(Each chapter concludes with a "Conclusions" and "Suggested Readings.")
List of Tables, Figures, and Boxes.
1. Environmental Problems and Politics.
Environmental Policy and Politics.
Perspectives on Environmental Problems.
Scientific Knowledge and Its Use.
Economics and Incentives.
Environmental Values and Ethics.
The Role of Government and Politics.
Democracy, Politics, and Environmental Policy.
Defining Environmental Policy.
The Breadth of Environmental Policy.
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Policy.
Environmental Problems and Public Policy.
Defining the Problems: The Nature of Environmental Risks.
Coping with Environmental Risks.
Public Policy Responses.
2. Judging the State of the Environment.
Gains in Air Quality and Remaining Problems.
The Case of Southern California.
Indoor Air Quality.
CFCs and the Stratospheric Ozone Layer.
Pollution of Surface Waters.
Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes.
Toxic Chemicals and Health Effects.
Handling Hazardous Wastes.
Contaminated Federal Facilities.
Solid Waste and Consumer Waste.
Energy Use and Climate Change.
The Scope of Energy Problems.
Fossil Fuels and the Threat of Climate Change.
Biological Diversity and Habitat Loss.
Biodiversity Loss and Implications.
Policy Actions and Effects.
Human Population Growth.
Population andSustainable Development.
Growth Rates and Projected Population Increase.
3. The Policy-Making Process and the Environment.
The Policy-Making Process and the Environment.
The Policy Cycle Model.
Patterns in Environmental Policy Making.
Agenda Setting and Environmental Policy Change.
Problems, Policies, and Politics.
Policy Entrepreneurs and Policy Change.
Characteristics of U.S. Government and Politics.
Constitutional and Political Features.
Institutional Fragmentation and Policy Gridlock.
The Benefits of Dispersed Power.
4. U.S. Politics and the Evolution of Environmental Policy.
Natural Resource and Environmental Policies in Historical Perspective.
Settlement and “Conquest” of Nature.
The Conservation Movement and Advances in Public Health.
From the New Deal to the Environmental Movement.
The Modern Environmental Movement and Policy Achievements.
The Role of Environmental Interest Groups.
Public Opinion and the Environment.
Environmental Issues in Election Campaigns.
Political Reaction in the 1980s and 1990s.
5. Environmental Protection Policy: Controlling Pollution.
The Contours of Environmental Protection Policy.
The Clean Air Act.
The Clean Water Act.
The Safe Drinking Water Act.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
The Toxic Substances Control Act.
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.
The Institutional Context of Policy Implementation.
The EPA's Organization, Budget, and Staff.
Working with the States.
Political Support and Opposition.
Setting Environmental Standards.
Environmental Goals and Objectives.
Environmental Quality Criteria.
Setting Quality Standards.
Budgeting Statutory Goals and Costs.
Adopting and Enforcing Regulations.
Administrative Rule Making.
Compliance and Enforcement.
White House Oversight.
6. Energy and Natural Resource Policies.
The Vagaries of Energy Policy: Goals and Means.
Indirect Policy Impacts.
Shifting Energy Priorities.
The Energy Policy Cycle: 1973 to 1989.
Carter's National Energy Plan and Conservation Gains.
Reagan's Nonpolicy on Energy.
Energy Policy for the Twenty-First Century.
The Bush Administration's National Energy Strategy.
The Clinton Administration Tries Its Hand.
State and Local Energy Initiatives.
Natural Resources and Policy Change.
Environmental Stewardship or Economic Development?
The Environmentalist Challenge to Resource Development.
Natural Resource Policies and Agencies.
Managing the Nation's Forests.
Battles Over Wilderness.
Governing the Range.
BLM Lands and the Sagebrush Rebellion.
Other Protected Lands and Agencies.
Environmental Impacts and Natural Resources Decision Making.
The Endangered Species Act.
The National Environmental Policy Act.
The Changing Natural Resources Policy Agenda.
7. Evaluating Environmental Policy.
Approaches to Environmental Policy Evaluation.
Process and Institutional Evaluation.
Signs of Progress.
Environmental Protection Policies.
Natural Resource Policies.
The Need for Data Assessment and Public Dialogue.
Costs, Benefits, and Risks.
Comparing Risks and Setting Priorities.
Controversies over Cost-Benefit Analysis and Risk Assessment.
Environmentalists' Use of Economic Analysis.
Jobs, the Economy, and the Environment.
Employment, Business Costs, and Environmental Policy.
Seeking Common Ground: Toward Environmental Sustainability.
Reforming Environmental Regulation.
The Case for Policy Alternatives.
Assessing New Policy Approaches.
New Directions in Energy and Natural Resources Policy.
The Appeal of User Fees.
Social Cost Accounting.
Government Purchasing Power.
8. Environmental Policy and Politics for the Twenty-First Century.
Environmental Goals and Policy Choices.
An Evolving Policy Agenda.
Improving Environmental Policies and Institutions.
A New Culture at the EPA and Other Federal Agencies?
Toward Sustainable Development.
The President's Council on Sustainable Development.
New Policy Horizons.
Suburban Sprawl and Smart Growth.
Ecosystem Health and Biodiversity.
International Environmental Policy.
Environmental Science and Policy Research.
Business and the Environment.
The Greening of Industry?
Democracy and the Environment.
Grassroots Environmentalism and Public Education.
Environmental Information and the Internet.
Annotated Environmental Web Sites.