Epidemiology / Edition 3

Epidemiology / Edition 3

4.0 1
by Moyses Szklo, Javier Nieto
     
 

binding type PBSee more details below

Overview

binding type PB

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781449604691
Publisher:
Jones & Bartlett Learning
Publication date:
10/24/2012
Pages:
516
Sales rank:
584,753
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.90(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xii

About the Authors xiii

Part 1 Introduction 1

Chapter 1 Basic Study Designs in Analytical Epidemiology 3

1.1 Introduction: Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiology 3

1.2 Analysis of Age, Birth Cohort, and Period Effects 4

1.3 Ecologic Studies 14

1.4 Studies Based on Individuals as Observation Units 19

References 39

Exercises 42

Part 2 Measures of Disease Occurrence and Association 45

Chapter 2 Measuring Disease Occurrence 47

2.1 Introduction 47

2.2 Measures of Incidence 49

2.3 Measures of Prevalence 71

2.4 Odds 73

References 74

Exercises 75

Chapter 3 Measuring Associations Between Exposures and Outcomes 79

3.1 Introduction 79

3.2 Measuring Associations in a Cohort Study 79

3.3 Cross-Sectional Studies: Point Prevalence Rate Ratio 90

3.4 Measuring Associations in Case-Control Studies 90

3.5 Assessing the Strength of Associations 101

References 104

Exercises 105

Part 3 Threats to Validity and Issues of Interpretation 107

Chapter 4 Understanding Lack of Validity: Bias 109

4.1 Overview 109

4.2 Selection Bias 111

4.3 Information Bias 116

4.4 Combined Selection/Information Biases 133

References 147

Exercises 150

Chapter 5 Identifying Noncausal Associations: Confounding 153

5.1 Introduction 153

5.2 The Nature of the Association Between the Confounder, the Exposure, and the Outcome 156

5.3 Theoretical and Graphical Aids to Frame Confounding 162

5.4 Assessing the Presence of Confounding 164

5.5 Additional Issues Related to Confounding 171

5.6 Conclusion 179

References 180

Exercises 182

Chapter 6 Defining and Assessing Heterogeneity of Effects: Interaction 185

6.1 Introduction 185

6.2 Defining and Measuring Effect 186

6.3 Strategies to Evaluate Interaction 186

6.4 Assessment of Interaction in Case-Control Studies 196

6.5 More on the Interchangeability of the Definitions of Interaction 203

6.6 Which is the Relevant Model? Additive Versus Multiplicative Interaction 205

6.7 The Nature and Reciprocity of Interaction 207

6.8 Interaction, Confounding Effect, and Adjustment 211

6.9 Statistical Modeling and Statistical Tests for Interaction 212

6.10 Interpreting Interaction 214

6.11 Interaction and Search for New Risk Factors in Low-Risk Groups 219

6.12 Interaction and "Representativeness" of Associations 221

References 222

Exercises 224

Part 4 Dealing with Threats to Validity 227

Chapter 7 Stratification and Adjustment: Multivariate Analysis in Epidemiology 229

7.1 Introduction 229

7.2 Stratification and Adjustment Techniques to Disentangle Confounding 230

7.3 Adjustment Methods Based on Stratification 234

7.4 Multiple Regression Techniques for Adjustment 248

7.5 Alternative Approaches for the Control of Confounding 282

7.6 Incomplete Adjustment: Residual Confounding 293

7.7 Over-Adjustment 295

7.8 Conclusion 296

References 301

Exercises 305

Chapter 8 Quality Assurance and Control 313

8.1 Introduction 313

8.2 Quality Assurance 313

8.3 Quality Control 318

8.4 Indices of Validity and Reliability 328

8.5 Regression to the Mean 358

8.6 Final Considerations 359

References 360

Exercises 363

Part 5 Issues of Reporting and Application of Epidemiologic Results 367

Chapter 9 Communicating Results of Epidemiologic Studies 369

9.1 Introduction 369

9.2 What to Report 369

9.3 How to Report 373

9.4 Conclusion 385

References 386

Exercises 388

Chapter 10 Epidemiologic Issues in the Interface with Public Health Policy 391

10.1 Introduction 391

10.2 Causality: Application to Public Health and Health Policy 392

10.3 Decision Tree and Sensitivity Analysis 408

10.4 Meta-Analysis 413

10.5 Publication Bias 416

10.6 Summary 420

References 421

Exercises 426

Appendix A Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Hypothesis Testing for Selected Measures of Risk and Measures of Association 431

Appendix B Test for Trend (Dose Response) 455

Appendix C Test of Homogeneity of Stratified Estimates (Test for Interaction) 459

Appendix D Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures Manual for Blood Pressure Measurement and Blood/Urine Collection in the ARIC Study 461

Appendix E Calculation of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient 469

Appendix F Answers to Exercises 473

Index 501

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