Escoffier: The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery

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Presented for the first time to the English-speaking public, here is the entire translation of Auguste Escoffier's masterpiece Le Guide Culinaire. Its basic principles are as valid today as when it was first published in 1903. It offers those who practice the art of cookery—whether they be professional chefs or managers, housewives, gourmets or students of haute cuisine—invaluable guidelines culled from more than fifty years' experience.

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Overview

Presented for the first time to the English-speaking public, here is the entire translation of Auguste Escoffier's masterpiece Le Guide Culinaire. Its basic principles are as valid today as when it was first published in 1903. It offers those who practice the art of cookery—whether they be professional chefs or managers, housewives, gourmets or students of haute cuisine—invaluable guidelines culled from more than fifty years' experience.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471290162
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 6/28/1983
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 646
  • Product dimensions: 7.80 (w) x 10.02 (h) x 1.73 (d)

Meet the Author

H. L. CRACKNELL and R. J. KAUFMANN spent their early years working in the kitchens of several large hotels in London and Europe. The translators met when they were both working at London’s Savoy Hotel in the late 1940s: a kitchen where the shadow of its first chef, Escoffier, still cast its influence. They subsequently became lecturers in cookery in a number of technical colleges where they endeavoured to maintain the importance of those fundamentals which Escoffier saw as necessary to the profitability and success of any catering enterprise. The translators have been on the staff of leading centres of catering education in the United Kingdom. H. L. Cracknell is a member of the Association Culinaire Française, founded by A. Escoffier and E. Fétu in 1903. and they are also holders of the Maîtrise Escoffier and Cordon Culinaire, both awarded by the Conseil Culinaire Français. The translators have acted as consultant editors to The Illustrated Escoffier, also published by Heinemann, as a selection of several hundred of the more popular recipes from this book, many of which are illustrated with superb colour photographs and contain more detailed information for their preparation.

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Table of Contents

Sauces.

Garnishes.

Soups.

Hors-D'Oeuvre.

Eggs.

Fish.

Releves and Entrees of Butchers' Meat.

Releves and Entrees of Poultry.

Releves and Entrees of Game.

Composite Entrees.

Cold Preparations.

Roasts.

Vegetables and Farinaceous Products.

Sweets, Puddings and Desserts.

Ices.

Savouries.

Poached Fruits, Jams and Drinks.

Glossary.

Menus.

Index.

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First Chapter

CHAPTER 1


SAUCES


Foreword to tbe Basic Culinary Preparations

This book is written for all who practice the art of cookery, but nevertheless at the very outset it is felt necessary to say something about the basic culinary preparations which play such an important part in the work of the kitchen.

These culinary preparations define the basic fundamentals and the requisite ingredients without which nothing of importance can be attempted. It is for this reason that they are so important and why they occupy such a place in the work of the cook who wishes to be successful.

It is not sufficient merely to have the desire to do well nor even to possess the necessary skills for making these basic preparations to which constant recourse has to be made the means to create these basic preparations must also be present and they must be provided for the cook by placing at his disposal everything required in the way of commodities of the best possible quality.

However profligate extravagance is as bad as a restrictive economy which puts the brake on the full extent of the talents of a cook, causing the conscientious worker to become discouraged and even leading directly to failure.

The most skilled cook in the world cannot attempt anything if given nothing and it would be totally inconsistent to expect him to produce work of a high standard from imperfect or insufficient ingredients. The most important point concerning these basic culinary preparations is that it is necessary to provide everything needed as regards quantity and quality.

Understandably, what is possible in one establishment may not be possible in another and the means fashion the end. The type of work is determined by the requirements of the guest and the means of producing this work is, naturally, determined by his requirements. Everything is relative but there is a standard which must not be deviated from, especially with reference to the basic culinary preparations. The person in charge of an establishment who allows any exception to this and who adheres too strictly to the hard and fast rule of economy taken to its uttermost limit where it becomes incompatible with the order of conduct of a good kitchen, forfeits the right to criticize the person who he has put in charge of running his kitchen. If he does this he should realize that such criticisms are untenable and unjust and he should understand that it is just as impossible to produce first class results from imperfect or insufficient commodities as it is absurd to expect that a second-rate draught wine, by being put into a bottle, will transform it into a great wine.

If, however, the cook has at his disposal all the ingredients required, the processing of these basic culinary preparations must then be given very special attention. The ingredients must be handled in such a way that being given every possible care, they will be above reproach when finished. Thus by means of this careful processing and in accordance with the accepted methods of preparation, he will achieve the desired results.

THE PRINCIPAL BASIC CULINARY PREPARATIONS


The principal basic culinary preparations include:

Bouillons or stocks specifically made for soups.
Consommés which are the same Bouillons or stocks specially clarified.
Brown stocks and white stocks-beef, veal, chicken, game and fish; these are the basis for making the thickened gravies and basic sauces.
Fumets and Essences these are the complementary adjuncts used to enhance the quality of the small sauces.
Glazes-meat, chicken, game and fish.
Roux-brown, blond and white.
Foundation or Basic sauces-Espagnole (brown sauce), Velouté, Béchamel, tomato.
Savoury or Aspic Jellies-meat and fish.

Also included under this heading are:

Mirepoix and Matignons-aromatic flavouring materials.
Courts-bouillons and Blancs-cooking liquors for fish, meat and vegetables.
Marinades and Brines.
Various Forcemeats and Stuffings.
Various ancillary preparations for use in garnishing etc.

The layout of this book does not permit these principal preparations to be dealt with in the same order as they are listed. The basic methods of roasting, grilling, gratinating etc. are not dealt with under one comprehensive heading but will be found in the various sections of the book where the method actually deals with a commodity. For example, the preparation of Stocks, Fumets. Essences, Glazes, Marinades, Jellies and Compound Butters are all included in the Chapter on Sauces,

the preparation of Consommés, Clarifications and Garnishes for soups are included in the Chapter on Soups,

the preparation of Forcemeats and ancillary preparations are in the Chapter on Garnishes,

the preparation of Courts-bouillons and special stuffings for fish are included in the Chapter on Fish,

and the theory of the methods of cooking for Grills Braisings and Poeles are included in the Chapter entitled Releves and Entrees.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE PREPARATION OF SAUCES

Sauces represent one of the most important components of cookery. It is they that have inspired and sustained the universal predominance of the French Cuisine; it is therefore impossible to devote too much care and attention to their preparation.

The basic component used in the production of sauces is a stock or gravy; it can be brown stock or Estouffade for making brown sauces, or clear gravy or white stock for making Veloutés. It is to the production of perfect stocks that the sauce cook should devote himself-the sauce cook who is, as the Marquis de Cussy remarked, 'the enlightened chemist, the creative genius and the cornerstone of the edifice of superlative cookery'.

In traditional French cookery all the recipes with the exception of roasts, were based upon braises and stews. Even at that time, stocks were the keynote of the culinary structure and the amount of ingredients needed for their production may now appear excessive in this age of false economy. In fact the introduction of Roux into French cookery by the Spanish cooks of Anne of Austria, must have passed almost unnoticed so insignificant was their role at the time-the stocks being sufficient in their own right. It was only when a period of economic retrenchment arrived that Espagnole came into its own as a necessary substitute for poor quality stocks.

It was gradually perfected but its use very quickly overtook the purpose for which it had been created and it is no exaggeration to suggest that during the latter part of the nineteenth century, the use of Espagnole became excessive. To this misuse can be attributed the appearance of an indifferent cookery, bereft of any well-defined flavour and where the entire range of tastes become lost in one single insipid level.

After a lapse of several years a strenuous reactionary movement was launched against this uniformity of flavour which was so repugnant to the chefs of that time. In the most important kitchens veal stocks that were both clear and translucent as well as of a clearly defined flavour, resumed their rightful place and the use of Espagnole because of this, declined in importance. After all, what is the reason for using this basic sauce? The strength and taste are not its own, rather it is the stock which provides these and it is in this stock that its value lies. The addition to the stock, the Roux, has a supporting role in the making of sauces in the form of a thickening agent but it provides very little in the way of actual flavour and it is necessary, if the sauce is to be perfect, for the flavour of the Roux to be almost eliminated during the cooking of the sauce.

When a sauce has been properly prepared by careful simmering and skimming, only the thickening properties of the starchy base are left behind. But if it is absolutely necessary to give a smooth texture to the sauce it would be much easier to provide this by using a more pure form of starch which would allow it to be finished in as short a space of time as possible, thus avoiding the need for a too long cooking time. It is therefore highly likely that before long a starch similar to cornflour or arrowroot but in the purest possible form, will be used to replace flour in the making of Roux.

In the present state of cookery there are several reasons why the use of the two sauces, Espagnole and Jus lié continue to be necessary. In the preparation of large braised items and in stews, excepting for those using lamb and mutton, Espagnole combined with tomato and brought to perfection with the juices which come from the commodity being cooked is completely in accordance with its role. In the form of Demi-glace, Espagnole also fills an indispensable role for many of the Sautés.

Even so, small, light, meat and poultry dishes can benefit from the use of Jus lié especially if it is used with discretion and in association with the process of deglazing and if the stock is in accordance with the preparation it is to accompany.

Modern cookery has established this formal and logical rule so that there is accordance between the meats and their sauces. Thus a piece of game must be served with sauces made from game stock or from a neutral-flavoured stock and not with meat stock. It is true that game stock is not so strong but the fundamental and proper flavour is fully retained. The same is true as regards the preparation of fish which because of the neutral flavour of the sauces normally used with it, require the addition of fumets which give their particular flavour to each individual preparation.

