Environmental Policy and Politics / Edition 5

Environmental Policy and Politics / Edition 5

by Michael E. Kraft

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ISBN-10: 0205745377

ISBN-13: 9780205745371

Pub. Date: 02/22/2010

Publisher: Pearson

Covering both global threats - such as climate change, population growth, and loss of biodiversity - as well as domestic environmental issues and concerns, Environmental Policy and Politics offers a comprehensive examination of U.S. environmental politics and policy. Within these pages, students of environmental policy will find accessible, detailed coverage of it


Covering both global threats - such as climate change, population growth, and loss of biodiversity - as well as domestic environmental issues and concerns, Environmental Policy and Politics offers a comprehensive examination of U.S. environmental politics and policy. Within these pages, students of environmental policy will find accessible, detailed coverage of it in the context of U.S. policy-making processes, the legislative and administrative settings for policy decisions, and the role of interest groups and public opinion in shaping environmental politics.

Drawing on an extensive collection of scientific studies, government reports, and policy analyses to provide the full scope of environmental issues to students, this unique text also employs a risk-based framework for policy analysis that encourages students to judge for themselves the significance of conditions and trends and the risks they pose.

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Chapter 1 Environmental Problems and Politics 1

Environmental Policy and Politics 5

Perspectives on Environmental Problems 7

Scientific Knowledge and Its Use 7

Economics and Incentives 9

Environmental Values and Ethics 10

The Role of Government and Politics 11

Democracy, Politics, and Environmental Policy 13

Defining Environmental Policy 13

Policy Typologies 14

The Breadth of Environmental Policy 15

Environmental Problems and Public Policy 16

Defining the Problems: The Nature of Environmental Risks 16

Coping with Environmental Risks 19

Public Policy Responses 21

Conclusions 22

Discussion Questions 23

Suggested Readings 23

Endnotes 24

Chapter 2 Judging the State of the Environment 26

Air Quality 27

Gains in Air Quality and Remaining Problems 28

Indoor Air Quality 30

Acid Precipitation 31

CFCs and the Stratospheric Ozone Layer 31

Water Quality 32

Pollution of Surface Waters 33

Drinking Water Quality 35

Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes 36

Toxic Chemicals and Health Effects 36

Hazardous Wastes 39

Contaminated Federal Facilities 40

Radioactive Wastes 41

Solid Waste and Consumer Waste 41

Energy Use and Climate Change 42

The Nature of Energy Problems 42

Fossil Fuels and the Threat of Climate Change 44

Biological Diversity and Habitat Loss 45

Biodiversity Loss and Implications 46

Policy Actions and Effects 48

Population Growth 49

Population and Sustainable Development 49

Growth Rates and Projected Population Increases 51

Conclusions 53

Discussion Questions 53

Suggested Readings 54

Endnotes 54

Chapter 3 Making Environmental Policy 59

Understanding Environmental Politics 61

The Policy Process Model 62

Agenda Setting 64

Policy Formulation 67

Policy Legitimation 69

Policy Implementation 71

Policy and Program Evaluation 71

Policy Change 72

Patterns in Environmental Policymaking 74

Characteristics of U.S. Government and Politics 76

Constitutional and Political Features 76

Institutional Fragmentation and Policy Stalemate 77

The Benefits of Dispersed Power 81

Conclusions 85

Discussion Questions 85

Suggested Readings 86

Endnotes 86

Chapter 4 The Evolution of Environmental Policy and Politics 88

Natural Resources and Environmental Policies in Historical Perspective 89

The Settlement and "Conquest" of Nature 90

The Conservation Movement and Advances in Public Health 91

From the New Deal to the Environmental Movement 92

The Modern Environmental Movement and Policy Achievements 94

Environmental Interest Groups 97

Public Opinion and the Environment 103

Environmental Issues in Election Campaigns 107

Political Reaction to Environmentalism 108

Environmental Policy in the Reagan and Bush Administrations 108

