Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications / Edition 3

Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications / Edition 3

by Wolfgang Aehle

ISBN-10: 3527316892

ISBN-13: 9783527316892

Pub. Date: 11/16/2007

Publisher: Wiley

Leading experts from all over the world present an overview of the use of enzymes in industry for:

- the production of bulk products, such as glucose, or fructose
- food processing and food analysis
- laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents
- the textile, pulp and paper and animal feed industries
- clinical diagnosis and therapy


Leading experts from all over the world present an overview of the use of enzymes in industry for:

- the production of bulk products, such as glucose, or fructose
- food processing and food analysis
- laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents
- the textile, pulp and paper and animal feed industries
- clinical diagnosis and therapy
- genetic engineering.

The book also covers identification methods of new enzymes and the optimization of known ones, as well as the regulatory aspects for their use in industrial applications.

Up to date and wide in scope, this is a chance for non-specialists to acquaint themselves with this rapidly growing field.

'...The quality...is so great that there is no hesitation in recommending it as ideal reading for any student requiring an introduction to enzymes. ...Enzymes in Industry - should command a place in any library, industrial or academic, where it will be frequently used.'
The Genetic Engineer and Biotechnologist

'Enzymes in Industry' is an excellent introduction into the field of applied enzymology for the reader who is not familiar with the subject. ... offers a broad overview of the use of enzymes in industrial applications. It is up-to-date and remarkable easy to read, despite the fact that almost 50 different authors contributed. The scientist involved in enzyme work should have this book in his or her library. But it will also be of great value to the marketing expert interested in the present use of enzymes and their future in food and nonfood applications.'
Angewandte Chemie

'This book should be available to all of those working with, or aspiring to work with, enzymes. In particular academics should use this volume as a source book to ensure that their 'new' projects will not 'reinvent the wheel'.'
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology

Product Details

Publication date:
Edition description:
Product dimensions:
6.95(w) x 9.59(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition.

List of Contributors.