It is recognized that the dictates of economy are frequently an obstacle to the observance of these rules but at least the diligent cook who is mindful of his reputation will adhere to them as closely as possible so that he may achieve, if not a perfect result, at least a satisfactory one.

BASIC PREPARATIONS USED IN THE MAKING OF SAUCES

 

STOCKS

1 Estouffade-Brown Stock
To make 10 litres (2 1/4 gal or 2 3/4 U.S. gal)

Nutritive Ingredients:
6 kg (13 lb) shin of beef on the bone
6 kg (13 lb) knuckle of veal (or lean veal trimmings)
1 knuckle of raw ham (blanched)
650 g (1 lb 7 oz) fresh pork rind (blanched)

Flavouring Ingredients:
650 g (1 lb 7 oz) roughly chopped carrot
650 g (1 lb 7 oz) roughly chopped onion
1 Bouquet garni comprising:
100 g (3 1/2 oz) parsley stalks
10 g (1/3 oz) thyme
5 g (1/6 oz) bay leaves
1 clove garlic

Liquid:
14 litres (3 gal or 3 3/4 U.S. gal) water

Preparation:

Bone out the meats. Break the bones small and lightly brown them in the oven. Fry the carrot and onion brown in a little fat. Prepare the stock by placing these bones, vegetables, ham, pork rind and Bouquet garni into a stockpot, add the cold water, bring to the boil, skim and simmer very gently for at least 12 hours keeping the liquid at the same level throughout this time by adding boiling water as required. Cut the meat into very large dice, fry brown in hot fat and place in a pan. Cover with some of the prepared stock and boil until it is reduced to a glaze; repeat this process two or three times. Add the remainder of the stock, bring to the boil, skim to remove all fat and allow to simmer gently until all the flavour has been extracted from the meat. Pass through a strainer and reserve for use.

Note: When preparing brown stock which includes bones, especially those from beef. it is recommended that the procedure should be in accordance with the above recipe by first preparing a stock from the bones, simmering it gently for 12-15 hours and using it as the liquid for moistening the meat.

It is incorrect to place all the ingredients in the stock-pot and fry them together in fat before adding the water as there will be a danger of overcolouring the ingredients thus spoiling the flavour of the stock. In practice the principle of diffusion is sufficient in itself to colour the stock; this is the most natural and suitable method of obtaining the required colour.

2 Ordinary White Stock
To make 10 litres (2 1/4 gal or 2 3/4 U.S. gal)

Nutritive Ingredients:
10 kg (22 lb) shin of veal, veal trimmings and veal bones
4 raw chicken giblets or carcasses

Flavouring Ingredients:
800 g (1 3/4 lb) carrots
400 g (15 oz) onions
300 g (11 oz) leek
100 g (3 1/2 oz) celery
4 cloves
1 Bouquet garni-comprising:
100 g (3 1/2 oz) parsley stalks
a sprig of thyme
1 bay leaf

Liquid and Seasoning:
12 litres (2 5/8 gal or 3 1/4 U.S. gal) water
60 g (2 oz) salt

Preparation:

Bone out the shin and chop the bones very small tie the meat. Place all the bones and meat into a stockpot, cover with the water and add the salt. Bring to the boil. Skim carefully and add the vegetables and flavouring. Allow to simmer very gently and evenly for 3 hours. Pass through a strainer and reserve for use.

Note: This stock should be kept clear by continuous, even simmering and by removing the scum and fat with great care.

White stock can also be made in the same way as brown stock by placing the broken bones alone in the stockpot with the water and simmering gently for 5 hours; then straining it and adding the stock to the meat, vegetables and flavourings and proceeding as for brown stock. This method has the advantage of extracting all the gelatinous properties of the bones. It is, however, necessary to use more water to compensate for the added length of time of cooking the bones. There should still be
12 litres (2 5/8 gal or 3 1/4 U.S. gal) of liquid left to add to the meat.

3 White Chicken Stock

This stock is prepared in the same way and with the same ingredients as basic white stock but with the addition of extra chicken giblets and carcasses and three boiling fowls.

4 Brown Veal Stock or Gravy
To make 101itres (2 1/4 gal or 2 3/4 U.S. gal)

Nutritive Ingredients:
6 kg (13 lb) boned shin or shoulder of veal tied
5 kg (11 lb) veal bones, chopped very small

Flavouring Ingredients:
600 g (1 lb 5 oz) carrots
400 g (14 oz) onions
2 bay leaves
2 sprigs of thyme
100 g (3 1/2 oz) parsley stalks

Liquid:
12 litres (2 5/8 gal or 3 1/4 U.S. gal) water or ordinary white stock
40 g (1 1/2 oz) salt-only if using water

Preparation:

Cover the base of a thick bottomed pan or stock-pot with the carrots and onions cut into slices, add the rest of the flavouring ingredients and the meat and bones which have been previously browned in the oven.

Cover the pan, place on top of the stove and sweat the ingredients for 10 minutes. Add a little of the stock or water and cook rapidly to reduce it to a glaze. Repeat this operation once or twice more then add the remainder of the stock or water bring to the boil, skim carefully and allow to simmer gently and evenly for 6 hours. Pass through a strainer and reserve for use. This stock may be reduced before being used, according to requirements.

5 Game Stock
To make 5 litres (8 3/4 pt or 1 3/8 U.S. gal)

Nutritive Ingredients:
3 kg (7 lb) neck, breast and trimmings of venison old if possible but fresh
1 kg (2 1/4 lb) hare trimmings
2 old partridges
1 old pheasant
2 old wild rabbits

Flavouring Ingredients:
250 g (9 oz) carrots
250 g (9 oz) onions
1 Bouquet garni
15 juniper berries
1 sprig of sage

Liquid:
6 litres (10 1/2 pt or 1 5/8 U.S. gal) water
1 bottle white wine

Preparation:
Cut the game into pieces and colour brown in a hot oven. Cut the carrots and onions into slices, fry brown with the flavourings and place in the bottom of a heavy pan. Add the game; deglaze the tray in which this was browned with the wine and add to the game and vegetables together with an equal amount of water. Place on the stove and reduce to a glaze. Add the rest of the water and bring to the boil. Skim carefully and allow to simmer very gently skimming carefully for 3 hours. Pass through a strainer and use as required.

6 Fish Stock
To make 101itres (2 1/4 gal or 2 3/4 U.S. gal)

Basic Ingredients:
10 kg (22 lb) bones and trimmings of sole, whiting or brill

Flavouring Ingredients:
500 g (1 lb 2 oz) sliced onions
250 g (9 oz) mushroom trimmings
15 g (1/2 oz) peppercorns
100 g (3 1/2 oz) parsley stalks
juice of 1 lemon

Liquid and Seasoning:
101itres (2 1/4 gal or 2 3/4 U.S. gal) water
1 bottle white wine
40 g (1 1/2 oz) salt

Preparation:
Place the onions, parsley stalks and mushroom trimmings into a pan, add the bones and trimmings of fish, cover with the water and add the wine and lemon juice. Bring to the boil quickly and skim carefully. Allow to simmer very gently for 20 minutes then add the peppercorns and continue cooking for another 10 minutes. Pass through a strainer and use as required.

Notes:

1) The use of inferior quality white wine will cause the stock to go a grey colour and it is far better to omit the wine altogether rather than use one of doubtful quality.

2) This stock is used mainly in the preparation of fish sauces; if it is to be used for making Lenten or fish Espagnole the ingredients should be stewed in a little butter before the liquid is added.

7 Red Wine Fish Stock
To make 5 litres (8 3/4 pt or 1 3/8 U.S. gal)

This stock is seldom used as it is normally obtained in the natural process of cooking a specific fish dish such as a Matelote. This recipe has been included because the demand of modern practice is for fish to be served free of skin and bone, i.e. in filleted form. In principle, the bones and trimmings of the actual fish being prepared should be used for making this stock so as to give it its specific flavour. This recipe is used for whatever kind of fish is being prepared.

Basic Ingredients:
2 1/2 kg (5 1/2 lb) head, bones and trimmings of the fish under preparation

Flavouring Ingredients:
300 g (11 oz) sliced and blanched onions
100 g (3 1/2 oz) mushroom trimmings
100 g (3 1/2 oz) parsley stalks
5 cloves garlic
15 g (1/2 oz) salt
1 sprig thyme
2 small bay leaves

Liquid and Seasoning:
3 1/2 litres (6 pt or 7 3/4 U.S. pt) water
2 litres (3 1/2 pt or 9 U.S. cups) good quality red wine

Preparation:
Proceed in the same way as for Fish Stock.

Note: Although it is possible to make a reduction of this stock without it losing its delicate flavour, it is advisable to prepare the exact amount required rather than having to reduce it before use.

ESSENCES

As the name implies, essences are stocks made in a reduced form so as to retain a very pronounced flavour.

They are made in the same way as ordinary stocks using much less liquid than usual so as to ensure that they have a concentrated flavour of the main ingredient; however, the usefulness of essences is nullified if they are used to complete a preparation which has been made with a stock which was poor in flavour and quality.

