Environmental Physiology of Animals / Edition 2

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This new and updated edition, with two entirely new chapters, provides a comprehensive coverage of the comparative physiology of animals, in a strongly environmental context.It provides full analysis of the basic principles of physiological adaptations, in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It now also includes new chapters on the control systems (nervous and sensory systems, muscles, and hormones) and how they allow integration with the environment, suitable for introductory courses on excitable tissuesBut it is unique in also providing detailed and integrated reviews of how animals sense, react to and cope with particular environments - the marine and freshwater worlds, the particularly challenging seashore and estuarine zones, the different kinds of terrestrial habitat, and the parasitic environment. In this way, physiology is for the first time properly integrated with ecological principles and with behavioural responses used by animals in coping with environmental challenges.The book provides a stand-alone core text for undergraduate courses in comparative physiology, animal physiology, or environmental physiology, but also provides key material for integrating across modules in any environmental biology degree.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"...this second edition confirms its status as the first place I would go for guidance in unfamiliar physiological territory. Its level is perfect for undergraduates...this is a terrific text, and one that I recommend unreservedly." Andrew Clarke, British Antarctic Survey, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, August 2004
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781405107242
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/28/2004
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 768
  • Sales rank: 924,380
  • Product dimensions: 9.00 (w) x 11.18 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Pat Willmer began her research career in neurobiology at Cambridge, progressively switching to broader interests in invertebrate physiology and the interactions of physiology, ecology, and behavior. Her current interests at St Andrews mainly focus on insect environmental physiology, and effects on insect–plant interactions.

Graham Stone began his research career in entomology at Oxford, progressively switching to broader aspects of the biology of insect–plant interactions. His current interests at Edinburgh mainly focus on pollination ecology (particularly of Acacia communities in Africa) and the biology of oak gallwasps.

Ian A. Johnston began his research career at Hull and Bristol. His research group at St Andrews is currently utilizing genomic, molecular, physiological, structural, and whole organism approaches to investigate muscle development and growth in teleost fish, with particular reference to temperature adaptation and the evolution of Antarctic and Arctic species.

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Table of Contents

Preface To Second Edition.

Preface To First Edition.



Part I: Basic Principles:.

1. The Nature And Levels Of Adaptation:.

Introduction: Comparative, Environmental, And Evolutionary Physiology.

The Meaning Of ‘Environment'.

The Meaning Of ‘Adaptation’.

Comparative Methods To Detect Adaptation.

Physiological Response On Different Scales.


Further Reading.

2. Fundamental Mechanisms Of Adaptation:.

Introduction: Adaptation At The Molecular And Genome Level.

Controlling Protein Action.

Control Of Protein Synthesis And Degradation.

Protein Evolution.

Physiological Regulation Of Gene Expression.


Further Reading.

3. The Problems Of Size And Scale:.


Principle Of Similarity: Isometric Scaling.

Allometric Scaling.

The Scaling Of Metabolic Rate.

Scaling Of Locomotion.

Conclusions: Is There A Right Size To Be?.

Further Reading.

Part II: Central Issues In Comparative Physiology:.

4. Water, Ions, And Osmotic Physiology:.


Aqueous Solutions.

Passive Movements Of Water And Solutes.

Nonpassive Solute Movements.

Concentrations Of Cell Contents.

Overall Regulation Of Cell Contents.


Further Reading.

5. Animal Water Balance, Osmoregulation, And Excretion:.


Exchanges Occurring At The Outer Body Surface.

Osmoregulation At External Surfaces.

Osmoregulatory Organs And Their Excretory Products.

Water Regulation Via The Gut.

Regulation Of Respiratory Water Exchanges.

Water Loss In Reproductive Systems.

Water Gain.

The Costs And Energetics Of Regulating Water And Ion Balance.

Roles Of Nervous Systems And Hormones.


Further Reading.

6. Metabolism And Energy Supply:.


Metabolic Intermediaries.

Anaerobic Metabolism.

Aerobic Metabolism.

Metabolic Rates.

Energy Budgets.

Further Reading.

7. Respiration And Circulation:.


Uptake And Loss Of Gases Across Respiratory Surfaces.

Ventilation Systems To Improve Exchange Rates.

Circulatory Systems.

Delivering And Transferring Gases To The Tissues.

Coping With Hypoxia And Anoxia.

Control Of Respiration.

Further Reading.

8. Temperature And Its Effects:.


Biochemical Effects Of Temperature.

Physiological Effects Of Temperature.

Terminology And Strategies In Thermal Biology.

Thermal Environments And Thermal Exchanges.

Avoidance, Tolerance, And Acclimation In Thermal Biology.

Regulating Heat Gain And Keeping Warm.

Regulating Heat Loss And Keeping Cool.

Opting Out: Evasion Systems In Space Or Time.

Regulating Thermal Biology: Nerves And Hormones.

Evolution And Advantages Of Varying Thermal Strategies.

Further Reading.

9. Excitable Tissues Nervous Systems And Muscles:.


Section 1: Nerves.

Neural Functioning.

Synaptic Transmission.

Nervous Systems.

Neural Integration And Higher Neural Processes.

Neuronal Development.

Sensory Systems – Mechanisms And Principles.

Specific Senses And Sense Organs.

Section 2: Muscles.

Muscles And Movement: Introduction.

Muscle Structure.

Muscle Contraction.

Muscle Mechanics.