Clinton and Gore Reform Environmental Policy and Battle Congress 109

George W. Bush and the Environment 110

Conclusions 111

Discussion Questions 112

Suggested Readings 112

Endnotes 113

Chapter 5 Environmental Protection Policy: Controlling Pollution 115

The Contours of Environmental Protection Policy 117

The Clean Air Act 117

The Clean Water Act 122

The Safe Drinking Water Act 125

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 127

The Toxic Substances Control Act 129

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act 130

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 132

The Institutional Context of Policy Implementation 135

The EPA'S Organization, Budget, and Staff 136

Working with the States 139

Political Support and Opposition 141

Setting Environmental Standards 142

Environmental Goals and Objectives 142

Environmental Quality Criteria 143

Setting Quality Standards 145

Emissions Standards 147

Balancing Statutory Goals and Costs 148

Adopting and Enforcing Regulations 149

Administrative Rule Making 149

Enforcement and Compliance 151

White House Oversight 153

Conclusions 156

Discussion Questions 157

Suggested Readings 157

Endnotes 158

Chapter 6 Energy and Natural Resource Policies 163

Energy Policy: Goals and Means 165

Indirect Policy Impacts 166

Shifting Energy Priorities 167

The Energy Policy Cycle: 1973-1989 168

Carter's National Energy Plan and Conservation Gains 168

Reagan's Nonpolicy on Energy 169

Energy Policy for the Twenty-First Century 170

The Bush Administration's National Energy Strategy 171

The Clinton Administration Tries Its Hand 172

Energy Policy Under George W. Bush Barack Obama 174

State and Local Energy Initiatives 178

Natural Resources and Policy Change 178

Environmental Stewardship or Economic Development? 180

The Environmentalist Challenge to Resource Development 181

Natural Resource Policies and Agencies 183

Managing the Nation's Forests 184

Battles over Wilderness 189

Governing the Range 191

BLM Lands and the Sagebrush Rebellion 192

Other Protected Lands and Agencies 193

Environmental Impacts and Natural Resources Decision Making 197

The Endangered Species Act 197

The National Environmental Policy Act 201

Conclusions 203

Discussion Questions 204

Suggested Readings 205

Endnotes 205

Chapter 7 Evaluating Environmental Policy 210

Critiques of Environmental Policy 211

Environmental Policy Evaluation 212

Program Outcomes 215

Examining Decision Making and Institutions 215

Signs of Progress 215

Environmental Protection Policies 216

Natural Resource Policies 217

Data Assessment and Public Dialogue 218

Costs, Benefits, and Risks 220

Comparing Risks and Setting Priorities 221

Controversies over Cost-Benefit Analysis and Risk Assessment 222

Environmentalists' Use of Economic Analysis 223

Jobs, the Economy, and the Environment

Employment, Business Costs, and Environmental Policy 226

Seeking Common Ground: Toward Environmental Sustainability 227

Environmental Justice 228

Reforming Environmental Regulation 229

The Case for Policy Alternatives 229

Assessing New Policy Approaches 234

New Directions in Energy and Natural Resources Policy 237

The Appeal of User Fees 238

Privatization of Public Land 238

Social Cost Accounting 239

Government Purchasing Power 240

Ecosystem Management 241

Conclusions 242

Discussion Questions 243

Suggested Readings 243

Endnotes 244

Chapter 8 Environmental Policy and Politics for the Twenty-First Century 247

Environmental Goals and Policy Choices: Domestic and Global 248

Three Generations of Environmental Policy and Politics 249

Toward Sustainable Development? 250

The President's Council on Sustainable Development 251

Sustainable Development at State and Local Levels 252

Business and the Environment 253

Citizens and the Environment 255

International Environmental Policy and Politics 255

Environmental Institutions and Policies 256

Institutional Capacity for Global Sustainable Development 262

Political Conflict and Global Environmental Policy 266

Climate Change 267

Protection of Biological Diversity 269

Population Growth and Economic Development 271

Conclusions 274

Discussion Questions 274

Suggested Readings 275

Endnotes 275

References 279

Index 299

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