It is much easier to prepare a rich succulent stock of irreproachable quality than to use poor quality or mediocre stock and then to complete it with the addition of a specially prepared essence. The result is far better and is more economical of time and materials. It is recommended to use essences prepared from highly flavoured products such as celery, mushroom, morels, truffles etc. Again it is worth remembering that nine times out of ten it is far better to add the product itself to the stock during its preparation rather than to prepare a special essence. For these reasons the usefulness of essences becomes meaningless where the basic stocks themselves contain the desirable qualities of strength and flavour; therefore, it is judged unnecessary to give more than one recipe.

8 Fish Essence
To make 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups)

Basic Ingredients:
2 kg (4 1/2 lb) head, bones and trimmings of sole or whiting

Flavouring Ingredients:
125 g (4 1/2 oz) sliced onions
50 g (2 oz) parsley stalks
300 g (11 oz) mushroom trimmings
juice of 1 lemon
100 g (3 1/2 oz) butter

Liquid:
1 1/2 litres (2 5/8 pt or 6 1/2 U.S. cups) dear fish stock
3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) good quality white wine,
Pinch of salt.

Preparation:

Melt the butter, add the onions, mushroom trimmings and parsley stalks and cook without colouring. Add the fish, cover and allow to stew for 15 minutes, turning the ingredients occasionally. Add the wine and reduce it by half then add the fish stock, lemon juice and salt. Bring to the boil, skim carefully and allow to simmer gently for 15 minutes. Pass through a fine strainer and use as required.

Note: This essence is used for the shallow poaching of fillets of sole, turbot and brill etc. where after being cooked, the remaining cooking liquor is reduced and added to the sauce which is to accompany the fillets.

GLAZES

The various glazes of meat, poultry, game and fish are merely stocks reduced to a syrupy consistency and are widely used in cookery.

They are used to impart a brilliant shine and an unctuous coating to finished dishes, to reinforce the quality and tone of a sauce, to strengthen a preparation of which the stock was too weak, or they can be used in their own right as a sauce after having been correctly buttered or creamed according to the type of dish with which they are to be used.

Glazes can be distinguished from essences in the sense that the latter are only prepared with the object of extracting all of the flavour of the product under treatment, whereas glazes unite in a reduced form the principal strength and flavour of the ingredients themselves. In most cases there are advantages to be gained from using glazes rather than essences.

Nevertheless, many chefs of the old school do not allow the use of glazes and justify their opposition to their use by suggesting that each culinary operation should be prepared from its proper basic ingredients and produce its own glaze when needed.

Certainly the theory is correct when one is not limited in terms of time or expense but, unfortunately, rarely in these days does an establishment apply these theories; indeed, if the use of glazes is made judiciously and without abuse and if they are prepared with great care, one can obtain excellent results from their use and they become of real value in most cases.

9 Meat Glaze

Place sufficient brown stock into a large pan and allow it to reduce; from time to time after an appreciable degree of reduction has taken place, strain the stock into a smaller pan and continue to do this as the process of reduction progresses. It is necessary to skim the stock carefully throughout the process as the quality of the resultant glaze depends very much on this. Reduce the heat progressively as the reduction of the stock increases until the final stage when the reduction must be finished over a very moderate heat. The glaze is ready when it adheres to the back of a spoon in the form of a glossy coating.

Note: For a lighter coloured clear glaze, ordinary white stock should be used instead of brown stock.

10 Chicken Glaze

This is made in the same way as meat glaze using chicken stock instead of brown stock.

11 Game Glaze

This is made in the same way as meat glaze using game stock. If it is necessary to obtain a glaze of a specific game flavour use game stock prepared from one particular game.

12 Fish Glaze

This kind of glaze is not used as much as meat or chicken glaze. It is made in the same way as meat glaze using fish stock instead of brown stock. In practice the fish essence which is used for poaching the fish will have a more delicate flavour than fish glaze and should be reduced and added to the sauce. (See Fish Essence.)

THE ROUX

The various kinds of Roux are used as the thickening agents for basic sauces, and their preparation, which appears to be of little importance, should actually be carried out with a great deal of care and attention. Three kinds of Roux are used-brown Roux for brown sauces, blond Roux for Veloutés and cream sauces and white Roux for Béchamel and white sauces. In large kitchens brown Roux is usually made in advance, blond and white Roux are made as required. The time necessary for the cooking of Roux depends upon the intensity of the heat being applied and cannot be determined mathematically. It is advisable to cook it slowly rather than too quickly as the application of a fierce heat will cause the starch granules to harden. This will constrict the contents of the starch granules and prevent them from combining with the liquid when added to form the sauce. In this case it produces an analogy with that which takes place when cooking pulses in boiling water. It is necessary to start with a moderate heat, increasing it progressively so as to allow the outer coating of the starch granules to distend, thus allowing the starch which they contain to swell and, under the influence of the heat, to break down, transforming it into dextrin, a soluble substance which is involved in the thickening process.

The use of clarified butter is recommended for the making of Roux as the amount of casein which is present in ordinary butter is detrimental to the making of a good Roux. It should be remembered

that the butter contained in a Roux gives very little flavour to the finished sauce, what little flavour there is, being removed during the skimming process.

It is also worth remembering in the study of the making of Roux that the starting point of the thickening of a sauce comes from the starch in the flour and it is on this that the balance of the sauce depends.

A Roux made from a pure starch such as arrowroot would give the same result as one made from flour, the only difference being that it is necessary to take into account the other substances contained in flour which would mean that a smaller amount of pure starch is required.

13 Brown Roux
To make 1 kg (2 1/4 lb)

Ingredients:
500 g (1 lb 2 oz) clarified butter
600 g (1 lb 5 oz) sifted flour

Preparation:

Mix the butter and flour together in a heavy pan and place in a moderate oven to cook, stirring frequently until an even, light brown colour is obtained. When cooked, the Roux should have a smell resembling that of hazelnuts or baked flour and be without grains.

Note: It is advisable to use clarified butter in the preparation of brown Roux, other kinds of fat should only be used for serious reasons of economy. If the need for economy is an important factor, it should be born in mind that the butter used in the Roux can be recovered from the skimmings which are removed from the sauce, and can be re-used.

14 Blond Roux

Using the same amount of ingredients as for brown Roux, cook the Roux very slowly until it takes on a light straw colour.

15 White Roux

Using the same amount of ingredients as for brown Roux, cook the Roux for a few minutes only, just sufficient to eliminate the rawness of the flour.

BASIC SAUCES

16 Sauce Espagnole
To make 5 litres (8 3/4 pt or 1 3/8 U.S. gal)

Ingredients:

625 g (1 lb 6 oz) brown Roux-using: 285 g (10 oz)
clarified butter and 340 g (12 oz) sifted flour

12 litres (2 5/8 gal or 3 1/4 U.S. gal) brown stock
150 g (5 oz) roughly diced salt belly of pork
250 g (9 oz) roughly diced carrots
150 g (5 oz) roughly diced onions
2 sprigs thyme
2 small bay leaves
500 g (1 lb 2 oz) tomato puree or 2 kg (4 1/4 lb)
fresh tomatoes
2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) white wine

Preparation:

1) Place 8 litres (1 3/4 gal or 2 1/4 U.S. gal) of the stock in a heavy pan and bring to the boil; add the Roux, previously softened in the oven. Mix well with a wooden spoon or whisk and bring to the boil mixing continuously. Draw the pan to the side of the stove and allow to simmer slowly and evenly.

2) Meanwhile, place the salt pork in a pan and fry to extract the fat, add the vegetables and flavourings and fry until light brown in colour. Carefully drain off the fat and put the ingredients into the sauce; deglaze the pan with the wine, reduce it by half and also add to the sauce. Allow to simmer gently for 1 hour skimming frequently.

3) Pass the sauce through a conical strainer into another pan, pressing lightly. Add another 2 litres (3 1/2 pt or 9 U.S. cups) stock, bring to the boil and allow to simmer gently for a further 2 hours. Pass the sauce through a fine strainer and stir occasionally until completely cold.

4) The next day, add the remainder of the stock and the tomato puree; bring the sauce to the boil stirring continuously with a wooden spatula or whisk, then allow to simmer gently and evenly for 1 hour skimming carefully.

Pass through a fine strainer or tammy cloth and stir occasionally until the sauce is completely cold.

Notes:

1) The time required for the preparation and refining of this sauce cannot be indicated exactly as it depends to a large extent on the quality of the stock used in its making. The refining of this sauce will be quicker if the stock is of very good quality in which case an excellent Espagnole can be prepared in five hours.

2) Before adding tomato puree to this sauce it is advisable to spread the required quantity on a tray and to cook it in the oven until it turns a light brown colour. This will destroy most of the excess acidity found in tomato purees, and when prepared in this way, the puree assists in clarifying the sauce and at the same time gives it a smoother taste and a more agreeable colour.

17 Sauce Espagnole Maigre-Lenten or Fish Espagnole
To make 5 litres (8 3/4 pt or 1 3/8 U.S. gal)

Ingredients:
500 g (1 lb 2 oz) brown Roux-using: 225 g (8 oz)
clarified butter and 275 g (10 oz) sifted flour
10 litres (2 1/4 gal or 2 3/4 U.S. gal) fish stock
250 g (9 oz) roughly diced carrots
150 g (5 oz) roughly diced onions
250 g (9 oz) mushroom trimmings
150 g (5 oz) butter
2 sprigs thyme
2 bay leaves
2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) white wine
500 g (1 lb 2 oz) tomato puree or 2 kg (4 1/2 lb) fresh tomatoes

Preparation:

This is prepared in the same way as ordinary Espagnole, using the butter in place of the salt belly of pork and adding the mushroom trimmings at the same time as the tomato puree, and cooking for a total time of 5 hours. Pass through a fine strainer or tammy cloth and stir occasionally until the sauce is completely cold.

