ESD: RF Technology and Circuits / Edition 1

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With the growth of high-speed telecommunications and wireless technology, it is becoming increasingly important for engineers to understand radio frequency (RF) applications and their sensitivity to electrostatic discharge (ESD) phenomena. This enables the development of ESD design methods for RF technology, leading to increased protection against electrical overstress (EOS) and ESD.

ESD: RF Technology and Circuits: presents methods for co-synthesizing ESD networks for-RF applications to achieve improved performance and ESD protection of semiconductor chips; discusses RF ESD design methods of capacitance load transformation, matching network co-synthesis, capacitance shunts, inductive shunts, impedance isolation, load cancellation methods, distributed loads, emitter degeneration, buffering and ballasting; examines ESD protection and design of active and passive elements in RF complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), RF laterally-diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS), RF BiCMOS Silicon Germanium (SiGe), RF BiCMOS Silicon Germanium Carbon (SiGeC), and Gallium Arsenide technology; gives information on RF ESD testing methodologies, RF degradation effects, and failure mechanisms for devices, circuits and systems; highlights RF ESD mixed-signal design integration of digital, analog and RF circuitry; sets out examples of RF ESD design computer aided design methodologies; covers state-of-the-art RF ESD input circuits, as well as voltage-triggered to RC-triggered ESD power clamps networks in RF technologies, as well as off-chip protection concepts.

Following the author's series of books on ESD, this book will be a thorough overview of ESD in RF technology for RF semiconductorchip and ESD engineers. Device and circuit engineers working in the RF domain, and quality, reliability and failure analysis engineers will also find it a valuable reference in the rapidly growing area of RF ESD design. In addition, it will appeal to graduate students in RF microwave technology and RF circuit design.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470847558
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/30/2006
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 420
  • Product dimensions: 6.83 (w) x 9.94 (h) x 1.13 (d)

Meet the Author

Volker Kühn is Assistant Professor, at the Department of Communications Engineering, University of Bremen, Germany. He completed his Ph.D. at the University of Paderborn, Germany (1994-1998). He has also undertaken consultation work for Siemens AG and Infineon Technologies, and is a member of the IEEE.
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Table of Contents

