Environmental Science: Physical Principles and Applications / Edition 1

Environmental Science: Physical Principles and Applications / Edition 1

by Egbert Boeker, Rienk van Grondelle
     
 

ISBN-10: 0471495778

ISBN-13: 9780471495772

Pub. Date: 12/05/2001

Publisher: Wiley

Aimed at a first course in environmental physics, environmental science, environmental analysis, or environmental monitoring. This text can be used by first year students and above, and takes a scientific approach as opposed to a social or political one. Mathematics is kept to a minimum, although some background (school) knowledge of science is assumed. Courses

Overview

Aimed at a first course in environmental physics, environmental science, environmental analysis, or environmental monitoring. This text can be used by first year students and above, and takes a scientific approach as opposed to a social or political one. Mathematics is kept to a minimum, although some background (school) knowledge of science is assumed. Courses would be taught in physics, environmental science and physical science departments.

Comprehensively covering the field, this book brings together the latest developments, theories, research and concerns, from both the scientific and social sides. Placing the environment firmly at the centre of the scientific agenda, it provides all the background needed by readers to fully understand this important and often 'hype-driven' subject. Whilst mathematics is introduced where necessary, it is carefully explained and kept simple, with derivations generally being avoided. Wherever possible, topics of current concern and relevance are included, and many examples, features and appetisers or mini-case studies are included, frequently drawn from publications such as New Scientist, Nature, Science, Physics Today and Scientific American. The book starts with a general overview of the subject, and then moves on to cover climate, energy, pollutants, noise, measurements and social aspects.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780471495772
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
12/05/2001
Pages:
380
Product dimensions:
7.52(w) x 9.74(h) x 0.88(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexi
Acknowledgementsxv
1Introduction: A Physics Approach to Environmental Problems1
1.1What are Environmental Problems - Pollution2
1.1.1Pollution2
1.1.2Standards5
1.2The Economic and Social Context7
1.2.1Environment as a resource7
1.2.2Environment for enjoyment8
1.2.3Political choices8
1.3Sunlight and the Solar Spectrum10
1.3.1The Solar spectrum10
1.3.2Black body radiation13
1.3.3Photosynthesis: capturing and storing solar energy16
1.3.4Harnessing solar power by technology17
1.4The Greenhouse Effect18
1.4.1Human induced changes20
1.4.2Natural changes20
1.5Transport of Pollutants21
1.5.1The Gauss function21
1.6The Carbon Cycle23
1.6.1The oceans24
1.6.2The land26
1.6.3The final steady state27
1.6.4Conclusion28
Exercises28
2Weather and Climate31
2.1Energy Transport32
2.1.1The energy transport to the poles34
2.2The Atmosphere, Vertical Structure and Motion36
2.2.1Vertical structure of the atmosphere36
2.2.2Vertical motion of (humid) air42
2.3Horizontal Motion of Air46
2.3.1Newton's Equations of Motion47
2.3.2Origin of pressure differences54
2.4The Oceans54
2.4.1The big oceans55
2.4.2El Nino and NAO59
Exercises61
3Climate Change63
3.1Natural Changes of Climate63
3.1.1The orientation of the earth (Milankovitch effect)65
3.1.2The changing sun68
3.1.3Catastrophes69
3.2Human induced changes70
3.2.1The global radiation balance in more detail70
3.2.2Infrared absorption by greenhouse gases76
3.2.3Time delays in climate change81
3.3Consequences of Climate Change85
3.3.1The IS92a IPCC model85
3.3.2Sea level rise87
3.3.3Agriculture88
3.3.4Extreme weather conditions88
3.3.5Health89
3.3.6Surprises90
3.3.7Conclusion90
3.4Reactions to Climate Change91
3.4.1Criticisms of the IPCC analyses91
3.4.2Improved and continued modelling92
3.4.3Countermeasures94
3.4.4Adapting to change94