Note: There is a division of opinion as to whether it is correct to include this sauce with the other basic sauces, and it should be noted that the same result can be obtained by using ordinary Espagnole, which has a fairly neutral taste, and adding some fish stock during the process. If a completely meatless Espagnole is absolutely necessary in the preparation of a dish, then the above must be used.

18 Sauce Demi-glace

This sauce, commonly referred to as Demi-glace, is made with Espagnole which is brought to a final stage of perfection by further careful simmering and skimming.

It should be finished at the last moment with a little meat or other glaze.

Demi-glace can be flavoured with various wines such as sherry, port and Madeira. The addition of a particular wine naturally changes the flavour and character of the Demi-glace and will decide its ultimate use. It is advisable to add the wine being used at the last moment; by boiling the sauce the aroma of the wine will be destroyed by evaporation.

19 Jus de Veau Lié-Thickened Veal Gravy
To make 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups)

Ingredients:
4 litres (7 pt or 8 3/4 U.S. pt) Brown Veal Stock
30 g (1 oz) arrowroot

Preparation:

Bring the stock to the boil then allow it to reduce by three-quarters to yield 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups). Dilute the arrowroot in a little cold stock, stir into the boiling stock and cook for 1 minute. Pass through a fine strainer.

Note: This gravy, which is frequently referred to throughout this book, should have a clean taste, be transparent and have a pleasing light brown colour.

20 Velouté or Sauce Blanche Grasse-Ordinary Velouté
To make 5 litres (8 3/4 pt or 1 3/8 U.S. gal)

Ingredients:
625 g (1 lb 6 oz) blond Roux-using: 285 g (10 oz) clarified butter and 340 g (12 oz) sifted flour
5 1/2 litres (9 1/2 pt or 1 1/2 U.S. gal) very clear White Veal Stock

Preparation:

Make the Roux in the usual manner and gradually mix in the hot or cold stock making sure that a smooth consistency is obtained. Bring to the boil stirring continuously and allow to simmer very gently and evenly for 1 1/2 hours skimming carefully from time to time. Pass through a fine strainer. Stir occasionally until completely cold and use as required.

Note: The practice of adding vegetables and flavourings such as carrots, studded onions or Bouquet garni in the preparation of this Velouté is unnecessary. If the stock is made in accordance with the recipe it will already contain sufficient flavour. However, it is advisable to add approximately 30-40 g (1-1 1/2 oz) of fresh white mushroom trimmings or preferably 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cup) of mushroom cooking liquor for the amount of sauce indicated.

21 Velouté de Volaille-Chicken Velouté

This is prepared in the same way and with the same proportion of ingredients as Ordinary Velouté using white chicken stock instead of veal stock.

22 Velouté de Poisson-Fish Velouté

This is made in the same way and with the same proportion of ingredients as Ordinary Velouté using fish stock instead of veal stock and cooking it quickly for 20 minutes only.

23 Sauce Allemande (also known as Sauce Parisienne)
To make 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups)

Ingredients:
1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) Ordinary Velouté
5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) Ordinary White Stock
2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) mushroom cooking liquor
5 egg yolks
pinch of grated nutmeg
squeeze of lemon juice
pinch of coarsely ground pepper
100 g (3 1/2 oz) butter

Preparation:
Place the stock, mushroom liquor, yolks of egg, lemon juice, pepper and nutmeg in a heavy shallow pan, mix well together with a whisk and add the Velouté. Bring to the boil and reduce by one-third stirring constantly with a metal spatula; reduce until the sauce reaches the point where it coats the spatula. Pass through a fine strainer or tammy cloth and coat the surface of the sauce with butter to prevent a skin forming. Keep in a Bain-marie until required then add 100 g (3 1/2 oz) butter before using.

Notes:
1) In effect this sauce is an Ordinary Velouté thickened with egg yolks.
2) This sauce is also known as Sauce Parisienne a name which is more logical and proper than Sauce Allemande. This was pointed out in an article in 'l'Art Culinaire' in 1883 by Mons. Tavenet, a well-known chef. The name 'Parisienne' has been adopted by several chefs but not as widely as could be wished.

24 Sauce Supreme
Sauce Supreme is Ordinary Velouté finished with cream; it should be very white in colour and delicate in flavour.
To make 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. pt)

Ingredients:
1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) chicken Velouté
1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) white chicken stock
1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) mushroom cooking liquor
3 1/2 dl (12 fl oz or 1~ U.S. cups) fresh double cream
80 g (3 oz) best quality butter

Preparation:
Place the Velouté, stock and mushroom liquor in a heavy shallow pan; bring to the boil and reduce quickly adding 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) of the cream in small quantities during the process, working the sauce continuously with a metal spatula. When the sauce has been reduced by one-third, pass it through a fine strainer or tammy cloth. Finish the sauce with the remainder of the cream and the butter.

25 Sauce Béchamel
To make 5 litres (8 3/4 pt or 1 3/8 U.S. gal)

Ingredients:
650 g (1 lb 7 oz) white Roux-using: 300 g (11 oz)
clarified butter and 350 g (12 1/2 oz) sifted flour
5 litres (8 3/4 pt or 1 3/8 U.S. gal) boiling milk
300 g (11 oz) lean veal
2 finely sliced small onions
1 sprig of thyme
50 g (2 oz) butter
pinch of coarsely ground pepper
pinch of nutmeg
25 g (1 oz) salt

Preparation:

Make the Roux in the normal manner and allow to cool. Mix the milk into the Roux so as to obtain a smooth sauce and bring to boiling point. Meanwhile, cut the veal into small cubes and stew with the butter without colouring, adding the onions, seasonings and thyme; place into the sauce. Allow to simmer gently for 2 hours and pass through a fine strainer. Coat the surface of the sauce with butter to prevent the formation of a skin.

Notes:

1) If the Béchamel is to be used for meatless dishes the veal should be omitted but the flavourings, as indicated, should still be included.

2) It is possible to make the sauce more quickly in the following manner: bring the milk to the boil with the onion and seasonings, cover and allow to infuse for 10 minutes. Strain the milk on to the Roux, mix, bring to the boil and allow to simmer gently for 15-20 minutes.

26 Sauce Tomate-Tomato Sauce
To make 5 litres (8 3/4 pt or 1 3/8 U.S. gal)

Ingredients:
100 g (3 1/2 oz) butter
150 g (5 oz) salt belly of pork diced and blanched
150 g (5 oz) flour
200 g (7 oz) roughly diced carrot
150 g (5 oz) roughly diced onion
1 bay leaf
1 sprig of thyme
4 litres (7 pt or 8 3/4 U.S. pt) puree of tomatoes or 6 kg (13 lb) fresh tomatoes
2 litres (3 1/2 pt or 9 U.S. cups) ordinary white stock
2 cloves garlic
20 g (2/3 oz) salt
30 g (1 oz) sugar
pinch of ground pepper

Preparation:

Melt the butter in a heavy pan, add the salt pork and fry lightly; add the vegetables, bay leaf and thyme and fry to a light brown colour. Sprinkle with the flour and mix in; cook until light brown then add the puree or fresh tomatoes previously squashed. Mix in the stock, add the crushed garlic, salt, sugar and pepper and bring to the boil whilst stirring.

Cover with a lid and place in a moderate oven to cook very gently for 1 1/2-2 hours. When cooked, pass through a fine strainer into a clean pan, stir and reboil for a few minutes; pour into a basin and coat the surface with butter to prevent the formation of a skin.

Notes:

1) A puree of tomatoes can be used as a sauce in place of this recipe; it is prepared exactly as indicated above except that the flour is omitted and the sauce should be reduced after straining until it reaches the correct consistency.

2) Care should be taken when using a concentrated puree and an adjustment should be made to the amount used.

 

SMALL COMPOUND BROWN SAUCES

27 Sauce Bigarade

For braised duck: Pass the braising liquor from cooking the duck through a strainer and remove the fat carefully; reduce it until fairly thick. Add the juice of four oranges and one lemon to each 1 litre (11 pt or 41 U.S. cups) of reduced braising liquor so as to reconstitute it to the required consistency.

For poêléed duck: Remove the duck from the pan, add a little brown veal stock to the sediment, bring to the boil, pass through a strainer and carefully remove the fat. For each 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) add the following: 20 g (2/3 oz) of sugar caramelized and diluted with 1/4 dl (1 fl oz or 1/8 U.S. cup) of vinegar, and the juice of four oranges and 1 lemon. Lightly thicken with diluted arrowroot.

In both cases this sauce is finished with 2 tbs of very fine Julienne of orange zest and 1 tbs Julienne of lemon zest, both well blanched.

28 Sauce Bordelaise

Place 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) of red wine into a small pan with 30 g (1 oz) finely chopped shallot; a little coarsely ground pepper; 1/2 a bayleaf; and a sprig of thyme; reduce by three-quarters. Add 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) of Espagnole and allow to simmer gently for 15 minutes skimming as necessary. Pass through a fine strainer and finish the sauce with 1 tbs melted meat glaze; the juice of 1/4 of a lemon; and 50 g (2 oz) bone marrow cut into small dice or slices and poached.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with grilled red meat.

