Epidemiology and Management of Root Diseases

Overview

Root disease epidemics, because much of the activity takes place in soil and out of sight, pose special challenges to growers who seek to manage them and to scientists who study them. All relevant topics of root disease epidemics and their management are presented: The critical aspects of specific disease components including inoculum, host roots, mycorrhiza and the soil environment are explored. Challenges of disease assessment and the temporal and spatial aspects of epidemic development are considered, and ...
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Overview

Root disease epidemics, because much of the activity takes place in soil and out of sight, pose special challenges to growers who seek to manage them and to scientists who study them. All relevant topics of root disease epidemics and their management are presented: The critical aspects of specific disease components including inoculum, host roots, mycorrhiza and the soil environment are explored. Challenges of disease assessment and the temporal and spatial aspects of epidemic development are considered, and approaches to root disease management including host resistance, chemical, biological and cultural management are discussed in detail. The book fulfills the needs of researchers, teachers, and practitioners of plant pathology.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642850653
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 344
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.76 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Inoculum.- 1.1 Role of Inoculum in Root Disease Epidemics.- 1.1.1 Concepts of Inoculum.- 1.1.2 Soil Fungistasis.- 1.1.3 Inoculum Potential.- 1.1.4 Inoculum Efficiency.- 1.1.5 Inoculum Density.- 1.1.6 Spheres of Influence on Inoculum.- 1.2 Forms of Inoculum.- 1.2.1 Primary Inoculum.- 1.2.2 Secondary Inoculum.- 1.3 Survival of Inoculum.- 1.3.1 Idealized Survival Curve.- 1.3.2 Transformation of Survival Curves.- 1.4 Quantifying Inoculum in Soil.- 1.4.1 Direct Counts.- 1.4.2 Bioassays.- 1.4.3 Soil Assays.- 1.4.4 Chemical Assays.- 1.4.5 Serological Assays.- 1.5 Inoculum Density-Disease Relationships.- 1.5.1 Inoculum Density-Infection Court Relations.- 1.5.2 Transformation of Inoculum Density-Disease Curves.- 1.5.3 Usefulness of Transformed Inoculum Density-Disease Curves.- 1.5.4 Probability Models for Inoculum Density-Disease Relations.- 1.6 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 2 Host Roots.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Root Growth and Energy Availability.- 2.2.1 Specific Tissue Contributions.- 2.2.2 Characterization of Relevant Root Tissues.- 2.3 Root System Plasticity.- 2.3.1 Conceptual Frameworks for Root System Structure.- 2.4 Evaluation of Root Systems.- 2.5 Host Susceptibility.- 2.5.1 Host Influences on Susceptibility Alterations.- 2.5.2 Environmental and Cultural Factors in Susceptibility Alterations.- 2.6 Measuring Susceptibility Alterations.- 2.7 The Future.- References.- 3 Mycorrhizae.- 3.1 Distribution and Ecological Impact of the Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.- 3.2 Productivity of Cultivated Mycorrhizal Plants.- 3.3 Mycorrhizae — Root Disease Relationships.- 3.3.1 Mechanisms Decreasing the Impact of Soilborne Pathogens in Mycorrhizal Root Systems.- 3.3.1.1 Direct Interactions of Mycorrhizae and Soilborne Pathogens.- 3.3.1.2 Indirect Interaction of Mycorrhizae and Soilborne Pathogens.