Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols / Edition 1

Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols / Edition 1

by Evgeny N. Vulfson
     
 

ISBN-10: 1617372560

ISBN-13: 9781617372568

Pub. Date: 11/19/2010

Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC

Enzymatic catalysis has gained considerable attention in recent years as an efficient tool in the preparation of natural products, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and food ingredients. The high selectivity and mild reaction con- tions associated with enzymatic transformations have made this approach an attractive alternative in the synthesis of complex bioactive…  See more details below

Overview

Enzymatic catalysis has gained considerable attention in recent years as an efficient tool in the preparation of natural products, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and food ingredients. The high selectivity and mild reaction con- tions associated with enzymatic transformations have made this approach an attractive alternative in the synthesis of complex bioactive compounds, which are often difficult to obtain by standard chemical routes. However, the maj- ity of organic compounds are not very soluble in water, which was traditi- ally perceived as the only suitable reaction medium for the application of biocatalysts. The realization that most enzymes can function perfectly well under nearly anhydrous conditions and, in addition, display a number of useful properties, e. g. , highly enhanced stability and different selectivity, has d- matically widened the scope of their application to the organic synthesis. Another great attraction of using organic solvents rather than water as a reaction solvent is the ability to perform synthetic transformations with re- tively inexpensive hydrolytic enzymes. It is worth reminding the reader that in vivo, the synthetic and hydrolytic pathways are catalyzed by different enzymes. However, elimination of water from the reaction mixture enables the “reversal” of hydrolytic enzymes and thus avoids the use of the expensive cofactors or activated substrates that are required for their synthetic count- parts.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781617372568
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Publication date:
11/19/2010
Series:
Methods in Biotechnology Series, #15
Edition description:
Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2001
Pages:
679
Product dimensions:
5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.35(d)

Table of Contents

Part I

Control of Enzyme Activity in Nonaqueous Solvents
Peter J. Halling

Salt-Induced Activation of Enzymes in Organic Solvents: Optimizing the Lyophilization Time and Water Content
Michael T. Ru, Jonathan S. Dordick, Jeffrey A. Reimer, and Douglas S. Clark

Imprinting Enzymes for Use in Organic Media
Joseph O. Rich and Jonathan S. Dordick

Entrapment of Biocatalysts by Prepolymer Methods
Atsuo Tanaka and Takamitsu Iida

Microencapsulation of Enzymes and Cells for Nonaqueous Biotransformations
Jeffrey A. Khan and Evgeny N. Vulfson

Immobilization of Lipases on Hydrogels
Abu Bakar Salleh, Norhaizan M. Esa, Mahiran Basri, Che Nyonya A. Razak, Wan Md Zin W. Yunus, and Mansor Ahmad

Polyethylene Glycol-Modified Enzymes in Hydrophobic Media
Ayako Matsushima, Yoh Kodera, Misao Hiroto, Hiroyuki Nishimura, and Yuji Inada

Chemical Modification of Lipase for Use in Ester Synthesis
Mahiran Basri, Kamaruzaman Ampon, Che Nyonya A. Razak, and Abu Bakar Salleh

Preparation and Properties in Organic Solvents of Noncovalent PEG-Enzyme Complexes
Francesco Secundo, Gianluca Ottlina, and Giacomo Carrea

Preparations of a Lipid-Coated Enzyme and Activity for Reverse Hydrolysis Reactions in Homogeneous Organic Media
Toshiaki Mori and Yoshio Okahata

Very High Activity Biocatalysts for Low-Water Systems: Propanol-Rinsed Enzyme Preparations
Barry D. Moore, Johann Partridge, and Peter J. Halling

Methods for Measurement and Control of Water in Nonaqueous Biocatalysis
George Bell, Peter J. Halling, Lindsey May, Barry D. Moore, Donald A. Robb, Rein Ulijn, and Rao H. Valivety

Water Activity Control in Organic Media by Equilibration Through Membranes
Ernst Wehtje and Patrick Adlercreutz

Water Activity Control for Lipase-Catalyzed Reactions in Nonaqueous Media
Joon Shick Rhee, Seok Joon Kwon, and Jeong Jun Han

Immobilization of Enzymes and Control of Water Activity in Low-Water Media: Properties and Applications of Celite R-640 (Celite Rods)
Lucia Gardossi

Enzyme Activity and Enantioselectivity Measurements in Organic Media
Amélie Ducret, Michael Trani, and Robert Lortie

Calorimetric Methods in Evaluating Hydration and Solvation of Solid Proteins Immersed in Organic Solvents
Mikhail Borisover, Vladimir Sirotkin, Dmitriy Zakharychev, and Boris Solomonov

Detection of Structural Changes of Enzymes in Nonaqueous Media by Fluorescence and CD Spectroscopy
Hideo Kise

The Effects of Crown Ethers on the Activity of Enzymes in Organic Solvents
Dirk-Jan van Unen, Johan F. J. Engbersen, and David N. Reinhoudt

Control of Acid-Base Conditions in Low-Water Media
Johann Partridge, Neil Harper, Barry D. Moore, and Peter J. Halling

Enzymatic Acylation of _-Butylglucoside in Nonaqueous Media
Marie-Pierre Bousquet, René-Marc Willemot, Pierre Monsan, and Emmanuel Boures

Part II

Synthetic Applications
Herbert L. Holland

Choosing Hydrolases for Enantioselective Reactions Involving Alcohols Using Empirical Rules
Alexandra N. E. Weissfloch and Romas J. Kazlauskas

Candida antarctica Lipase B: A Tool for the Preparation of Optically Pure Alcohols
Didier Rotticci, Jenny Ottosson, Torbjörn Norin, and Karl Hult

Enantioselective Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterifications in Organic Solvents
Fritz Theil

Pseudomonas cepacia Lipase-Catalyzed Enantioselective Acylation of 2-Substituted-1-alkanols in Organic Solvents
Patrizia Ferraboschi and Enzo Santaniello

Preparation of 2-, 3-, and 4-Methylcarboxylic Acids and the Corresponding Alcohols of High Enantiopurity by Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification
Per Berglund and Erik Hedenström

Optimization of Enzymatic

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