Note: Originally this sauce was made with white wine but nowadays red wine is always used. (See Sauce Bonnefoy for Sauce Bordelaise made with white wine.)

29 Sauce Bourguignonne

Place 1 1/2 1itres (2 5/8 pt or 6 1/2 U.S. cups) of good red wine in a pan with 75 g (2 1/2 oz) sliced shallots; a few parsley stalks; 1/2 a bayleaf; a small sprig of thyme; and 25 g (1 oz) of mushroom trimmings; reduce by half. Pass through a fine strainer and thicken by adding 80 g (3 oz) of Beurre Manie made from 45 g (1 1/2 oz) of butter and 35 g (1 1/4 oz) of flour. Finish it at the last moment with 150 g (5 oz) of butter and a little Cayenne.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with eggs and dishes designated a la Bourguignonne.

30 Sauce Bretonne

Heat 50 g (2 oz) butter in a pan, add 100 g (3 1/2 oz) chopped onions and cook until light golden brown. Add 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) of white wine and reduce by half; add 3: dl (12 fl oz or 1~ U.S. cups) Espagnole, 3 1/2 dl (12 fl oz or 1 1/2 U.S. cups) Tomato Sauce and one small clove of crushed garlic. Bring to the boil and allow to simmer gently for 7-8 minutes and finish with a pinch of coarsely chopped parsley.

This sauce is used exclusively in the preparation of Haricots a la Bretonne.

31 Sauce aux Cerises-Cherry Sauce

Place 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) of Port Wine into a small pan with a pinch of mixed spice and 1/2 tbs of grated orange rind, reduce by one-third. Add 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) red currant jelly and the juice of one orange and when dissolved add 200 g (7 oz) of stoned cherries which have been previously poached in syrup.

This sauce is suitable as an accompaniment for venison but is more appropriate with braised and poêléed duck.

32 Sauce aux Champignon-Mushroom Sauce

Place 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) of mushroom cooking liquor in a small pan and reduce by half. Add 8 dl (1 2/5 pt or 3 1/2 U.S. cups) of Sauce Demi-glace and allow to simmer gently for a few minutes. Pass through a fine strainer, mix in 50 g (2 oz) butter and finish by adding 100 g (3 1/2 oz) very small button mushrooms, cooked in a little butter.

33 Sauce Charcutiere

To 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of Sauce Robert, add 100 g (3 1/2 oz) of gherkins cut into thick short Julienne. The gherkins should be added at the last moment just before serving.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with grilled pork chops and any grilled meats which require a highly seasoned sauce.

34 Sauce Chasseur

Melt 30 g (1 oz) butter in a small pan, add 150 g (5 oz) sliced button mushrooms and lightly fry. Add 50 g (2 oz) finely chopped shallots and cook together for a few minutes. Add 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) white wine, reduce by half then add 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) Tomato Sauce and 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) Sauce Demi-glace. Bring to the boil, allow to simmer gently for a few minutes and finish with 150 g (5 oz) butter and 1 tbs of mixed chopped tarragon and chervil.

35 Sauce Chasseur (Escoffier's method)
Heat 15 g (1/2 oz) butter and 1/4 dl (1 fl oz or U.S. cup) olive oil in a pan; add 150 g (5 oz) sliced button mushrooms and fry until lightly coloured. Add 25 g (1 oz) finely chopped shallots, cook together for a few moments and drain off half the fat. Add 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) dry white wine and 1/2 dl (2 fl oz or 1/4 U.S. cup) brandy; reduce by half. Add 4 dl (14 fl oz or 1~ U.S. cups) of Sauce Demi-glace, 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) Tomato Sauce and 1 tbs meat glaze; simmer gently for 5 minutes and finish with a little chopped parsley.

36 Sauce Chaud-froid Brune-Brown Chaud-froid Sauce
To make 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups)

Ingredients:

7 1/2 dl (1 1/3 pt or 3 1/4 U.S. cups) Sauce Demiglace
1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) truffle essence
1/2 dl (2 fl oz or 1/4 U.S. cup) Madeira or Port wine
7 dl (1 1/4 pt or 3 U.S. cups) ordinary aspic jelly

Preparation:

Place the Demi-glace and truffle essence in a pan and reduce quickly stirring with a metal spatula and adding the jelly a little at a time until the total quantity of all the ingredients is reduced by one-third.

Correct the seasoning and check that the consistency of the Chaud-froid is correct for its uses. Finish with the wine and pass through a fine strainer then stir the Chaud-froid until it reaches the right stage for coating the items for which it is required.

37 Brown Chaud-froid Sauce for Ducks

This is prepared in the same way as ordinary brown Chaud-froid omitting the truffle essence and replacing it with 1 1/2 dl (5 fl oz or 5/8 U.S. cup) of essence prepared from the duck carcass and trimmings. Reduce the sauce a little more than in the previous recipe and after passing it through a fine strainer add the juice of three oranges and 2 tbs of very fine julienne of orange zest, well blanched and drained.

38 Brown Chaud-froid Sauce for Game

This is prepared in the same way as ordinary brown Chaud-froid omitting the truffle essence and replacing it with 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) of game essence prepared from the carcass and trimmings of the game which is to be coated with the Chaud-froid.

39 Tomato-Flavoured Chaud-froid Sauce

Place 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of well-reduced puree of fresh tomatoes in a pan and reduce whilst adding approximately 7 dl (1 1/4 pt or 3 U.S. cups) of ordinary aspic jelly, a little at a time. Reduce until the total quantity is approximately 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) . Pass through a fine strainer and stir until the Chaudfroid reaches the correct stage for coating.

40 Sauce Chevreuil

Prepare 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of ordinary Sauce Poivrade, using 50 g (2 oz) of bacon in the mirepoix if the finished sauce is to be served with marinated butcher's meat, or with the addition of game trimmings cooked with the mirepoix if the finished sauce is to be served with game. Pass the sauce firmly through a strainer. Allow to simmer gently and skim whilst adding 1 1/2 dl (5 fl oz or 5/8 U.S. Cup) of good quality red wine a little at a time. Finish the sauce with a pinch of sugar and a little Cayenne and pass through a fine strainer.

41 Sauce Colbert

Correctly speaking, Sauce Colbert is Beurre Colbert which is Beurre Maître-d'Hotel with the addition of meat glaze. To differentiate between Beurre Colbert and Sauce Chateaubriand some people add chopped tarragon to the Beurre Maitre-d'Hotel but this is not an absolute rule. In effect the two preparations are completely differrent-Sauce Chateaubriand is a buttered light meat glaze containing chopped parsley whereas in the Sauce or Beurre Colbert the butter is the main ingredient and the meat glaze is only an additive.

42 Sauce Diable-Devilled Sauce

Place 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) white wine in a pan, add 20 g (2/3 oz) chopped shallot and reduce by two-thirds. Add 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) Sauce Demi-glace and allow to simmer gently for a few minutes then season the sauce strongly
with Cayenne pepper.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with grilled chicken and pigeons.

Notes:

1) Vinegar may be used instead of wine and chopped Fines Herbes may be included in the reduction; the above recipe, however, is preferable.

2) This sauce should be prepared in a small quantity as required. The above recipe yields approximately 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cup).

43 Sauce Diable Escoffier-Escomer's Devilled Sauce

This sauce is obtainable commercially under the brand name of Escoffier. It is only necessary to add an equal amount of softened butter to the sauce before use.

This sauce is suitable for serving with grilled or poached fish and for all grilled foods.

44 Sauce Diane

Lightly whip 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) of cream and add it at the last moment to 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) well seasoned and reduced Sauce Poivrade. Finish with 2 tbs each of small crescent shape pieces of truffle and hard-boiled white of egg.

This sauce is suitable for serving with cutlets, noisettes and other cuts of venison.

45 Sauce Duxelles

Place 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) white wine and 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) mushroom cooking liquor in a pan with 40 g (1 1/2 oz) chopped shallot and reduce by two-thirds. Add 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) Sauce Demi-glace, 1 1/2 dl (5 fl oz or 5/8 U.S. cup) tomato puree and 4 tbs dry Duxelles; allow to simmer gently for 5 minutes and finish the sauce with 1/2 tbs chopped parsley.

This sauce is specially used in the preparation of dishes designated au Gratin.

Note: Sauce Duxelles is sometimes confused with Sauce Italienne which it resembles but in reality there is a difference as Sauce Duxelles does not contain chopped ham or salted ox tongue.

46 Sauce Estragon-Tarragon Sauce

To prepare 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) of sauce, place 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) white wine in a pan and bring to the boil. Add 20 g (2/3 oz) tarragon leaves, cover with the lid, remove from the heat and allow to infuse for 10 minutes. Add 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) Sauce Demi-glace or thickened veal gravy, bring to the boil and reduce by one-third. Pass through a fine strainer and finish with 1 tsp chopped tarragon.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with noisettes of white meat and poultry etc.

47 Sauce Financiere

Place 1 1/4 1itres (2 1/4 pt or 5 1/2 U.S. cups) Madeira Sauce in a pan and reduce by a quarter. Remove from the heat, add 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) truffle essence and pass through a fine strainer.

This sauce is normally associated with the garnish Financiere but may be served with other entrees.

