Equal Protection

Overview

Today's lingering inequalities, particularly the "American dilemma" of racism, runs throughout U.S. history. Equal Protection provides readers with a historical overview of the controversies over the issue of equality, an understanding of how government-and, particularly, the courts and Congress-has reacted to these controversies, and the role these issues have played in shaping U.S. society.

This volume follows the push for equal treatment regardless of age, gender, ...

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Overview

Today's lingering inequalities, particularly the "American dilemma" of racism, runs throughout U.S. history. Equal Protection provides readers with a historical overview of the controversies over the issue of equality, an understanding of how government-and, particularly, the courts and Congress-has reacted to these controversies, and the role these issues have played in shaping U.S. society.

This volume follows the push for equal treatment regardless of age, gender, disabilities, economic status, or sexual orientation. It focuses on legislation such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, and political initiatives and movements such as The Great Society, the ERA, and the War on Poverty. Here are American's interpretations of equal rights, then and now.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The America's Freedoms Series offers a comprehensive approach to explaining the U.S. Constitution by examining the history and evolution of the liberties protected by the supreme law of the land, as well as by presenting edited documents, especially landmark cases, that have interpreted what the Constitution says . . . is as appropriate for the reference shelf as it is for the classroom . . . Equal Protection is recommended for high school, undergraduate, and public libraries."

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American Reference Books Annual

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781576078501
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 11/17/2003
  • Series: America's Freedoms Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.06 (d)

Table of Contents

Series Foreword
Preface
1 Introduction 1
The Long Road from Slavery to Integration 1
Compromising with the Devil 2
The Court and Slavery 7
The Civil War and the Reconstruction-Era Amendments 12
The End of Reconstruction 21
The Court Reenters the Fray 27
The NAACP and Its Legal Strategy 29
The Supreme Court Reexamines "Separate but Equal" 32
School Segregation before the Court 35
The Cooper v. Aaron and Green v. County School Board Decisions 45
2 Origins and Development 51
The "Tar Babies" of Equal Protection: Busing and Affirmative Action 51
The Burger Court 55
The Busing Controversy 60
Affirmative Action 69
3 The Twentieth Century 97
Equal Protection and Non-Race-Based Legislation 97
The Demise of "the Old Court" and the Rise of "the Modern Court" 99
The New Equal Protection 101
The Court and Legislative Apportionment 105
Substantive Equal Protection 119
The Burger Court and Fundamental Rights 128
The Burger Court and Sex Discrimination 134
The Rehnquist Court and the New Equal Protection 142
4 Twenty-first Century Issues 157
5 Key People, Cases, and Events 163
6 Documents 193
The Declaration of Independence (1776) 193
Selections from the U.S. Constitution (1787) 195
The Missouri Compromise (1820) 197
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1856) 198
The Emancipation Proclamation (1863) 204
The "Freedom Amendments" (1865, 1868, 1870) 205
The Civil Rights Cases (1883) 207
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) 215
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) 220
Brown v. Board of Education II (1955) 222
Cooper v. Aaron (1958) 224
Reynolds v. Sims (1964) 227
Green v. County School Board (1968) 231
Swann v. Board of Education (1971) 233
Frontiero v. Richardson (1973) 239
Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver (1973) 243
San Antonio v. Rodriguez (1973) 249
Milliken v. Bradley (1974) 255
Craig v. Boren (1976) 258
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) 261
Rostker v. Goldberg (1981) 272
Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) 274
Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co. (1989) 278
Freeman v. Pitts (1992) 284
Shaw v. Reno (1993) 288
Adarand Constructors Inc., Petitioner v. Federico Pena, Secretary of Transportation, et al. (1995) 292
Romer v. Evans (1996) 298
United States v. Virginia (1996) 303
Gratz and Hamacher v. Bollinger (2003) 309
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) 313
Lawrence and Garner v. Texas (2003) 323
Chronology 335
Table of Cases 341
Annotated Bibliography 345
Index 361
About the Author 383
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