Preface     xv
Acknowledgements     xxi
RF Design and ESD     1
Fundamental Concepts of ESD Design     1
Fundamental Concepts of RF ESD Design     4
Key RF ESD Contributions     10
Key RF ESD Patents     13
ESD Failure Mechanisms     13
RF CMOS ESD Failure Mechanisms     14
Silicon Germanium ESD Failure Mechanisms     15
Silicon Germanium Carbon ESD Failure Mechanisms in Silicon Germanium Carbon Devices     15
Gallium Arsenide Technology ESD Failure Mechanisms     16
Indium Gallium Arsenide ESD Failure Mechanisms     16
RF Bipolar Circuits ESD Failure Mechanisms     17
RF Basics     17
Two-Port Network Parameters     21
Z-Parameters     21
Y-Parameters     22
S-Parameters     22
T-Parameters     23
Stability: RF Design Stability and ESD     24
Device Degradation and ESD Failure     26
ESD-Induced D.C. Parameter Shift and Failure Criteria     26
RF Parameters, ESD Degradation, and Failure Criteria     28
RF ESD Testing     29
ESD Testing Models     29
RF MaximumPower-to-Failure and ESD Pulse Testing Methodology     33
ESD-Induced RF Degradation and S-Parameter Evaluation Test Methodology     37
Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and Impedance Methodology for ESD Testing     39
Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) ESD Test System Evaluation     40
ESD Degradation System Level Method - Eye Tests     44
Product Level ESD Test and RE Functional Parameter Failure     46
Combined RF and ESD TLP Test Systems     48
Closing Comments and Summary     51
Problems     52
References     53
RF ESD Design     61
ESD Design Methods: Ideal ESD Networks and RF ESD Design Windows     61
Ideal ESD Networks and the Current-Voltage d.c. Design Window     61
Ideal ESD Networks in the Frequency Domain Design Window     63
RF ESD Design Methods: Linearity     64
RF ESD Design: Passive Element Quality Factors and Figures of Merit     68
RF ESD Design Methods: Method of Substitution     70
Method of Substitution of Passive Element to ESD Network Element     71
Substitution of ESD Network Element to Passive Element     72
RF ESD Design Methods: Matching Networks and RF ESD Networks     73
RF ESD Method - Conversion of Matching Networks to ESD Networks     74
RF ESD Method: Conversion of ESD Networks into Matching Networks     76
Conversion of ESD Networks into L-Match Networks     76
Conversion of ESD Networks into [Pi]-Match Networks     77
Conversion of ESD Networks into T-Match Networks     78
RF ESD Design Methods: Inductive Shunt     79
RF ESD Design Methods: Cancellation Method     82
Quality Factors and the Cancellation Method     82
Inductive Cancellation of Capacitance Load and Figures of Merit     83
Cancellation Method and ESD Circuitry     85
RF ESD Design Methods: Impedance Isolation Technique Using LC Resonator     89
RF ESD Design Methods: Lumped versus Distributed Loads     91
RF ESD Distributed Load with Coplanar Wave Guides     92
RF ESD Distribution Coplanar Waveguides Analysis Using ABCD Matrices     93
ESD RF Design Synthesis and Floor Planning: RF, Analog, and Digital Integration     95
ESD Power Clamp Placement Within a Domain     96
Power Bus Architecture and ESD Design Synthesis     97
V[subscript DD]-to-V[subscript SS] Power Rail Protection     98
VoD-to-Analog Vdd and Vdo-Io-RF Vcc Power Rail Protection     99
Interdomain BSD Protection Networks     100
ESD Circuits and RF Bond Pad Integration     101
ESD Structures Under Wire Bond Pads     103
Summary and Closing Comments     106
Problems     106
References     108
RF CMOS and ESD     111
RF CMOS: ESD Device Comparisons     111
Circular RF ESD Devices     116
RF ESD Design-ESD Wiring Design     118
RF Passives: ESD and Schottky Barrier Diodes     120
RF Passives: ESD and Inductors     122
RF Passives: ESD and Capacitors     127
Metal-oxide-Semiconductor and Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors     128
Varactors and Hyper-Abrupt Junction Varactor Capacitors     128
Metal-ILD-Metal Capacitors     129
Vertical Parallel Plate (VPP) Capacitors     130
Summary and Closing Comments     131
Problems     132
References     133
RF CMOS ESD Networks     139
RF CMOS Input Circuits     139
RF CMOS ESD Diode Networks     139
RF CMOS Diode String ESD Network     143
RF CMOS: Diode-Inductor ESD Networks     145
RF Inductor-Diode ESD Networks     147
RF Diode-Inductor ESD Networks     148
RF CMOS Impedance Isolation LC Resonator ESD Networks     149
RF CMOS LC-Diode ESD Networks     150
RF CMOS Diode-LC ESD Networks     150
Experimental Results of the RF CMOS LC-Diode Networks     151
RF CMOS LNA ESD Design     152
RF LNA ESD Design: Low Resistance ESD Inductor and ESD Diode Clamping Elements in [Pi]-Configuration     153
RF CMOS T-Coil Inductor ESD Input Network     157
RF CMOS Distributed ESD Networks     159
RF CMOS Distributed RF ESD Networks     159
RF CMOS Distributed RF ESD Networks using Series Inductor and Dual-Diode Shunt     160
RF CMOS Distributed RF ESD Networks using Series Inductor and MOSFET Parallel Shunt     163
RF CMOS Distributed ESD Networks: Transmission Lines and Coplanar Waveguides     165
RF CMOS: ESD and RF LDMOS Power Technology     167
RF CMOS ESD Power Clamps     170
RC-Triggered MOSFET ESD Power Clamp     172
High Voltage RC-Triggered MOSFET ESD Power Clamp     174
Voltage-Triggered MOSFET ESD Power Clamps     175
Summary and Closing Comments     176
Problems     177
References     178
Bipolar Physics     183
Bipolar Device Physics     183
Bipolar Transistor Current Equations     183
Bipolar Current Gain and Collector-to-Emitter Transport     184
Unity Current Gain Cutoff Frequency     185
Unity Power Gain Cutoff Frequency     186
Transistor Breakdown     186
Avalanche Multiplication and Breakdown     186
Bipolar Transistor Breakdown     188
Kirk Effect     190
Johnson Limit: Physical Limitations of the Transistor     191
Voltage-Frequency Relationship     191
Johnson Limit Current-Frequency Formulation     193
Johnson Limit Power Formulation     194
RF Instability: Emitter Collapse     195
ESD RF Design Layout: Emitter, Base, and Collector Configurations     201