Muscle Types And Diversity.

Section 3: Nerves And Muscles Working Together.

Motor Activity Patterns.

Locomotion Using Muscles.


Further Reading.

10. Hormones And Chemical Control Systems:.


Endocrine Systems.

Control Of Water And Osmotic Balance.

Control Of Ion Balance And pH.

Control Of Development And Growth.

Control Of Metabolism, Temperature, And Color.

Control Of Sex And Reproduction.

Hormones And Other Behaviors; Aggression, Territoriality, And Migration.

Pheromones And The Control Of Behavior.


Further Reading.

Part III: Coping With The Environment:.


11. Marine Life:.

Introduction: Marine Habitats And Biota.

Ionic And Osmotic Adaptation.

Thermal Adaptation.

Respiratory Adaptation.

Reproductive And Life-Cycle Adaptation.

Depth Problems, Buoyancy, And Locomotion.

Sensory Issues: Marine Signaling.

Feeding And Being Fed On.

Anthropogenic Problems.

Secondary Invasion Of The Seas: Marine Vertebrates.


Further Reading.

12. Shorelines And Estuaries:.

Introduction: Brackish Habitats And Biota.

Ionic And Osmotic Adaptation And Water Balance.

Thermal Adaptation.

Respiratory Adaptation.

Reproductive And Life-Cycle Adaptation.

Mechanical, Locomotory, And Sensory Systems.

Feeding And Being Fed On.

Anthropogenic Problems.


Further Reading.

13. Fresh Water:.

Introduction: Freshwater Habitats And Biota.

Osmotic And Ionic Adaptation And Water Balance.

Thermal Adaptation.

Respiratory Adaptation.

Reproductive And Life-Cycle Adaptation.

Mechanical, Locomotory, And Sensory Adaptations.

Feeding And Being Fed On.

Anthropogenic Problems.


Further Reading.

14. Special Aquatic Habitats:.


Transient Water Bodies.

Osmotically Peculiar Habitats.

Thermally Extreme Waters.

Further Reading.

15. Terrestrial Life:.


Ionic And Osmotic Adaptation And Water Balance.

Thermal Adaptation.

Respiratory Adaptation.

Reproductive And Life-Cycle Adaptation.

Locomotion And Mechanical Adaptations.

Sensory Adaptations.

Feeding And Being Fed On.

Anthropogenic Problems.


Further Reading.

16. Extreme Terrestrial Habitats:.


Hot And Dry Habitats: Deserts.

Very Cold Habitats.

High-Altitude Habitats.

Aerial Habitats.


Further Reading.

17. Parasitic Habitats:.


Parasite Environments.

Basic Parasite Physiology.

Reproduction And Transmission.

Parasite Sensory Abilities.

Parasite Regulation Of Host Physiology.

Biotic Interactions: Host–Parasite Conflicts.


Further Reading.



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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 5, 2006


    Are you working in the area physiological functioning and the comparative adaptations of animals? If you are, this book is for you. Authors Pat Willmer, Graham Stone and Ian A. Johnston, have written an outstanding book that integrates animal physiology into a more holistic approach. Willmer, Stone and Johnston, begin by considering adaptation in relation to selection on phenotypes, as determined by genes and their constituent DNA. Then, they cover the process of adaptation in a suitable molecular context, so that new information on the molecular interactions and genomic changes underlying ecophysiological modification can be easily assimilated as it becomes available. The authors continue by discussing the problems of size and scale. In addition, they also present the mechanisms for keeping volumes and concentrations of biological solutions under control--thus, keeping animal tissues operative, in the face of this fundamental challenge. The authors also examine the problem of animal water balance in terms of the actions , and control, of particular effector organs. Then, the authors discuss metabolism and energy supply. Next, they look at the fundamental design of respiratory systems whereby aerobically respiring animals take up the oxygen they require. Then, the authors review the effects of temperature on animals, and the kinds of adaptation they show to withstand or to counter temperature change. Next, they examine the basic functioning of excitable tissues, and how they permit detection of environmental change, response to it, and indeed learning about it. The authors continue by examining the properties and roles of hormones, especially in relation to the bigger issues of coping with environmental challenges, dealing first with the endocrine systems and component glands in different kinds of animals, then with the various functions that are regulated by specific hormones. In addition, they also examine marine life in general. The authors also discuss seashores and estuaries. Then, the authors discuss the nature and occurrence of fresh water. Next, they cover a range of 'aquatic' habitats that are in various ways not strictly within the definitions of marine, littoral, estuarine, or freshwater habitats. Then, the authors cover the essential strategies of the broad range of animals that live in the majority of terrestrial habitats particularly, in the temperate zones and the humid tropics, where thermal extremes are rarely encountered, and where water balance, though difficult to achieve, is not pushed to the limits for survival. Next, they deal with some special cases of terrestrial life: hot and arid deserts, where the hygrothermal endurance limits of animal residents may be severely tested polar regions, tundra, and northern coniferous forests, where extreme cold is superimposed on the generality of terrestrial problems and, montane habitats, where altitude effects may parallel the latitudinal effects at the poles. Finally, the authors survey the departures from a free-living physiology that are associated with a range of types of parasitism. This excellent book also includes both an ecological setting and an appreciation of the range of behavioral responses open to individual animals before specific physiological responses need to come into play. Furthermore, the book has clearly met a need and found a very receptive audience.

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