- 3.3.2 Role of Mycorrhizal Fungi as Biocontrol Organisms — Significance of the Known Biological Effects in Practical Plant Production.- 3.3.3 Mycorrhizae in Integrated Plant Production.- 3.4 Future Research.- References.- 4 The Soil Environment.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Components of the Physical Soil Environment.- 4.2.1 The Soil Matrix.- 4.2.2 The Soil Solution.- 4.2.3 The Soil Atmosphere.- 4.2.4 Soil Temperature.- 4.3 Influence of Edaphic Factors on Roots and Pathogens.- 4.3.1 Root Growth and Spatial Arrangement.- 4.3.1.1 Soil Matrix Effects.- 4.3.1.2 Soil Solution and Atmosphere Effects.- 4.3.1.3 Epidemiological Significance of Altered Root Growth.- 4.3.2 Pathogen Activity.- 4.3.2.1 Soil Matrix Effects.- 4.3.2.2 Soil Solution and Atmosphere Effects.- 4.3.2.3 Soil Temperature Effects.- 4.3.3 Host Disposition.- 4.3.3.1 Soil Solution and Atmosphere.- 4.3.3.2 Soil Temperature Effects.- 4.3.3.3 Mechanism of Predisposition.- 4.4 Conclusions.- References.- 5 Estimating Disease Severity and Incidence.- 5.1 Role of Disease Assessment in Root Disease Epidemiology.- 5.1.1 The Need for Disease Assessment.- 5.1.2 Goals of Disease Assessment.- 5.2 Signs and Symptoms.- 5.3 Root and Shoot Symptoms.- 5.3.1 Physiological Relationships.- 5.3.2 Environmental Effects.- 5.3.3 Temporal Aspects.- 5.4 Disease Assessment.- 5.4.1 Illusions and Hazards of Disease Assessment.- 5.4.2 Methodology.- 5.4.2.1 Visual Estimates.- 5.4.2.2 Electronic Techniques.- 5.5 Sampling Considerations.- 5.5.1 Sampling Pattern.- 5.5.2 Sample Numbers and Costs.- 5.6 Recommendations.- References.- 6 Temporal Aspects of the Development of Root Disease Epidemics.- 6.1 The Shapes of Disease Progress Curves.- 6.2 The Dynamics of Infection and Disease.- 6.2.1 Primary Infection.- 6.2.1.1 Infection of Plants from a Large Reservoir of Inoculum in Soil.- 6.2.1.2 Root Growth and Decay of Inoculum.- 6.2.2 Secondary Infection.- 6.2.2.1 Root-to-Root Spread.- 6.2.3 Linking Primary and Secondary Infection with Allowance for Root and Inoculum Dynamics.- 6.2.3.1 Growth Equations.- 6.2.3.2 Computer Simulation: An Alternative Approach.- 6.2.4 The Death of Roots, Latent and Infectious Periods.- 6.2.5 Antagonistic Interactions.- 6.2.5.1 Curves That Rise and Fall.- 6.2.5.2 Mechanistic Analyses of Antagonism.- 6.3 Epidemiological Comparison of Treatments for the Control of Disease.- 6.3.1 Comparison of Disease Progress Curves.- 6.3.1.1 Statistical Strategy.- 6.3.1.2 The Contribution of Individual Observations.- 6.3.2 Estimating Trends When There Are Few Data Points.- 6.3.2.1 Analysing Trends Within and Between Seasons.- 6.3.2.2 Allowance for Variable Sampling Intervals, Sampling Frequency and Period of Observation.- 6.3.2.3 Analysis of Trends to Interpret Suppression of Disease.- 6.3.3 Selecting the Disease Variable.- References.- 7 Spatial Aspects of the Development of Root Disease Epidemics.- 7.1 Importance of the Spatial Dimension for Analyzing Root Disease Epidemics.- 7.2 Aspects of Spatial Processes.- 7.2.1 Biological, Chemical, and Physical Attributes.- 7.2.1.1 Inoculum Sources, Dispersal, and Infection.- 7.2.1.2 Process and Pattern.- 7.2.2 Temporal Stability of Pattern as an Epidemic Attribute.- 7.2.3 Spatial Scale and Dimension.- 7.3 Dispersal of Pathogen Propagules.- 7.3.1 Dispersal of Foliar vs. Soilborne Pathogens.- 7.3.1.1 Wind Dispersal of Soilborne Pathogens-Crop Debris.- 7.3.1.2 Wind Dispersal of Soilborne Pathogens-Perfect States.- 7.3.1.3 Wind Dispersal of Soilborne Pathogens — Aerosols.- 7.3.2 Dispersal in Water.- 7.3.3 Dispersal in Soil.