48 Sauce aux Fines Herbes

Place 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) of white wine in a small pan and bring to the boil. Add 10 g (1/3 oz) of picked parsley and the same amount of picked chervil, tarragon and chives. Cover with a lid, remove from the heat and allow to infuse for 20 minutes. Pass through a clean cloth and add this infusion to 6 dl (1 pt or 2 5/8 U.S. cups) of Sauce Demi-glace or thickened veal gravy. Simmer gently for a few minutes and finish it at the last moment with 2 1/2 tbs of chopped Fines Herbes as used in the infusion and in equal proportions; finish with a squeeze of lemon juice.

Note: In the old classical kitchen, Sauce aux Fines Herbes was often confused with Sauce Duxelles. Sensibly, modern practice has successfully established the actual difference between the two sauces.

49 Sauce Genevoise

Heat 50 g (2 oz) of butter in a pan. Add 100 g (3 1/2 oz) of carrots, 80 g (3 oz) of onion and 20 g (2/3 oz) parsley stalks, all cut in fine Mirepoix; 1 small sprig of thyme and 1/2 a bayleaf. Cook
together till lightly browned. Add 1 kg (2 1/4 lb) salmon head and a pinch of coarsely ground pepper; cover with a lid and allow to stew for 15 minutes.

Drain off the butter, add 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of red wine and reduce by half. Add 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) fish Espagnole and allow to simmer gently for 1 hour. Pass firmly through a strainer into a clean pan.

Allow to rest for a few minutes and then carefully remove any fat which has risen to the surface of the sauce.

Add an extra 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) of red wine and the same amount of fish stock; simmer gently with careful skimming and reduce to the required consistency. Pass the sauce through a fine strainer and finish with 1 tbs of anchovy essence and 150 g (5 oz) of butter, mixed in well.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with salmon and trout.

Note: In the old classical kitchen this sauce was entitled Genoise by Careme but Reculet first and Gouffe afterwards called it Genevoise but with less logic; Geneva is not known particularly as a wine-producing area.

However, whether called Genoise or Genevoise, all the classical authors, Careme, Reculet, Dubois and Gouffe, indicate the use of red wine in the preparation of this sauce.

50 Sauce Godard

Place 4 dl (14 fl oz or 11 U.S. cups) of Champagne or dry white wine in a pan with a very fine Mirepoix containing ham, and reduce by half. Add 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) Sauce Demiglace and 2 dl (7 fl oz or 1r U.S. cup) mushroom essence. Simmer gently for 10 minutes and pass through a fine strainer, then continue to simmer gently, reduce by one-third and pass again through a fine strainer.

This sauce is specially used to accompany releves garnished 'a la Godard'.

51 Sauce Grand-Veneur

Prepare 1 1itre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) Sauce Poivrade using a game stock prepared from venison. Dilute 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) hare's blood with 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) marinade and add to the sauce. Keep on the side of the stove for a few minutes without boiling, so as to allow the blood to cook then pass the sauce through a fine strainer.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with joints of venison.

52 Sauce Grand-Veneur (Escoffier's Method)

Prepare 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) fairly thin Sauce Poivrade for game and finish with 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cup) cream and 2 tbs of redcurrant jelly. This sauce is also specially suitable for serving with joints of venison.

53 Sauce Gratin

Place 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) of white wine in a pan with 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) fish stock prepared from the bones of the fish under preparation; add 1 1/2 tbs chopped shallot and reduce by a good half. Add 3 tbs dry Duxelles and 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) fish Espagnole or Demiglace; allow to simmer gently for 5 to 6 minutes. Finish at the last moment with 1 tbs chopped parsley.

This sauce is specially suitable for the preparation of fish au Gratin, such as sole, whiting and fillets of brill etc.

54 Sauce Hachée

Heat 50 g (2 oz) of butter in a pan, add 100 (3 1/2 oz) chopped onion and 11 tbs finely chopped. shallot and cook without colour. Moisten with 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) vinegar and reduce by half then add 4 dl (14 fl oz or 1 3/4 U.S. cups) Espagnole and 1 1/2 dl (5 fl oz or 5/8 U.S. cup) Tomato Sauce and simmer gently for 5-6 minutes.

Finish the sauce by adding 1 1/2 tbs chopped lean ham, 1 1/2 tbs small capers, 1 1/2 tbs dry Duxelles and 1/2 tbs chopped parsley.

This sauce which has a similarity to Sauce Piquante is suitable for serving with the same dishes.

55 Sauce Hachée (Lenten)

Heat 50 g (2 oz) of butter in a pan, add 100 (3 1/2 oz) of finely chopped onion and 1~ tbs finely chopped shallot and cook without colour. Moisten with 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) vinegar and reduce by half.

Add 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) of the Court-bouillon from the fish under preparation and thicken with 45 g (1 1/2 oz) brown Roux or 50 g (2 oz) Beurre Manie. Allow to simmer gently for 8 to 10 minutes.

Finish the sauce by adding 1 tbs chopped Fines Herbes, 1~ tbs small capers, 1~ tbs dry Duxelles and ~ tbs of anchovy essence and 60 g (2 oz) butter, or 80-100 g (3-3 1/2 oz) ordinary anchovy butter.

This sauce is specially suitable for boiled fish of second quality, e.g. skate.

56 Sauce Hussarde

Heat 50 g (2 oz) of butter in a pan. Add 100 g (3 1/2 oz) finely sliced onion and 50 g (2 oz) finely sliced shallot and cook to a golden colour. Moisten with 4 dl (14 fl oz or 1~ U.S. cups) white wine, reduce by half and add 4 dl (14 fl oz or 1~ U.S. cups) Sauce Demi-glace, 2 tbs tomato puree, 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) white stock, 80 g (3 oz) raw lean ham, 1 small clove of crushed garlic and 1 Bouquet garni. Bring to the boil and simmer gently for 25-30 minutes.

Remove the ham and keep on one side and pass the sauce through a fine sieve.

Reheat the sauce and finish by adding the ham cut in very small dice, a little grated horseradish and a good pinch of chopped parsley.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with grilled or spit-roasted red meats.

57 Sauce Italienne

Prepare 72 dl (1~ pt or 3~ U.S. cups) of tomato-flavoured Demi-glace. Add 4 tbs dry Duxelles and 125 g (42t oz) lean cooked ham cut in very small dice. Allow to simmer gently for 5-6 minutes and finish at the last moment with 1 tbs of chopped mixed tarragon, chervil and parsley.

This sauce is used in the preparation of many small entrees.

Note: When this sauce is used for a fish dish, a little of the stock from the fish under preparation should be reduced and added to the sauce and the chopped ham should be omitted.

58 Jus lié a l'Estragon-Thickened Gravy, tarragon flavoured

Infuse 50 g (2 oz) tarragon in 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of brown veal or chicken stock. Pass through a fine strainer and thicken with 30 g (1 oz) arrowroot or fecula diluted with a little water.

This sauce is used to accompany noisettes of white meat, supremes of chicken etc.

59 Jus lié Tomate-Thickened Gravy, tomato flavoured

Add 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) tomato essence to 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of brown veal stock and reduce by one-fifth. Pass through a fine strainer and thicken with 30 g (1 oz) arrowroot or cornflour diluted with a little water.

This sauce is specially suitable for use with butcher's meats.

60 Sauce Lyonnaise Brown Onion Sauce

Heat 50 g (2 oz) butter in a pan, add 250 g (9 oz) chopped onion and cook slowly to a golden colour. Add 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) each of white wine and vinegar, reduce by two-thirds and add 7' dl (13 pt or 3~ U.S. cups) Sauce Demiglace; simmer gently, skimming as necessary for 5-6 minutes and pass through a sieve.

Note: This sauce may be served unpassed or passed through a sieve according to the requirements of the dish with which it is to be served.

61 Sauce Madere-Madeira Sauce

Reduce 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of Sauce Demi-glace until slightly thickened. Remove from the heat and add 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) Madeira wine to correct its consistency. Pass through a fine strainer and do not reboil.

62 Sauce Matelote

Place 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) of red wine Court-bouillon in a pan with 25 g (1 oz) mushroom trimmings. Reduce by two-thirds and then add 8 dl (1~ pt or 32 U.S. cups) of fish Espagnole. Simmer gently for a few minutes and pass through a fine strainer. Finish the sauce with 150 g (5 oz) of butter and lightly season with Cayenne pepper.

63 Sauce Moelle-Bone Marrow Sauce

This sauce is prepared in the same way as Sauce Bordelaise finishing it with 150-180 g (5-6 oz) poached, small dice of bone marrow and 1 tbs blanched chopped parsley per 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of sauce. If the sauce is to be served with a vegetable, 75 g (2~ oz) butter may be added.

64 Sauce Moscovite

Prepare 72 dl (13 pt or 34 U.S. cups) of ordinary Sauce Poivrade made with venison stock. Finish it at the last minute with 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) Malaga wine, ~ dl (3 fl oz or ~ U.S. cup) of an infusion of crushed juniper berries, 40 g (1 1/2 oz) of toasted pine-seed kernels or toasted shredded almonds and 40 g (1 1/2 oz) currants which have been soaked in warm water till swollen and then drained.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with joints of venison.

65 Sauce Perigueux

Prepare 72 dl (13 pt or 34 U.S. cups) fairly thick and well flavoured Demi-glace. Add 1~ dl (5 fl oz or ~ U.S. cup) truffie essenoe and 100 g (3 1/2 oz) chopped truffle.

