Equal Play: Title IX and Social Change

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One of the least-understood issues in federal sports policy, Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 reflects the nation's aspirational belief that girls and boys, women and men, deserve equal educational opportunities in athletics. Equal Play shows how this ideal has been implemented-and thwarted-by actions in every branch of the federal government.

This reader addresses issues in sports before Title IX and the backlash that has resulted from the policy being instituted. The editors have collected the best scholarly writing on the landmark events of the last four decades and couples these with new original essays, primary documents from court cases, administrative regulations, and relevant supporting sources. The result is the most comprehensive single-volume work on the subject.

Equal Play includes essays by many well-known sports journalists who discuss how government actions have shaped, supported, and hindered the goal of gender equality in school athletics. They discuss the history of women in sports, analyze the meaning of "equal opportunity" for female athletes, and examine shifts in arguments for and against Title IX. Equal Play will interest anyone who is concerned with gender issues in American athletics and the growth of college sports.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“[A] good primer on [Title IX’s] history and struggles…the authors clearly spell out the periodic backlashes to Title IX as well as its victories.”

—Michele Kort, Ms.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781592133802
  • Publisher: Temple University Press
  • Publication date: 12/28/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 376
  • Sales rank: 634,095
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Nancy Hogshead-Makar is a Professor at the Florida Coastal School of Law.  She is a former President of the Women's Sports Foundation (1992-94) and currently serves as its legal advisor.  She has testified in Congress numerous times on the topic of gender equity in athletics, written numerous scholarly and lay articles, serves as an expert witness in Title IX cases, and has written amicus briefs representing athletic organizations in the U.S. Supreme Court.  Professor Hogshead-Makar is an Olympic Champion from the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, wining three gold medals and one silver medal in swimming. 

Andrew Zimbalist is Robert A. Woods Professor of Economics at Smith College. He is the author or editor of eighteen previous books, including The Bottom Line: Observations and Arguments on the Sports Business (Temple) and In the Best Interest of Baseball? The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig. He  is a member of the Editorial Board of The Journal of Sports Economics, and has consulted extensively in the sports industry for players associations, leagues, cities, and owners.

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Table of Contents

Equal Play:
Title IX and Social Change

Edited by:
Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist


Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist

Part I

Introduction: Women's Sports Before Title IX
Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist

Coming on Strong, Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth Century Sports
Susan Cahn

Heroines As Well As Heroes
Welch Suggs

Didrikson was a Woman Ahead of Her Time
Larry Schwartz

Sport is Unfair to Women
Bil Gilbert and Nancy Williamson

Part II

Introduction: Staking a Claim: The First Decade
Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist

Speech of Senator Birch Bayh
New York Women's Political Caucus New York, November 23, 1975

Amendment to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

Statement of Hon. Birch Bayh, a U.S. Senator from the State of Indiana on the Tower Amendment

Javits Amendment
passed May 20, 1974
Provision Relating to Sex Discrimination

1975 Title IX Regulations

A Policy Interpretation: Title IX and Intercollegiate Athletics

United States District Court, D. Kansas.
NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION, Plaintiff, v. Joseph CALIFANO, Secretary of the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Defendant, et al.; Decided Jan. 9, 1978

Supreme Court of the United States
Geraldine G. CANNON, Petitioner, v. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO et al.; Decided May 14, 1979

Part III

Introduction: The Initial Backlash: the 1980s
Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist

Supreme Court of the United States
GROVE CITY COLLEGE, Individually and on Behalf of its Students, et al., Petitioners v. Terrel H. BELL, Secretary of Education, et al.; Decided Feb. 28, 1984.

Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987

Reducing the Commercialization of Intercollegiate Athletics
Gary R. Roberts

Part IV

Introduction: Accelerated Pace: the 1990s
Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist

Testing Title IX: Amy Cohen and Brown University
Andrew Zimbalist

United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit.
Amy COHEN, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellees, v. BROWN UNIVERSITY, et al., Defendants-Appellants; Decided Nov. 21, 1996.

1996 Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Guidance: The Three-Part Test

Bowling Green Letter

Linda Carpenter and Vivian Acosta, “Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study, 1977-2006”

Stronger Women
Mariah Burton Nelson

Part V

Introduction: The Second Backlash: 2000-2006
Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist

United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit.
NATIONAL WRESTLING COACHES ASSOCIATION, et al., Appellants, v. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, Appellee.; Decided May 14, 2004.

Tilting THE Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX
Jessica Gavora

A Critique of Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX
Nancy Hogshead-Makar

“What To Do About Title IX”
Testimony Before Secretary Paige's Commission on Title IX
Andrew Zimbalist

Open to All: Title IX at Thirty

Minority Views on the Report of the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics
Donna de Varona and Julie Foudy

Limitations of the Department of Education's Online Survey Method for Measuring Athletic Interest and Ability on U.S.A. Campuses
Don Sabo and Christine Grant

Bush Administration Uses Stealth Tactics to Subvert Title IX
Andrew Zimbalist

Football Is a Sucker's Game
Michael Sokolove

Title IX by the Numbers
Andrew Zimbalist

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