1 Introduction.

1 History.

1.2 Enzyme Nomenclature.

1.2.1 General Principles of Nomenclature.

1.2.2 Classification and Numbering of Enzymes.

1.3 Structure of Enzymes.

1.3.1 Primary Structure.

1.3.2 Three-Dimensional Structure.

1.3.3 Quaternary Structure, Folding, and Domains.

1.3.4 The Ribozyme.

1.4 Enzymes and Molecular Biology.

1.4.1 Biosynthesis of Enzymes.

1.4.2 Enzymes and DNA.

2 Catalytic Activity of Enzymes.

2.1 Factors Governing Catalytic Activity.

2.1.1 Temperature.

2.1.2 Value of pH.

2.1.3 Activation.

2.1.4 Inhibition.

2.1.5 Allostery.

2.1.6 Biogenic Regulation of Activity.

2.2 Enzyme Assays.

2.2.1 Reaction Rate as a Measure of Catalytic Activity.

2.2.2 Definition of Units.

2.2.3 Absorption Photometry.

2.2.4 Fluorometry.

2.2.5 Luminometry.

2.2.6 Radiometry.

2.2.7 Potentiometry.

2.2.8 Conductometry.

2.2.9 Calorimetry.

2.2.10 Polarimetry.

2.2.11 Manometry.

2.2.12 Viscosimetry.

2.2.13 Turbidimetry.

2.2.14 Immobilized Enzymes.

2.2.15 Electrophoresis.

2.3 Quality Evaluation of Enzyme Preparations.

2.3.1 Quality Criteria.

2.3.2 Specific Activity.

2.3.3 Protein Determination.

2.3.4 Contaminating Activities.

2.3.5 Electrophoretic Purity.

2.3.6 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

2.3.7 Performance Test.

2.3.8 Amino Acid Analysis and Protein Sequence Analysis.

2.3.9 Stability.

2.3.10 Formulation of Enzyme Preparations.

3 General Production Methods.

3.1 Microbial Production.

3.1.1 Organism and Enzyme Synthesis.

3.1.2 Strain Improvement.

3.1.3 Physiological Optimization.

3.1.4 The Fermentor and its Limitations.

3.1.5 Process Design.

3.1.6 Modeling and Optimization.

3.1.7 Instrumentation and Control.

3.2 Isolation and Purification.

3.2.1 Preparation of Biological Starting Materials.

3.2.2. Separation of Solid Matter.

3.2.3 Concentration.

3.2.4 Purification.

3.2.5 Product Formulation.

3.2.6 Waste Disposal.

3.3 Immobilization.

3.3.1 Definitions.

3.3.2 History.

3.3.3 Methods.

3.3.4 Characterization.

3.3.5 Application.

4 Discovery and Development of Enzymes.

4.1 Enzyme Screening.

4.1.1 Overview.

4.1.2 Natural Isolate Screening.

4.1.3 Molecular Screening.

4.1.4 Environmental Gene Screening.

4.1.5 Genomic Screening.

4.1.6 Proteomic Screening.

4.2 Protein Engineering.

4.2.1 Introduction.

4.2.2 Application of Protein Engineering in Academia and Industry.

4.2.3 Outlook.

5 Industrial Enzymes.

5.1 Enzymes in Food Applications.

5.1.1 Enzymes in Baking.

5.1.2 Enzymes in Fruit Juice Production and Fruit Processing.

5.1.3 Enzymes in Brewing.

5.1.4 Enzymes in Dairy Applications.

5.1.5 Other Food Applications.

5.2 Enzymes in Nonfood Applications.

5.2.1 Enzymes in Household Detergents.

5.2.2 Enzymes in Automatic Dishwashing.

5.2.3 Enzymes in Grain Wet-Milling.

5.2.4 Enzymes in Animal Feeds.

5.2.5 Enzymes in Textile Production.

5.2.6 Enzymes in Pulp and Paper Processing.

5.3 Development of New Industrial Enzyme Applications.

5.3.1 Introduction.

5.3.2 Enzymes in Cosmetics.

5.3.3 Enzymes for Preservation.

5.3.4 Enzymes in Hard-Surface Cleaning.

5.3.5 Enzymes Generating a pH Shift.

5.3.6 Enzymes in Cork Treatment.

5.3.7 Enzymes in Oil-Field Applications.

5.3.8 Enzymes in Wastewater Treatment.

5.3.9 Enzymes for Polymerisation: Wood Fiberboard Production.

5.3.10 Enzymes in Composting.

5.3.11 Application of Bacteriorhodopsin in Security Printing and Data Storage.

5.4 Overview of Industrial Enzyme Applications.

6 Nonindustrial Enzyme Usage.

6.1 Enzymes in Organic Synthesis.

6.1.1 Introduction.

6.1.2 Examples of Enzymatic Conversions.

6.1.3 Enzyme-Analogous Catalysts.

6.1.4 Commercial Applications.

6.1.5 Outlook.

6.2 Therapeutic Enzymes.

6.2.1 Requirements for the Use of Enzymes in Therapy.

6.2.2 Coping with Peculiar Protein Properties.

6.2.3 Sources of Enzymes and Production Systems.

6.2.4 Overview of Therapeutic Enzymes.

6.3 Analytical Applications of Enzymes.

6.3.1 Determination of Substrate Concentration.

6.3.2 Determination of Enzyme Activity.

6.3.3 Immunoassays.

6.3.4 Enzyme Dipsticks and Enzyme Sensors.

6.4 Enzymes for Food Analysis.

6.4.1 Carbohydrates.

6.4.2 Organic Acids.

6.4.3 Alcohols.

6.4.4 Other Food Ingredients.

6.5 Enzymes in Genetic Engineering.

6.5.1 Restriction Endonucleases and Methylases.

6.5.2 DNA Polymerases.

6.5.3 RNA Polymerases.

6.5.4 DNA Nucleases. DNase I.

6.5.5 RNA Nucleases.

6.5.6 Modifying Enzymes.

7 Enzyme Safety and Regulatory Considerations.

7.1 Safe Handling of Enzymes.

7.1.1 Possible Health Effects.

7.1.2 Control Technology.

7.2 Product Regulatory Considerations.

7.2.1 Food-Use Enzymes.

7.2.2 Feed-Use Enzymes.

7.2.3 Industrial-Use Enzymes.



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