like to thank the reviewers, Chris Cuomo, University of Cincinnati; Philip Cafaro, Colorado State University; and Kirke Wolfe, Portland State University. On behalf of all the editors, I thank Ross Miller, Carla Worner, Wendy Yurash, and Patty Donovan for their support in seeing the anthology through the publication process.
Michael E. Zimmerman
New Orleans January 2004
|Preface to Second Edition|
|Pt. 1||Environmental Ethics|
|Is There a Need for a New, an Environmental, Ethic?||17|
|All Animals Are Equal||26|
|Animal Rights, Human Wrongs||41|
|On Being Morally Considerable||56|
|The Ethics of Respect for Nature||71|
|The Land Ethic||87|
|The Conceptual Foundations of the Land Ethic||101|
|Challenges in Environmental Ethics||124|
|Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold's Land Ethic?||145|
|Pt. 2||Deep Ecology|
|The Viable Human||183|
|The Deep Ecological Movement: Some Philosophical Aspects||193|
|Demystifying the Critiques of Deep Ecology||212|
|The Deep Ecology-Ecofeminism Debate and Its Parallels||227|
|Ecocentrism, Wilderness, and Global Ecosystem Protection||245|
|The Death of Nature||277|
|Nature, Self, and Gender: Feminism, Environmental Philosophy, and the Critique of Rationalism||291|
|Working with Nature: Reciprocity or Control?||315|
|The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism||325|
|Pt. 4||Political Ecology|
|Free Market versus Political Environmentalism||364|
|A Declaration of Sustainability||375|
|Is Liberalism Environment-Friendly?||386|
|Socialism and Ecology||407|
|A Social Ecology||416|
|The Place, the Region, and the Commons||441|
The editors of Environmental Philosophy are very pleased that this anthology has proven so successful that Prentice Hall encouraged us to bring out a Third Edition. When first published in 1993, this collection was unique in providing coverage of deep ecology, ecofeminism, and social ecology, as well as animal rights and environmental ethics. The value of including such a broad spectrum of positions in environmental philosophy in one anthology has been confirmed in part by the fact that competing anthologies now include such coverage. The environmental problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are too complex either to be understood or to be resolved solely in terms of environmental ethics, despite the important contribution that ethical analysis can play in dealing with them. Deep ecology and ecofeminism, in particular, emphasize that environmental problems often arise in connection with cultural attitudes and social practices, some of which are so imbedded that they are virtually invisible to most people. By adding the section on political ecology in the Second Edition, and by improving it in the Third Edition, we seek to demonstrate that political institutions and economic practices not only generate environmental problems, but also help solve them. Specific improvements to the Third Edition are described at the end of the General Introduction.
In all the domains just mentioned—social, cultural, political, and economic—philosophy can and should play an important role. One of the important contributions that philosophers can make, as Socrates showed long ago, is to criticize and thus show the limits of theirown cultures. Social theorists, cultural leaders, politicians, and economists play the role of philosopher when they contrast how things are with how things ought to be. They, and all of us, need to learn the art of careful reflection if we are to fulfill our role as philosopher-citizens in this crucial period of earth history. The editors, all of whom were trained as professional philosophers, hope that the Third Edition of this anthology will provide students of environmental philosophy with the conceptual and critical tools needed to help improve environmental conditions during the decades ahead.
Many thanks to my associate editors for their continuing efforts to improve our anthology. On behalf of my associates and myself, I would also like to thank Ross Miller, Jean Lapidus, and their colleagues at Prentice Hall for their assistance in bringing out the Third Edition of Environmental Philosophy.Michael E. Zimmerman