- 7.4 Spatial Pattern of Propagules and Diseases.- 7.4.1 Spatial Pattern of Soilborne vs. Foliar Pathogens and Associated Diseases.- 7.4.2 Data, Sampling Units, and Approaches.- 7.4.3 Descriptive and Analytical Methods.- 7.4.3.1 Fitting Probability Distributions.- 7.4.3.2 Indices of Aggregation.- 7.4.3.3 Blocked Quadrat Variance.- 7.4.3.4 Spatial Auorrelation Analysis.- 7.4.3.5 Transect Analysis.- 7.4.3.6 Two-Dimensional Lattice or Distance Class Analysis.- 7.5 Applications of Spatial Analysis in Root Disease Epidemiology and Management.- 7.5.1 Determination and Interpretation of Temporal and Spatial Scales.- 7.5.2 Design and Sampling of Experiments.- 7.5.3 Establishing Crop Loss Estimates.- References.- 8 Host Resistance.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Terminology.- 8.3 Components of Partial Resistance to Root Pathogens.- 8.4 Measurement of Resistance Components.- 8.5 Disease Avoidance and Disease Escape.- 8.6 Tolerance.- 8.7 Examples of Host-Pathogen Systems.- 8.7.1 Black Shank of Tobacco.- 8.7.1.1 Components of Resistance.- 8.7.1.2 Avoidance and Tolerance.- 8.7.2 Black Root Rot of Tobacco.- 8.7.2.1 Components of Resistance.- 8.7.2.2 Avoidance and Tolerance.- 8.7.3 Cylindrocladium Black Rot of Peanut.- 8.7.3.1 Components of Resistance.- 8.7.3.2 Avoidance and Tolerance.- 8.7.4 Verticillium Wilt of Tomato.- 8.7.4.1 Components of Resistance.- 8.7.4.2 Avoidance and Tolerance. 266.- 8.8 Summary.- References.- 9 Chemical Management.- 9.1 Strategies for Use of Chemical Pesticides.- 9.1.1 Soil Fumigation.- 9.1.2 At-Plant Applications of Fungicides.- 9.1.3 Seed Dressings.- 9.1.4 Postplant Treatments.- 9.2 Types of Chemical Pesticides.- 9.2.1 Nematicides.- 9.2.2 Soil Fungicides.- 9.2.2.1 Soil-Applied Fungicides Under Development.- 9.2.3 Seed Treatments.- 9.2.3.1 New Cereal Seed Treatments Under Development.- 9.2.4 Fungicides for Actively Growing Plants.- 9.3 Chemical Management Approaches.- 9.3.1 Protective vs. Curative Applications.- 9.3.2 In-Furrow and Band vs. Broadcast Applications.- 9.3.3 Use of Chemical Pesticides in Conjunction with Biologics.- 9.3.4 Slow-Release Formulations.- 9.3.5 Residual Effects of Fungicides on Pathogens.- 9.3.6 Risk vs. Benefit.- 9.4 Summary.- References.- 10 Biological Management.- 10.1 Ecological Opportunities for Biocontrol.- 10.1.1 Identification of Low Ecological Diversity.- 10.1.2 Creation of Ecological Simplicity.- 10.2 Strategies for Biocontrol.- 10.2.1 Protection of the Rhizosphere or Spermosphere.- 10.2.1.1 Antibiosis.- 10.2.1.2 Competition.- 10.2.1.3 Exclusion.- 10.2.1.4 Combined Mechanisms.- 10.2.2 Plant-Mediated Biocontrol.- 10.2.3 Impeding Movement of the Pathogen.- 10.2.4 Destruction of the Pathogen.- 10.3 Successful Implementation of Biocontrol.- 10.3.1 Constraints to Biocontrol.- 10.3.2 Forecast for Biocontrol.- References.- 11 Cultural Management.- 11.1 Approaches to Cultural Management.- 11.1.1 Quarantine.- 11.1.2 Soil Disinfestation.- 11.1.3 Tillage.- 11.1.4 Crop Rotations.- 11.1.5 Planting Date and Plant Spacing.- 11.2 Strategies for Use of Cultural Management.- 11.2.1 Tillage.- 11.2.2 Soil Fertility.- 11.2.3 Soil Water.- 11.2.4 Soil Temperature.- 11.2.5 Integrated Pest Management.- 11.3 Limitations.- 11.3.1 Climate.- 11.3.2 Physical Properties of Soils.- 11.3.3 Production Systems.- 11.3.4 Residue Management.- 11.3.5 Survival of Inoculum.- 11.4 Novel Approaches.- 11.4.1 Equipment.- 11.4.2 Organic Amendments.- 11.4.3 Soil Solarization.- 11.5 Conclusions.- References.
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