ESD RF Design Layout: Utilization of a Second Emitter (Phantom Emitter)     204
ESD RF Design Layout: Emitter Ballasting     208
ESD RF Design Layout: Thermal Shunts and Thermal Lenses     210
Base-Ballasting and RF Stability     211
Summary and Closing Comments     213
Problems     213
References     214
Silicon Germanium and ESD     217
Heterojunctions and Silicon Germanium Technology     217
Silicon Germanium HBT Devices     218
Silicon Germanium Device Structure     219
Silicon Germanium Physics     221
Silicon Germanium Carbon     224
Silicon Germanium ESD Measurements     226
Silicon Germanium Collector-to-Emitter ESD Stress     227
ESD Comparison of Silicon Germanium HBT and Silicon BJT     229
SiGe HBT Electrothermal Human Body Model (HBM) Simulation of Collector-Emitter Stress     232
Silicon Germanium Carbon Collector-Emitter ESD Measurements     233
Silicon Germanium Transistor Emitter-Base Design     237
Epitaxial-Base Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) Emitter-Base Design     238
Emitter-Base Design RF Frequency Performance Metrics     240
SiGe HBT Emitter-Base Resistance Model     240
SiGe HBT Emitter-Base Design and Silicide Placement     241
Self-Aligned (SA) Emitter-Base Design     245
Non-self aligned (NSA) Emitter-Base Design     248
NSA Human Body Model (HBM) Step Stress     249
Transmission Line Pulse (TLP) Step Stress     250
RF Testing of SiGe HBT Emitter-Base Configuration     251
Unity Current Gain Cutoff Frequency-Collector Current Plots     254
Silicon Germanium Carbon - ESD-Induced S-Parameter Degradation     256
Electrothermal Simulation of Emitter-Base Stress     258
Field-Oxide (FOX) Isolation Defined Silicon Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor HBM Data     259
Silicon Germanium HBT Multiple-Emitter Study     260
Summary and Closing Comments     262
Problems     262
References     263
Gallium Arsenide and ESD     269
Gallium Arsenide Technology and ESD     269
Gallium Arsenide Energy-to-Failure and Power-to-Failure     269
Gallium Arsenide ESD Failures in Active and Passive Elements     272
Gallium Arsenide HBT Devices and ESD     273
Gallium Arsenide HBT Device ESD Results     274
Gallium Arsenide HBT Diode Strings     275
Gallium Arsenide HBT-Based Passive Elements     277
GaAs HBT Base-Collector Varactor     277
Gallium Arsenide Technology Table of Failure Mechanisms     279
Indium Gallium Arsenide and ESD     279
Indium Phosphide (InP) and ESD     281
Summary and Closing Comments     281
Problems     281
References     282
Bipolar Receiver Circuits and Bipolar ESD Networks     287
Bipolar Receivers and ESD     287
Single Ended Common-Emitter Receiver Circuits      288
Single-Ended Bipolar Receiver with D.C. Blocking Capacitors     289
Single-Ended Bipolar Receiver with D.C. Blocking Capacitors and ESD Protection     290
Bipolar Single-Ended Common-Emitter Receiver Circuit with Feedback Circuit     291
Bipolar Single-Ended Common-Emitter Circuit with Resistor Feedback Element     291
Bipolar Single-Ended Common-Emitter Receiver Circuit with Resistor-Capacitor Feedback Element     292
Bipolar Single-Ended Common-Emitter Receiver Circuit with Emitter Degeneration     293
Bipolar Single-Ended Common Emitter Circuit with Balun Output     297
Bipolar Single-Ended Series Cascode Receiver Circuits     298
Bipolar Differential Receiver Circuits     300
Bipolar Differential Cascode Common-Emitter Receiver Circuits     302
Bipolar ESD Input Circuits     303
Diode-Configured Bipolar ESD Input Circuits     307
Bipolar ESD Input: Resistor Grounded Base Bipolar ESD Input     308
Bipolar-Based ESD Power Clamps     312
Bipolar Voltage-Triggered ESD Power Clamps     312
Zener Breakdown Voltage-Triggered ESD Power Clamps     312
BV[subscript CEO] Voltage-Triggered ESD Power Clamps     318
Mixed Voltage Interface Forward-Bias Voltage and BV[subscript CEO] Breakdown Synthesized Bipolar ESD Power Clamps      323
Ultra-Low Voltage Forward-Biased Voltage-Trigger BiCMOS ESD Power Clamps     328
Capacitively Triggered BiCMOS ESD Power Clamps     332
Bipolar ESD Diode String and Triple-Well Power Clamps     334
Summary and Closing Comments     335
Problems     335
References     337
RF and ESD Computer-Aided Design (CAD)     339
RF ESD Design Environment     339
Electrostatic Discharge and Radio Frequency (RF) Cosynthesis Design Methods     339
ESD Hierarchical Pcell Physical Layout Generation     340
ESD Hierarchical Pcell Schematic Generation     341
ESD Design with Hierarchical Parameterized Cells     341
Hierarchical Pcell Graphical Method     342
Hierarchical Pcell Schematic Method     344
ESD Design of RF CMOS-Based Hierarchical Parameterized Cells     347
RF BiCMOS ESD Hierarchical Parameterized Cell     349
BiCMOS ESD Input Networks     350
BiCMOS ESD Rail-to-Rail     353
BiCMOS ESD Power Clamps     354
Advantages and Limitations of the RF ESD Design System     359
Guard Ring P-Cell Methodology     362
Guard Rings for Internal and External Latchup Phenomena      362
Guard Ring Theory     363
Guard Ring Design     365
Guard Ring Characterization     367
Summary and Closing Comments     370
Problems     370
References     371
Alternative ESD Concepts: On-Chip and Off-Chip ESD Protection Solutions     375
Spark Gaps     375
Field Emission Devices     378
Field Emission Device (FED) as ESD Protection     378
Field Emission Device in Gallium Arsenide Technology     379
Field Emission Device Electronic Blunting Effect     380
Field Emission Device Multiemitter ESD Design     380
Field Emission Device (FED) ESD Design Practices     382
Off-Chip Protection and Off-Chip Transient Suppression Devices     382
Off-Chip Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) Devices     383
Off-Chip Polymer Voltage Suppression (PVS) Devices     384
Package-Level Mechanical ESD Solutions     386
RE Proximity Communications Chip-to-Chip ESD Design Practices     387
Summary and Closing Comments     388
Problems     389
References     389
Index     391
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  • Posted February 20, 2011