This sauce is suitable for serving with small Entrees, timbales and hot pates.

66 Sauce Perigourdine

This sauce is a variation of Sauce Perigueux where the truffles, instead of being chopped are cut in the shape of small olives, small balls or cut into thick slices.

67 Sauce Piquante

Place 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) white w ine, and the same amount of vinegar in a pan with 50 g (2 oz) chopped shallot; reduce by half; add 6 dl (1 pt or 2'U.S. cups) Sauce Espagnole, bring to the boil and simmer gently, skimming as necessary for 10 minutes. Remove from the heat and finish the sauce with 2 tbs of a mixture of chopped gherkins, tarragon, chervil and parsley.

This sauce is usually served with grilled, roast or boiled pork. It can also be served with boiled beef and Eminces of butcher's meat.

68 Sauce Poivrade
Heat~2 dl (2 fl oz or ' U.S. cup) oil in a pan; add a Mirepoix comprising 100 g (3 1/2 oz) carrots, 80 g (3 oz) onion, a few parsley stalks, a pinch of thyme, and half a crushed bayleaf and cook until lightly coloured. Moisten with 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) vinegar, 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) of marinade and reduce by two-thirds. Add 1 litre (13 pt or 42 U.S. cups) Sauce Espagnole and allow to simmer gently for 45 minutes. Ten minutes before passing the sanoe, add 8 crushed peppercorns; pass through a sieve with a little pressure then add a further 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) of marinade. Bring to the boil, skim and carefully simmer for approximately 35 minutes so as to reduce the sauce to the required quantity.

Pass again through a fine strainer and finish with 50 g (2 oz) butter.
This sauce is suitable for serving with butcher's meat which has been either marinated or not.

Note: If the pepper is allowed to cook for too long a time in the sauce, its dominating flavour will become detrimental to its taste.

69 Sauce Poivrade (For Game)
Heat 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) oil in a pan; add a Mirepoix comprising 125 g (42 oz) carrot, 125 g (42 oz) onion, a pinch of thyme, half a crushed bayleaf, a few parsley stalks and 1 kg (24 lb) of trimmings of venison; cook until well coloured and drain off the oil. Moisten with 3 dl (' pt or 1' U.S. cups) vinegar, 2 dl (7 fl oz or U.S. cup) white wine and reduce completely.

Add 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) Sanoe Espagnole, 2 litres (3 1/2 pt or 9 U.S. cups) brown game stock and 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) marinade; cover with a lid and cook slowly in the oven, if possible, for 3~4 hours. Eight minutes before passing the sauce add 12 crushed peppercorns, pass firmly through a sieve and add 2~ dl (9 fl oz or lt U.S. cups) brown game stock and 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) marinade. Simmer again gently, skimming as necessary for
approximately 40 minutes so as to reduce the sauce to 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) . Pass through a fine strainer and finish with. 75 g (2~ oz) butter.

Note: Although it is not the practice to butter game sauces, in this case it is advisable to do so but only lightly. The resultant sauce will be less peppery in flavour and will gain in delicacy and smoothness.

70 Sauce au Porto-Port Wine Sauce
This is prepared in the same way as Madeira Sauce replacing the Madeira wine with Port wine.

71 Sauce Portugaise

Heat ~ dl (2 fl oz or ' U.S. cup) oil in a pan add 150 g (5 oz) very finely chopped onion and cook quickly to a golden colour. Add 750 g (13 lb) of roughly chopped flesh only of tomato, a touch of crushed garlic, salt, pepper and a pinch of sugar if the tomatoes are acid. Cover the pan with a lid and allow to cook gently. Finish with 1 dl (3' fl oz or ~ U.S. cup) each of tomato essenoe and melted meat glaze, 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) of thin Tomato Sauce and 1 tbs fresh coarsely chopped parsley.

72 Sauce Provençale

Heat 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) oil in a pan until almost smoking hot, add 1~ kg (3 lb 6 oz) roughly chopped flesh only of tomato and season with salt, pepper and a pinch of caster sugar. Add 1 small clove of crushed garlic and 1 tsp chopped parsley; cover with a lid and allow to cook very gently for 30 minutes.

Note: Although there are several recipes for preparing this sauce, the above is an authentic one which is derived from the provincial bourgeois kitchen of Provence and is actually a Fondue of tomatoes.

73 Sauce Regence

Place 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) Rhine wine in a pan with 150 g (5 oz) of finely cut Mirepoix previously cooked in a little butter and 25 g (1 oz) raw truffle peelings or, if out of season, use 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) truffle essence; reduce by half. Add 8 dl (1 2/5 pt or 3 1/2 U.S. cups) Sauce Demiglace, simmer gently for a few minutes and skim carefully. Pass through a fine strainer.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with releves of butcher's meat.

74 Sauce Robert

Heat 75 g (22 oz) butter in a pan, add 300 g (11 oz) finely chopped onion and cook without colour. Moisten with 4 dl (14 fl oz or 11 U.S. cups) white wine and reduce by two-thirds. Add 6 dl (1 pt or 2 5/8 U.S. cups) Sauce Demi-glace and simmer gently for 10 minutes.

Pass the sauce through a fine strainer and finish away from the heat with a pinch of sugar and 2 tsp of English mustard diluted with a little water.

This sauce is usually served to accompany grilled pork.

Notes:

1) This sauce must not be boiled once the mustard has been added.

2) It may be passed or not, as required.

75 Sauce Robert Escoffier

This sauce may be obtained commercially under the brand name of Escoffier. It can be used either hot or cold, if used hot an equal quantity of excellent quality brown veal stock should be added.

It is specially suitable for serving with grilled pork, veal or chicken and grilled fish.

76 Sauce Romaine

Place 50 g (2 oz) sugar in a pan, cook to a golden caramel colour and immediately dissolve it with 12 dl (5 fl oz or i` U.S. cup) vinegar. Add 6 dl (1 pt or 21 U.S. cups) Espagnole and 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) game stock. Reduce by a good quarter, pass through a fine strainer and finish the sauce with 20 g (2/3 oz) toasted pine-seed kernels, and 20 g (2/3 oz) each of sultanas and currants which have been cleaned, soaked in warm water until plump and then drained.

Note: This sauce is specially suitable for serving with venison but it can also be served with joints of marinated butcher's meat, in which case the game stock should be replaced by ordinary brown stock.

77 Sauce Rouennaise

Prepare 8 dl (1~ pt or 3' U.S. cups) Sauce Bordelaise taking care to use good quality red wine.

Pass 6 medium-sized raw duck livers through a fine sieve and add this puree to the hot sauce and mix well in. Heat the sauce very carefully so as to cook the liver but do not boil it, as this will have the effect of granulating the puree. Pass through a fine strainer and season well.

The characteristic of this sauce is a reduction of red wine with shallots with the addition of the puree of raw duck livers.

This sauce is the essential accompaniment for roast Rouen duck.

78 Sauce Salmis

Place 75 g (2~ oz) butter in a pan, add 150 g (5 oz) of finely cut Mirepoix and cook to a light brown colour. Add the skin and chopped carcasses of the game under preparation moisten with 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) white wine and reduce by two-thirds. Add 8 dl (1~ pt or 32 U.S. cups) Sauce Demi-glace and allow to simmer gently for 45 minutes then pass firmly through a sieve so as to extract the maximum of flavour from the flavourings and carcasses.

Dilute the cullis obtained with 4 dl (14 fl oz or 1~ U.S. cups) of stock in keeping with the game being prepared; simmer gently and skim carefully for 45 minutes so as to reduce the sauce by a good third.

Bring back the sauce to its correct consistency with the addition of mushroom cooking liquor and truffle essence. Pass through a fine strainer and finish with a little butter.

Notes:

The principle used in the making of this sauce which closely resembles a cullis, should not be altered; it is only the moistening agent which varies according to the type of bird or game under preparation and according to whether the game is considered ordinary or Lenten. If it is required to serve the game as a Lenten dish, the liquid used should be mushroom cooking liquor.

2) The finishing of the sauce with butter using approximately so g (2 oz) per 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of sauce, is optional.

79 Sauce Tortue

Place 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) veal stock in a pan, bring to the boil and immediately add a small pinch each of sage, basil, sweet marjoram, rosemary and thyme, a pinch of picked parsley, a bayleaf and 25 g (1 oz) mushroom trimmings; cover, allow to infuse for 25 minutes then add 4 crushed peppercorns, allow to infuse for a further 2 minutes and pass through a muslin.

Add sufficient of this infusion to 7 dl (1~ pt or 3 U.S. cups) Sauce Demi-glace and 3 dl (1/2 pt or 1 1/4 U.S. cups) Tomato Sauce so as to obtain a definite flavour of the herbs. Reduce by a good quarter, pass through a fine strainer and finish with 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) Madeira a little truffle essence and season fairly well with Cayenne.

Note: Although this highly seasoned sauce calls for the use of Cayenne pepper, care should be taken with the amount used so as not to allow it to become the dominant flavour.

80 Sauce Venaison-Venison Sauce

Prepare 7~ dl (1~ pt or 3' U.S. cups) Sauce Poivrade for Game. At the last moment add away from the heat, 100 g (3 1/2 oz) melted redcurrant jelly mixed with 12 dl (5 fl oz or 7 U.S. Cup) cream.

This sauce is specially suitable for joints of large furred game.