Exercises95
4Conventional Energy97
4.1Physics of Heat99
4.1.1Heat transport99
4.2Heat and Power: Thermodynamics108
4.2.1Mechanical work109
4.2.2Heat111
4.2.3First law - conservation of energy112
4.2.4Entropy113
4.2.5The second law - no 'perpetual motion'115
4.2.6Heat engines115
4.2.7Refrigerator116
4.2.8Examples of heat engines118
4.2.9Internal combustion123
4.2.10Exergy and energy124
4.2.11Useful thermodynamic functions127
4.3Converting Heat into Power: Problems and 'Solutions'131
4.3.1Use of fossil fuels131
4.3.2Electricity production139
Exercises149
5Carbonfree Energies151
5.1Renewable energies151
5.1.1Solar energy152
5.1.2Wind energy161
5.1.3Hydropower166
5.1.4Bio-energy167
5.2Nuclear Power173
5.2.1Half-life173
5.2.2Binding energy174
5.2.3Fission175
5.2.4Nuclear Power Stations176
5.2.5Radiation and Health180
5.2.6Safety and Accidents182
Exercises185
6Making up the Balance187
6.1Greenhouse Gases, Pollution and Resources187
6.1.1Greenhouse gases187
6.1.2Pollution188
6.1.3Resources190
6.2Defining the task192
6.2.1Comfort192
6.2.2Building196
Exercises199
7Transport of Pollutants201
7.1Basic Concepts202
7.1.1Diffusion202
7.1.2Sorption210
7.1.3Biological aspects211
7.1.4Reynolds number211
7.2Dispersion in the Air212
7.2.1Turbulent diffusion: real plumes and Gaussian plumes213
7.2.2Deposition219
7.3Dispersion in Surface Waters219
7.3.1Calamity: a poisonous discharge into a river221
7.4Dispersion by Groundwater222
7.4.1The surface layer223
7.4.2Darcy's equations227
7.4.3Sources and sinks229
7.4.4Cleaning of groundwater229
Exercises230
8Noise233
8.1Physics of Sound234
8.1.1Sound waves234
8.1.2Sound pressure level239
8.1.3Acoustic intensity242
8.2Human hearing242
8.2.1dBA correction243
8.2.2Regulations245
8.3Reducing Sound Levels246
8.3.1Noise reduction246
Exercises251
9Environmental Spectroscopy253
9.1Basic Spectroscopy254
9.1.1The electromagnetic spectrum255
9.1.2Transition between states: absorption and emission257
9.2The Solar Spectrum at Ground Level259
9.2.1How the solar spectrum changes when travelling to the earth260
9.3Experimental Techniques in Environmental Spectroscopy262
9.3.1General overview of spectroscopic methods262
9.3.2Some examples264
9.4Solar UV, Ozone and Life270
9.4.1Solar UV and biological molecules272
9.4.2The ozone filter273
9.4.3Lidar as a technique to measure stratospheric ozone277
9.4.4Ozone in the troposphere279
Exercises280
10Geophysical Methods281
10.1Radioactive Clocks281
10.1.1Radioactivity281
10.2Isotope Ratios as Environmental Sensors286
10.2.1Fractionation287
10.2.2The [superscript 13]C effect288
10.2.3Water with heavy isotopes: [superscript 18]O and [superscript 2]H (or D)290
10.3Magnetic Surveys293
10.3.1Earth's magnetic field294
10.3.2Magnetic susceptibility296
10.4Seismic Probing298
10.4.1Seismic waves299
10.4.2Analysis of the underground by refraction300
Exercises302
11Science and Society305
11.1Finite Resources of Energy306
11.1.1Scarce resources306
11.2Pollution and Health Effects310
11.2.1Acceptable dose313
11.2.2Accidents314
11.3Environmental Policy314
11.3.1Sustainable development317
11.3.2Climate change319
11.4Thinking about the Environment and Human Life323
11.4.1The central position of man324
11.4.2The feasibility of environmental management324
11.5The Responsibility of the Scientist328
11.5.1The nature of science329
11.5.2The control of science330
11.5.3A new social contract between science and society331
Exercises and essay questions333
Appendix ANumerical and Physical Data335
Appendix BSimple Vector Algebra337
Adding or subtracting of vectors337
Multiplication of vectors338
Vector differentiation340
Appendix CMiscellaneous Sources and Websites343
Websites343
Journals344
Appendix DExperiments in a Students' Lab345
Determine the hydraulic conductivity345
Determine the thermal conductivity of sand345
Heat transfer by radiation and convection345
Laser Doppler Anemometry346
Radon in the Environment346
Laser Remote Sensing346
References347
Index000

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