    Highly recommended to RF designers and students

    RF design is quite complicated, especially for very high frequency range. ESD is an important concern in RF as it is a tough issue to deal with correctly and it can hurt RF performance if not done perfectly. A book with full coverage on ESD design in RF in advanced technologies is of key interest. This book by Dr. Voldman, a well-known IEEE fellow who has written a series of excellent books in ESD, provides a very rigorous and comprehensive treatment, from device to circuit to co-design to testing, and design methodology. The completeness of coverage is impressive. For example, device physics is becoming more and more important as technologies advance. In this book, physics and mechanisms are explained wherever needed to enhance readers' understanding. The explanations are accurate and easy to follow. There are lots of discussions on architectural level in Chapter 4, which are particularly helpful to the learning of design. Chapters 5 and 8 on bipolar might be optional in a book on digital design, but definitely needed in this book on RF design. Thorough treatment in SiGe (Ch. 6) and GaAs (Ch.7) is hard to find in other books. This book also includes modern approaches and methodologies, especially on computer aided design. I highly recommend this book to engineers and researchers interested in RF or ESD, or both. It serves as a great textbook for students. But even very experienced design engineers would find this book very useful as a learning book and reference guide.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 24, 2008

    A very good ESD book about RF ESD design

    I have already had this book for a while. This one is the third book of the author's ESD book series which cover the most comprehensive topics related to ESD protection comparing with other ESD books. This one is also the only ESD book focusing on RF technology and circuits and it comes at the time when a growing interest is observed in ESD in RF technology and applications. RF ESD design is different and tough. This book gives a clear picture of how the RF ESD design is distinct from the basic ESD design practices, and then tells you how to design ESD protection for different RF applications. It has good amount of examples and plenty of new and updated data points and the latest developments in the field. I also like the way the author expose the reader to the patent art in the ESD field. The more my knowledge grew, the more I have appreciated returning to this book as a reference. I always keep it at hand for my ESD design projects.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 18, 2008

    A reviewer

    This book, ESD: RF Technology and Circuits, is part of a 3-book series on Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) by the same author (Steven Voldman). One of the main strengths of this series (and there are very many) is that this is very recently published with new and updated datapoints, not to mention being the only series of ESD textbook. Essentially, this means that all the latest developments in the field is published in an easy-to-understand series. In this book, Voldman writes about the design of ESD protection circuits for RF designs in his unique style which is illuminating both for experts and beginners alike. ESD design for RF parts is highly complex, and a lot of the tricks and tips needed for high performance protection circuits are collected in this book. I highly recommend this book series to all students of integrated circuit design and ESD.

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