81 Sauce au Vin Rouge-Red Wine Sauce

Heat 50 g (2 oz) butter in a pan, add 125 g (41 oz) finely cut Mirepoix and cook to a light brown colour; moisten with 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) good quality red wine and reduce by half. Add 1 clove of crushed garlic and 72 dl (1~ pt or 31 U.S. cups) Espagnole; simmer and skim carefully for 12-15 minutes.

Pass through a fine strainer and finish with 100 g (3 1/2 oz) butter, 1 tsp anchovy essence and a little Cayenne pepper.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with fish.

Note: There are two other sauces which can be loosely termed red wine sauces, the first is Sauce Bourguignonne which is basically a reduction of red wine thickened with Beurre Manie. The other is Sauce Matelote which is prepared from red wine afier it has been used in the cooking of a fish; in this last case, however, the wine tends to lose its own particular character and is really nothing more than the cooking liquor for the fish and provides flavour for the sauce. These two red wine sauces each have their own special characteristics and should carry their own name which is determined by the methods of preparation. These sauces can be found under their own name in this chapter.

The above recipe is a true red wine sauce.

82 Sauce Zingara

This sauce may be made in either of the following ways:

1) Place 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cup) vinegar in a pan with 1~ tbs finely chopped shallot and reduce by half. Moisten with 7 dl (1~ pt or 3 U.S. cups) brown stock and add 160 g (5' oz) breadcrumbs fried in butter; simmer gently for 5-6 minutes and finish with 1 tbs chopped parsley and the juice of half a lemon.

2) Place 1 1/2 dl (5 fl oz or 5/8 U.S. cup) each of white wine and mushroom cooking liquor in a pan and reduce by two-thirds. Add 4 dl (14 fl oz or 11 U.S. cups) Sauce Demi-glace, 2 dl (9 fl oz or 1' U.S. cups) Tomato Sauce and 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) white stock; simmer gently and skim carefully for 5-6 minutes. Season with a little Cayenne pepper and finish with a Julienne comprising 70 g (21 oz) lean cooked ham and salted ox tongue, 50 g (2 oz) mushrooms and 30 g (1 oz) truffle.

These sauces are specially suitable for serving with entrees of wal and poultry.

Note: Sauce Zingara 1) has no connection with the classical garnish a la Zingara but is derived from English cookery; a number of other similar sauces may be found in this Chapter.

 

SMALL COMPOUND WHITE SAUCES

83 Sauce Albufera

To 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of Sauce Supreme, add 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) of melted light meat glaze and 50 g (2 oz) of Pimento Butter.

This sauce is used to accompany poached and braised poultry.

84 Sauce Americaine

This sauce is a constituent part of the preparation of Homard a l'Americaine (2109). As it can also be served as part of a fish dish, e.g. Fillets of Sole Americaine, the flesh of the lobster cooked in its preparation should be cut into small slices and used as a garnish for the fish.

85 Sauce Aoebois Anchovy Sauce

Take 8 dl (1~ pt or 32 U.S. cups) unbuttered Sauce Normande and add, away from the heat, 125 g (4+ oz) of Anchovy Butter. Finish the sauce with 50 g (2 oz) of anchovy fillets which have been well washed, dried well and cut into small dice.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with fish.

86 Sauce Aurore

Place 72 dl (1~ pt or 31 U.S. cups) Ordinary Velouté in a pan, add 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) tomato puree and bring to the boil; simmer for a few minutes and finish away from the heat with 100 g (3 1/2 oz) butter.

This sauce is specially suitable for eggs, white butcher's meat and poultry.

87 Sauce Aurore Maîgre

This sauce is prepared in the same way as Sauce Aurore using fish Velouté instead of Ordinary Velouté and finishing with 125 g (42 oz) butter per 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of sauce. This sauce is particularly used for serving with fish.

88 Sauce Bavaroise

Place 5 dl (18 fl oz or 2 1/4 U.S. cups) vinegar in a pan with a little broken thyme and bayleaf, 10 g (~ oz) chopped parsley stalks, 7 or 8 crushed peppercorns and 10 g (1/3 oz) grated horseradish; reduce by half and allow to cool. Add 6 egg yolks to the reduction, and prepare the sauce as for Sauce Hollandaise with 400 g (15 oz) butter and 12 tbs water added a little at the time during the making of the sauce. Pass through a fine strainer and finish with 100 g (3 1/2 oz) Crayfish Butter, 2 tbs whipped cream and some diced cooked crayfish tails.
Note: Sauce Bavaroise should have a light fluffy texture and is specially suitable for serving with fish.

89 Sauce Bearnaise

Place 2 dl (7 fl oz or 7/8 U.S. cup) each of white wine and tarragon vinegar in a small pan with 4 tbs chopped shallots, 20 g (2/3 oz) chopped tarragon leaves, 10 g (1/3 oz) chopped chervil, 5 g (~; oz) crushed peppercorns and a pinch of salt. Reduce
by two-thirds and allow to cool.

Add 6 egg yolks to the reduction and prepare the sauce over a gentle heat by whisking in 500g (1 lb 2 oz) of ordinary or melted butter. The cohesion and emulsification of the sauce is effected by the progressive cooking of the egg yolks which depends to a great extent on its preparation over a slow heat.

When the butter has been completely incorporated, pass the sauce through a fine strainer, correct the seasoning, add a little Cayenne and finish by mixing in 1 tbs chopped tarragon and 2 tbs chopped chervil.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with grilled meats.

Note: Sauce Béarnaise which is rather like a Mayonnaise but made with butter, cannot be served very hot as this will result in the sauce separating; it should be served lukewarm.

If the sauce should become too hot and separate, it can be reconstituted by whisking in a few drops of cold water.

90 Sauce Bearnaise Tomatee, also called Sauce Choron

Prepare a Sauce Béarnaise omitting the final addition of chopped tarragon and chervil and keeping it fairly thick. Add up to a quarter of its volume of tomato puree which has been well concentrated or reduced, in order that the addition will not alter the consistency of the sauce.

This sauce is an essential accompaniment for Tournedos a la Choron and is suitable for other grilled meats and poultry.

91 Sauce Béarnaise i la Glace de Viande, also called Sauce Foyot, or Sauce Valois

Prepare a Sauce Béarnaise keeping it fairly thick and finish with 1 dl (3 1/2 fl oz or 1/2 U.S. cup) of melted meat glaze added a little at a time.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with grills of butcher's meat.

92 Sauce Bercy

Heat 50 g (2 oz) butter in a pan, add 2 tbs finely chopped shallot and cook without colour. Moisten with 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) white wine and 2 1/2 dl (9 fl oz or 1 1/8 U.S. cups) of either fish stock or cooking liquor from the fish under preparation. Reduce by one-third and add 72 dl (1~ pt or 34 U.S. cups) fish Velouté, bring to the boil and simmer for a few minutes; remove from the heat and finish with 100 g (3 1/2 oz) butter and 1 tbs chopped parsley.

This sauce is specially suitable for serving with fish.

93 Sauce au Beurre, also called Sauce Batarde-Butter Sauce

Mix together 45 g (1 1/2 oz) flour and 45 g (1 1/2 oz) melted butter in a pan; moisten with 72 dl (1~ pt or 3~ U.S. cups) boiling water whisking thoroughly, then add 7 g (~ oz) salt. Mix in a liaison consisting of 5 egg yolks; ~ dl (2 fl oz or U.S. cup) cream and a squeeze of lemon juice; reheat to thicken, pass through a fine strainer anfinish away from the heat with 300 g (11 oz) very good butter.

This sauce is suitable for serving with asparagus and poached or boiled fish.

Note: It is advisable to keep this sauce in a Bain-marie after it has been thickened, and also to add the butter at the last moment.

94 Sauce Bonnefoy or Sauce Bordelaise au Vin Blanc-White Bordelaise Sauce

This sauce is prepared in the same way and with the same proportions as Sauce Bordelaise (28) using white wine-a Graves or Sauternes for preference-instead of red wine, and Ordinary Velouté instead of Espagnole. Finish the sauce with a little chopped tarragon.

This sauce is suitable for serving with grilled fish and grilled white meats.

95 Sauce Bretonne

Heat 50 g (2 oz) butter in a pan, add a fine Julienne comprised of 30 g (1 oz) each of white of leek, white of celery, onion and mushrooms; stew carefully without colouring. Add 7~ dl (1~ pt or 3~ U.S. cups) fish Velouté and simmer gently together for a few minutes; skim and finish with dl (3 fl oz or ~ U.S. cup) cream and 50 g (2 oz) butter.

This sauce is mainly suitable for serving with fish.

96 Sauce Canotiere

Reduce by two-thirds the cooking liquor obtained from the cooking of a freshwater fish in a white wine Court-bouillon which should be strongly flavoured and very lightly salted. Thicken with 80 g (2y oz) Beurre Manie per 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) of reduction; bring to the boil and simmer for a few minutes then remove from the heat, pass through a fine strainer and finish with 150 g (5 oz) butter and a very small pinch of Cayenne.

This sauce is served as an accompaniment with boiled or poached freshwater fish.

Note: With the addition of small glazed onions and button mushrooms this sauce can be used instead of Sauce Matelote Blanche.

97 Sauce aux Capres Caper Sauce

This is Butter Sauce with the addition of 120 g (4 oz) capers per 1 litre (1 3/4 pt or 4 1/2 U.S. cups) sauce, added at the last moment.

This sauce is suitable for serving with all kinds of boiled fish.

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